Skip to main content

Full text of "Military record of Louisiana : including biographical and historical papers relating to the military organizations of the state, a soldier's story of the late war, muster rolls, lists of casualities in the various regiments (as far as now known), cemeteries where buried, company journals, personal narratives of prominent actors, etc."

See other formats


Library of 
Emory University 

JU28ii3d 





OUR FIRST COMMANDER, Page 42 



MILITARY RECORD 



LOUISIANA 



j8iogba?hi:al and Historical |}afers 



RELATING TO 



The Military Organizations of the State; 



A Soldier's Story of the Late War, Muster Rolls, Lists of Casualties in the Various 

Regiments (so far as now known), Cemeteries where Buried, Company 

Journals, Personal Narratives of Prominent Actors, Etc. 



By NAPIER BARTLETT 



' The people of the South maintained, as their fathers maintained befm-e them, that certain principles were os 
sentia) to the perpetuation of the Union according; to it- original Constitution. Rather than surrender their convic- 
tions, they took up arms to defend them. The apptti was vain. Defeat came, and they accepted it, with its consc- 

juence*. just as they would have accepted \iitmv with its fruits. They have sworn to inaiutain the Government 
a* it i> now constituted. They will not attempt a^ain to usseit their views of State sovereignty by an appeal to the 
,uonl. None feel this obligation to be more binding than the soldiers of the late Confederate armies. A soldier's 
;.,t olw ih a sac-red thing, and the men who are willing: to die for a principle in time of war are the men. of al! n\\i- 

.■i>. most likely to maintain their personal honor in time of peace." — -fie". Dr. JToge. at the f'iLr*ilin>> of Jar/>xo,t~* 



New Orleans : 
l- graham & co.. pr1xteks 7: camp strkk'i , (second i'loostj 

1*75. 



PREFACE. 



The papers which follow have all the defects which 
will be assigned them. They are in no sense com- 
plete — they are only fragments. The names of gallant 
men and the deeds of gallant officers have been omit- 
ted, and some companies and officers have been per- 
haps given more prominence than they deserve- 
In spite of these defects in the present plan, the 
editor has by the advice of old army friends, endeavor- 
ed to put on record such facts as he can now obtain, 
with the hope that a more prosperous day and an in- 
creasing interest will permit of the publication of a 
full and complete history- He has invited all to make 
their contributions and has allowed the men to tell 
the story of their own regiment and officers, subject 
to the opinions of a good-natured public, as to whether 
they have made out their case. Some of the old 
participants have complied and some have not ; and of 
course the discontent of that class will be greatest 
who have had no history themselves, or who were too 
indolent or indifferent to furnish any material for 
such a work. 

The true end of these narratives is to show what the 
life of the Louisianian was, and the hero or figure head 
has to be selected, whether the drummer boy or general, 
whose life or anomalies of temperment furnished the 
most curious incidents. The writer must have a thread 
upon which to string his incidents, whether it be fur- 



2 Preface. 

nished by the general who has sent his brigade for- 
ward while he makes his headquarters behind the root 
of a tree, or whether by the soldier who is meanwhile, 
in obedience to orders, swimming rivers, or charging 
through wood and field. 

These papers are not prepared for those readers who 
regard all past strugglers in any cause, in the slang of 
the' day, as either played-out u beats" or successful 
" frauds," and who by their indifference have made the 
publication of any thoroughly satisfactory work not 
only ruinous but impossible. But the greatest men 
are produced in the generation which succeeds and is 
affected by the struggle — from the youth now growing 
up, who caught only a glimpse of the crimson stain in 
the sky, or of the angry glare of the dying fires, as 
the curtain fell upon the bloody tragedy. 

The fresh mind can read with feeling, of brave men 
who come to the surface in one decade, and of the base 
and corrupt who get high places in another, where the 
contemporary regards them both as bores, and sees no 
points about one or the other. But to one critic, or the 
other, who thinks the old company and regimental rec- 
ords can be better published than in their present shape, 
the suggestive inquiry arises : Why have you not done 
so before — why do you not do so now? 



CONFEDERATE DEAD, C. S. A., 

BURIED IN VIRGINIA. 

During the summer of 1875 Maj. Edward D. Willett, of 
the 1st Regiment, Louisiana Brigade, in the late war, and now 
of the house of D. H. Holmes, occupied a holiday visit to Vir- 
ginia in going over the old battle fields, in which he and many 
of his regiment had fought and been wounded. He has since 
brought back with him many curious mementoes of those now 
historic fields. Old canteens, cartridge boxes, scraps of shell 
and stocks of muskets are still to be met with there, and he 
states although six tons of lead were taken from Spottsylvania 
alone, bullets are still to be found there and on all of the other 
■' stamping grouuds.'' 

Major AYillett also brought back with him numbers of photo- 
graphs representing these localities as they now appear, with 
maps drawn from his own observations of the position of the 
Confederate armies, Louisiana troops, etc., and has the most 
valuable collection of souvenirs of this sort in the city. 

At Fredericksburg, the southern portion of Marye's Heights 
has been turned into a Federal cemetery (which has now 
about 1G,000 corpses) and the stone wall behind which Cobb 
fought his men has been taken for building a house for the res- 
ident sexton. The residence and ground of Gov. Marye changed 
hands under a succession sale, but the hill still retains the 
trenches and other memorials of the great battle. 

Immediately in front of this hill is the dwelling of a woman, 
then a social outcast, who remained in it during the battle. 
She used all of the linen in her house dressing the wounds 
of soldiers, and finally tore in bandage strips what she wore 
on her own person. Her services and courage were such 
that the citizens only know her now for her good actions. 

The battle fields generally still retain such landmarks as 
readily enable the soldier to recognize them. A few more 
fences have been built and fields have been cultivated. 



Confederate Dead, C. 8. A. 



The battlefield of the 1st La. on Williamsburg Boad,* for 
instance, was waving with a magnificent crop of green corn. 
But in inany of them the topographical features of the ground 
which caused them to be selected as battlefields have prevented 
enclosure, and they are now as bare of verdure as when great 
armies contended for their possession. 

At Manassas 300 yards from the station, on the left side 
going fromBichmond, stands a Confederate graveyard contain- 
ing only one soldier, so far as known, from Louisiana. This 
graveyard is not in a good condition, but that at Fredericks- 
burg is. This latter contains 16,000 bodies many of which have 
been brought from the Wilderness and other fields. That at 
Spottsylvania shows less care. Very few of the bodies of Lou- 
isianians who fell in these engagements were reinterred. The 
graves in Staunton and Bichmond are in good condition. 

Major Willett's principal task during his travels, was to as- 
certain the precise locality where the bodies of Louisiana sol- 
diers have been interred in Virginia, and for the time and 
money he devoted to this work he deserves the gratitude of 
their surviving relatives and friends. The list we give below : 

HOLLYWOOD CEMETERY, RICHMOND. 

[The figures denote the regiment and the letter following the company; where neither 
are given they are unknown.] 

J. Abbott, 8th ; E. D. Adams, 5th, C; John Adams, John Ayeoook, 9th, 
G ; W. C. Akin, 2d, G; G. Allen, 8th, G; W. A. Anderson, 9th; W. Ander- 
son, 9th; M. Angel, S. Antony, 2d, K; J. F. Archball, 3d, G; K. W. Ann- 
is tead, J. Armstrong, Maj. E. W. Ashton, 2d; J. F. Atkins, 12th, A; W. 
Auther. 

G. W Bahan, Wn Art. ; G. B. Bahan, W'n Art. ; — Baker, 15th, H ; N. 
Barham, 8th, C; J. Barnes, 8th, D; F. Bartholomew, 9th, F; R. Base, 9th, 

*Apropos of this battlefield, the 1st Louisiana captured here the colors of Sickles' 
brigade. This was in the month of June. In August following Sickles had been again 
supplied and was maKiug a very pretty showing of them at the 2nd Manassas. The 1st 
Louisiana did not believe that he ought to be allowed to keep them, and accordingly took 
them away the second time, and with thorn a fine battery. These colors were entrusted 
to an old farmer whom Alajor Willett hunted up during his visit. The farmer stated 
that he had kept them until the Federal army had the run of everything and then, 
fearful of trouble, had carefully torn the captured flags up in small strips, and then not 
feeling fully satisfied had burnt the rags up. 

As for the colors of the First, tbej- mot with a still more extraordinary history. In the 
charge at Gettysburg many of this regiment were captured, including the color-bearer, 
Olaucey. The capture was made at night; and Claucey not wishing to see his regiment- 
al flag dishonored, tore it in the darkness from the flag staff, wrapped it around lus body 
under his shirt, and remained with it thus concealed for some mouths. Clancey reached 
1'ichmon safeh , and reported back to his rrgimont. What was his subsequent history or 
that of the ting lie ;<o nobly preserved is not now known. 



Confederate Dead, C. 8. A. 



K ; Lieut. J. T. Beach, 5th ; J. F. Bearley, A. Bell, 9th, H ; W. R. Black- 
wood, 9th, A ; C. Blasingharn, 8th ; A. G. Blunt, 9th; Lieut. R. W. Boswell, 
2d, H ; H. T. Bott, 14th, I ; V. A. Bourgle, G. Bowlett, W H. Bradles, 9th ; 
John Bradley, 9th; P. Brandon, 5th, C; J. Branon, 10th, B ; J. Brantley, 
S. Bravaux, 3d ; Lieut. J. W Breimer, R. H. Brawn, 15th, G ; W. J Brown, 
7th, A ; J. Bryant, 7th, D ; — Bryant, 2d, F ; A. Bunn, 6th, E ; H. Burgess, W. 
Burkley, 10th, D; D. Byrd, 19th, D. 

J. 8. Cabonis, 9th, F; John Calvin 2d, K; H. Campbell, 11th, F; W F. 
Cane, 11th, F ; H. M. Canliffs, 8th ; D. Carney, P. A. Casbry, A. A. Cavaugh, 
5th, B ; J. Chamblis. 9th, G ; T. Chouuacy, 7th, F ; H. Clark, 1st, F ; W. 
Clark, 5th, F ; B. G. Ceker, 9th, H ; P. Coleman, 7th, D ; John Connelly, 15th, 
A ; J. B. Connor, 9th, H ; J. H. Cooksey, 2d, I;*B. Covington, 9th, G; J. 
H. Crane, 8th ; — Cune, 10th. 

Capt. Dailey, 1st ; Lieut. VV. H. Dausbey, 9th, A ; C. Darley, 1st F ; W. 
B. Davidson, 9th G ; W. Davidson, 7th, B ; W. G. Davis, 10th ; A. Denson, 
9th, C ; J. Desmarest. 8th, F ; M- Dockery, 14th, F ; E. R. Dobson, 14th, H ; 

D. H. J. Domirickv, 1st, A ; W Donell, 1st ; — Donohoe, 6th, K ; E. Doug- 
lass, 2d, G ; J. J. Doyle, 9th, B ; John Driscoe, 14th, F ; M. Duffeys, 6th, K ; 
T. Dupin, 8th ; G. Durham, 16th, I. 

A. J. Earvin, 2d, H; W. Euson, 9th, A; J. F. Elam, Artillery; M. V 
Elder, 9th ; John Eatier, Batt., 16 years old. 

J. Fairchild, 9th, G ; J. Farmer, 1st, D ; W. F. Fincker, 1st, F ; J. F. 
Flemming, 7th. K ; T. Furlough, 8th, H. 

J. X. Galbreth, Washington Artillery ; J. P Garbington, 1st, B ; A. 
H. Gilbert, 6th, A; E. A. Glasscock, 8th, A; M. Golden, 5th, G; H. 
Goodman, 8th, B ; T. Green, 9th ; H. Cross, Battalion ; Lieut. W. Crossen, 
14th ; Lieut. W. B. Guess, 2d, A ; N. Guira, 15th. 

C. Haggard, Artillery ; J. Haines, 9th, C ; J. O. Haira, 15th, I ; A. Har- 
mon, 14th, A ; J. Harroett, 10th, A ; W. W Harris, 13th, C ; H. S. Hartley, 
8th, C ; A. M. Hawson, 4th, C ; W. G. Hayne, — , I ; F. W. Hendricks, J R. 
Higginbottam, 8th, E ; F. Higginbottam, 8th, E ; J. F. Higgs, 5th, B ; J. 
W Hill, 9th, F ; P. Hines, 5th, K ; G. Holland, 5th, B ; M. O. Hora, 15th, 
E ; Corp'l J. D. Howell, 9th, F ; A. J. Hodgson, 9th, I ; G. Hudson, 9th, B ; 
J. Hurley, 14th. 

J. Ingraham, 2d. 

John Jackson, 8th, A ; Capt. A. Johnson, 10th ; J. W- Johnson, 1st, B ; 

E. A. Johnson, 2d, B ; W. Johnson, J. Jones, 4th ; M. Jones, W. A. Jones, 
14th, I. 

M. Kaldv, 14th, A ; Thos. Kann, 9th, D ; M. Kelly, 14th, A ; P. Kerns, 
14th, H. 

L. Lacoure, 2d, A ; S. L. Landrum, 14th, I; E. Lawson, 15th, B ; W H. 
Lee, 8th, A; Lt. Col. J. M. Legett, 10th; C. K. Leitz, 14th, K; Lt. Col. G. 
A. Leister, 8th ; C. Lindsey, 14th, I ; J. Little, Washington Artillery ; J. 
Loften, 8th, F; A. Loper, 8th; Capt. M. Marks; Capt. A. Jonte". 

C. Magill, 10th, A ; H. Mann, 5th, B ; J. Marinay, 1st, D ; D. L. Mark, 
13th ; G. Marston, 2d, C ; E. M. Martin, R. Massie, 9th ; J. Mayer, 10th, K ; 
A. T. McAllister, James McClinton, Pat. McCormick, 13th ; Capt. J. W. 
McCullock, 2d, K; T. A. McFarlin, 9th, G ; R. J. McPherson, 9th, G; Lt. 
McShell, 14th, D ; A. Merrill, 1st, K ; J. H. Miller, Artillerv ; J. D. Mitchell, 
L. N. Moon, 8fch; T. B. Moons, 8th, G; N. Moore, 14th," E; D.T.Moore, 
Washington Artillery; R. W. Moore, 9th, H; T. W Moore, 1st, A; E. 
Moquest, 12th ; 8. J. Morrell, 4th ; H. Morrison, 5th, B ; S. Moss, 8th, C ; M. 
Mullen, 10th, A ; F. Myers, 7th, E. 

B. F. Neason, 16th, H ; R. Nicholls, 1st, B ; J. Nugant, 9th, A. 
J. Olithorpe, 6th, B ; R. Oliphant, J. Oliver, 2d, H. 



Confederate Dead, C, S. A. 



W. Page, 8th, B ; L. B. Palmer, 9th, F ; J. N. Parker, 2d, F ; — Parker, 
5th, K; J. Pascon, 10th, I; W. Patrick, 3d batt C ; J. J. M. Pearson, 9th, 
G ; F. Perry, Artillery; L H. Philips. 3d, B ; D. A. Powell, J. Powers, 9th, I. 

T. C. Ragan, 4th batt ; S. C. Rawlins, L Rawner, 14th, K ; H. C. Rich- 
ardson, 7, H ; James Ripts, J. Ristlett. 10th, D ; W. T. Roberts, 8th, B ; 
W. T. Robertson, 3d, H ; Lt. I. G. Ross, 9th, I ; J. M. Rowler, J. Ruduck, 
6th, I. 

T. Sanford, 18th, B ; J. Z. Saunders, 14th, H ; T. Saunders, 2d ; C. W- 
Scarvega, 8th, I ; J. C. Seott, 2d, D ; A. J. Shackleford, F Guards ; G. L. 
Shiffen, 5th, A ; O. A. Shuley, 13th, K ; W. Skilman, 9th, A ; H. Smith, 12th, 
C ; J. D. Smith, 8th, I ; L. J. Smith, 2d ; — Smith, 1st, F ; H. Smither, Zou- 
aves ; H. J. Snyder, 9th, A ; S. Stanley, 28th, A ; — Stephenson, 9th, H ; 
Srgt. D. C. Sullivan, 7th, H. 

L. Taffel, 5th, H , T. F. Tate, 9th ; G. Taylor, 9th ; J. P. Taylor, 9th, H > 
B. Thacker, 10th, B ; P. Thomas, 14th, K ; A. Thompson, 15th, G ; A. V Y- 
Thompson, 8th, G ; Lt. V Thompson, 14th, I ; W. H. Thornton, 9th A ; S. 
J. Tomodle, 8th, I ; Jno. Turner, 1st, B ; J. D. Tyler, 2d, K. 

G. H. W. ; G. WagDon, 13th, G, 22 y's of age ; Jno. Wall, 8th, H; T. G. Wall* 
5th, C ; S. F. Watson, 9th, D ; A. B. Wells, 9th, C ; H. Wells, 10th, A ; J. 
Wesley, T. R. M. Wharton, 15th ; G. W. White, 2d, I ; J. Whitehead, 2d, I ; 
A. T. Williams, 9th, B ; J. Williams, 7th, I ; J. H. Williams, 8th, A ; T. W. 
Williams, 2d ; C. Winhart, 10th ; W. J. Winlay, 15th : S. F. Winston, 9th, D. 

A. Young, 6th, G ; Jno. Young, Wheat's Bt ; C. S. Youngblood, 2d, H. 



OAKLAND CEMETERY, RICHMOND. 

Andrew Amans, 9th, B ; E. B. Adams, 5th, E. 

Daniel Bay well, 15th ; W. M. Ballard, 2d, C ; P. Baker, 10th, F ; — Bash- 
field, B ; J. Blair, 1st, A ; H. Barnes, F. Bashall, 13th, B ; S. Beck, 9th; A. 
Bowden, 3d, C ; J. M. Bonis, Artillery ; E. Brown, 14th ; G. Brown, 15th ; 
C. A. Bowling, 1st ; John Burke, 7th, B ; J. D. Burch, 9th, F. 

John Caison, 6th, B ; John E. Carter, 9th, H; P Carlone, 5th, K ; — ■ Cost- 
over, 10th, I ; A. Clisson, 8th, K ; W. Connelly, 1st, C ; O. Cole, 1st, D. 

Jno. Dalery, 14th, B ; J. C. Doke, 6th, C; Jno. Doan, 1st, K; D. Dunn, 
1st, A; J. H. Dushoney, 2d, H. 

T. Fanagan, 2d, I ; J. T. Flanagan, 2d, I; W Fanton, 3d, F; N. Fling, 
10th, D; Lt. S. Fischer, 14th, A. 

H. L. Garner, 4th, C ; C. W Garters, 2d, K ; J. Gray, 1st, I ; M. Gabriel. 
7th, B ; W M. Garbin, Artillery ; Antony George, 10th, C ; H. Gilbert, 15th, 
B. 

J. O. Harden, 2d, I; A. H. Henderson, 2d, C; P. HiggLnbottam, 6th, C ; 
Chas. Honeycut, 6th, A. 

J. M. Jackson. 

D. E. Kelley, 5th, A; Jno. Kennedy, 25th ; W. Kelley, 1st, A ; J. G. Kirk, 
14th. 

S. Lafeter, 14th, E ; H. Labon, 14th, B ; Mordecia Lancaster, 10th ; P- 
Ledger, 10th, G ; A. V Leonard, E. 

Richard Martin, 10th, C ; D. Manning, 2d, K ; A. T. Mathency, 6th, D ; 
W. McHayne, 3d, A ; Francis Merriell, 2d, K ; G. W McGenbry, 14th, A ; 
— McHenry, 8th, G; J. Miller, 6th, G; J. M. McMillan, 8th ; Julius McBride, 
8th, J. T. McGill, 9th, F ; Jno. Moran, 1st ; J. M. Morris, 8th ; W. W- Morris, 
9th ; Chas. Muldon, Art'y ; M. Meyers, 5th, A ; H. M. 1st, K. 



Confederate Dead, C:8. A. 



G. W. Neale, 9th, B ; B. A. Neathery, 14th, A ; J. H. Newton, 2d, F ; E. 
S. Newconib, 7th, I ; A. W. North, 9th, E ; D. F. Noles, 20th, A. 
Thos. Offin, 6th, D ; J. R. O'Brien, 5th, A. 

James Patten, 9th, C ; John Parker, 9th, E : W. D. Perkins, 10th, E ; J. 
H. Peary, 1st, B. 

J. L. Bay, 12th ; J. Richardson, 14th, I ; R. Reilly, 1st, C ; P. Richmond, 
J. Roberts, 3d, B. 

J. N. Spain, 2d, C ; L. J. Spear, 9th; W. S. Smith, 9th ; G. A. B. Smith, 
6th. K : F. A. Solden, 5th, E ; J. Showke, 5th, F ; M. Sullivan, 10th, I ; S. 
S. Suttrill, A. 

John Taylor, 6th, C ; J. W Tassel, 12tb ; A. P. Thomas, 9th, I ; J. T. 
Thompson, 17th, K ; J. F. Tooley, 8th, G. 

W B. Wade, G ; John Wheelery, 6th ; B. W. White, 14th, I ; N. Wilkin- 
son, 14th, A ; J. T. Whiting, 14th ; W G. Willis, 11th, C ; W. G. Woodil, 
9th, K. 

R. Yarborough, 9th, A. 



FREDERICKSBURG. 

J. M. Brown, 15th ; S. G, Browning, co, G ; N. Bushnell, J. E. Cunning- 
ham, 2d ; T. C. C-n-der, J. W. Frierson, 2d ; G. Fillwer, 2d ; Jacob Foster, 
2d ; Capt. R. P Harmon, 14 ; P. Hugh, 2d ; Lieut. J. S. Knight, W M. ; J. 
Montgomery, 8th, F ; Jno. Mordeeia, 7th, H ; Lt. J. A. Murphy, 8th, A ; 
Lt. J. M. Posev, 2d ; A. H. Price, co, I ; C. A. Prox, co, A; L. H. Robison, 
E. W. Stevens, 8th, E ; J as. Tronzber, 15th ; R. H. W, 2d; Sgt. H. L. Wil- 
liams, co. E. 



SPOTTSYLVANIA. 

Lt. D. Bnrweigb, Madison Artillery ; G. P. Baskens, 8th, F ; C. H. Clifton, 
9th, D ; Albert Dutlenheim, 8th, B ; Lt. A. Durham, 8th, C ; Adjt. J. Finley, 
14th ; R. H. Humphreys, J. Levy, 7th, C ; Jno. Lowe, 7th, G ; A. W. Logan, 
9th, D; Col. Bruce Manger, 5; Srgt. Jno. Mulroon, 6th, I ; M. McFeeley, 
-tli, I ; E. S. Pervis, 5th, E ; Shields, 5th, E. 



STANTON. 

Martin Blackley, 7, B ; Chris. Carrol, 14th, F ; Th. H. Herrin, 8th, D ; 
H. W. Jeffries, 10th, D ; Srgt. H. King, 9th, E ; Lt. W. Mills, 9th, A ; E. G. 
Murphy, 14th, D ; G. W. Story, 9th, F; E. L. Stephens, 9th, C ; Michael 
Stevens, 10, C ; W. H. Wynne, 9th, F. 



MANASSAS. 

W. T. E. Rowls, 8th. 



BATTLES IN VIRGINIA. 



Casualties in Louisiana Regiments and Batteries on the Rappahannock. 



CASUALTIES OF NICHOLLS' SECOND LOUISIANA BRIGADE, IN 
THE BATTLES OF MAY 2 AND 3. 

General and Staff— Wounded : Brig. Gen. T. F. T. Nicholls, severely, left 
leg amputated. 

FIRST LOUISIANA REGIMENT, MAJ. JAS. NELLIGAN, COMMANDING. 

Field and Staff — Wounded: Major Jas. Nelligan, slightly in thigh. 

Company A, Capt. Ales. Boarman, commanding — Killed : Private E. M. 
Pennell. Wounded : Privates E. S. Mason, S. Bledsoe, H. Schroink and 
Sergeant W. J. Jones. Missing : Privates A. Bertin and B. S. Day. 

Company B, Captain Sam. H. Snowden, commanding — Killed : none. 
Wounded : Lieut. H. C. Gill, Privates M. Lyles and A. C. Turner. Missing: 
Private J. M. Duncan. 

Companies C and D, Captain A. N. Cummings, commanding — Killed: 
Private G. G. Moore. Wounded : Captain A. N. Cummings, Sergeant Farm- 
er, Corporals Hope, Ehodes, Myers and Curran ; Privates T. Holt. J. Caller- 
ny, J. Maloney, McMullins, B. Dunne and O'Neil. 

Company E, Captain Thomas Rice, commanding — Killed : none. Wound- 
ed : 10. Missing : 3. Wounded : Captain Rice, slightly ; Lieut. Kernion, 
since dead; Lieut. J. Maskew, Corporal Weldon, Privates Meagher, J. 
Powers, J. Brady, W. E. Duismore, J. McManus, T. Piggotfc. Missing: 
J. Gleason, W. Moore, P. O'Reily. 

Companies F and G, Capt. E. D. Willett, commanding — Killed: Corporal 
G. F. Werlein. Wounded : Privates G. Angel and Barth. Missing : Ser- 
geant P. H. Raymond. 

Companies I and K, Captain Charles E. Cormier, commanding — Killed : 
Sergeant Danziger and Private Geo. F. Driver. Wounded: Privates J. 
Issis and R. Baum. Missing : Capt. C. E. Cormier and Private Tripple. 

SECOND LOUISIANA REGIMENT, COL. J. M. WILLIAMS, COMMANDING. 

Company A, Captain J. W. Brown, Jr., commanding — Killed: none. 
Wounded : Capt. J. W. Brown, severely ; Lieut. W- H. Noel, slightly ; Lieut. 
A. W. Hammond, seriously, arm amputated ; Second Lergeant Wm. Hollan, 
severely ; Fourth Sergeant F. P. McKinney, slightly ; Privates W. P. Can- 
non, Jr., severely ; John Coley, slightly ; J. Desleuches, slightly ; J. T. B- 
Hudson, M. Fitzgerald, J. C. Fowler, severely ; Wm. Key, H. M. Levy, J. 
W. Manny, slightly; Wm. Meadows, severely; J. Stokes, badly; J. B. 
Tucker, slightly. 

Company B, Captain James F. Utz, commanding— Killed: Color Sergeant 
A. S. Odom. Wounded : Lieut. F. C. McRae, slightly ; First Sergeant A. 
Crawford, slightly ; Privates W. G. Loyd, slightly ; John W. Powell, 
severely ; C. C. Grissom, severely ; J. H. Cluney, slightly ; J. W. Leather- 
wood, slightly. Missing : Thomas Kearney and A. P. Williams. 

Company C, Lieut. N. L. Hartly, commanding— Killed : Privates Gram- 
mont, Filhool, Stephen H. Pace. Wounded : Lieut. R. G. Cobb, slightly ; 
Corporal J. T. Godley, slightly ; Privates J. H. Brook, severely ; J. H? Mad- 
den, L. Dyolous, W. T. Theobolds, slightly ; J. J. Haynes, G. C. Dawkins, 
slightly. Missing : Lieut. J. M. Harris, Privates P. G. Oates, G. L. Gnllav, 
T. H. Blakely, W. Holman. ' 



Battles in Virginia. 



Company D, Capt. Jas. S. Ashton, commanding — Killed : Privates Jas. E. 
Cunningham, Jr., Jacob F. Foster and John Whitten Frierson. Wounded : 
Privates W. E. K. Hogana, Isaac Hayes and John Henerick, since dead; Joe 
Casparey, severely ; James L. Boone, John DeWitt, C. C. Reynolds, W. T. 
Riggs, severely; W, W. Ashton, slightly; Corporals W. F. Rembert and R. 
H. Riggs, very slightly. Missing : Sergeant H. J. Wells, Privates J. B. 
Gardner and D. G. Marshal. 

Company E, Capt. L. G. Picon, commanding — Killed : None. Wounded : 
First Lieut. J. M. Batchelor, slightly ; Second Lieut. J. M. Lewis, slightly ; 
First Sergeant W. A. Deloach, slightly ; Second Sergeant A Korber, slightly ; 
Privates A. Coulon, slightly ; R. J. Marshal, severely ; G. Gauthier, slightly ; 
G. P Chaffant, slightly. Missing: Corporal H. Cunningham, Private O. A. 
J. Moore. 

Company F, Capt. M. C. Redwine, commanding — Killed : Sergeant G. B. 
Bernard. Wounded : First Lieut. W. P. Posey, severely ; Capt. Burrel 
Stuart, slightly ; Privates G. W. Bishop, slightly ; C. Lewis, slightly; J. P. 
Tatum, slightly ; F. Kurty, severely. Missiug : Second Lieut. A. P Racine. 

Company G, Capt. James Jones, commanding — Wounded : Sergeants C. 
T. Bradley and M. J. Matthews, severely ; Private T. H. Brock, slightly. 

Company H. Capt. G. L. Fortsou commanding — Wounded : Second Lieut. 
C. A. Mallory, Privates C. C. Davenport, J. Oliver, T. H. Youngblood, C. S. 
Youngblood, J. G. Golden, B. F. Whatley, W. H. Davis, J. C. Williams, J. 
R. Johnson, P. G. C'assidv. J. B. Brodbeck, J. M. Bushong, Sergeant T. G. 
Small. Killed : D. C. Dunn. 

Oompauv I, Captain A. S. Blythe, commanding — Killed : R. B. Miller and 
T. P. Riordan. Wounded : W C. Cooksey, A. N. Brown, T. N. Bolin, J. N. 
Jeter, N. Copeland, J. E. Simmonds, C. F. Thompson. Missing : Corporal 
B. B. Carter, Private J. P. Kendric. 

Company K. Lieut. C. M. Farris, commanding— Killed : Corporal R. T. 
Denning. Wounded : Second Lieut. J. W. Hoard, First Sergt. J. R. 
Wright, mortally ; Corporals L. W. Herring and R. M. Autrey, Privates J, 
W Reid, D. F. Sut, F. C. Greenwood, Felix Wilson, J. W. Green, John 
Wright. Missing: J.T.Davidson. 

TENTH LOUISIANA REGIMENT. 

Lieut. Col. J. M. Legget, killed, and Major H. D. Monier, wounded. 

Company A, Captain I. L. Lyons, commanding — Wounded : First Lieut. D: 
Mahoney, Sergt. T. McGuire, Privates J. Conway, P. Collins, J. Ford, M. 
Gilbert, P. Hammond, J. L. Kil. Killed : M. Flanagan. 

Company B, Capt. C. Knowlton, commanding — Wounded: Privates P. 
Burk, D. Kessener, R. Carpenter. Missing : P Stevenson. 

Company C, Capt. T. N. Powell, commanding — Wounded: Corpl. Mona- 
han, J. Gill, J. C. Mady. Missing : Garrety. 

Company D, Capt. E. Welbre, commanding — Wounded : Privates W. 
Buckley, W. H. Crew, J. Carroll, C. Nash. Missing : Sergeant J. Wilson, 
Private J. Cunningham. 

Company E, Lieut. Chisholm, commanding — Killed : Color-bearer, J. 
Anderson, Privates E. McBride, T. C. Anslem. Wounded : Sergeants R. B. 
Reaves, J. Bass, Privates J. Cronan, J. Westfall and McCoy. Missing : 
Private P. Moran. 

Company F, Captain Pagruce, commanding — Wounded : Lieut. C. Coop- 
er, Sergeant G. Parks, Privates H. Tetchy, J. Ulmer, J. Campbell, J. Edgar, 
Edgecomb, J. Quigeley. Missing : Privates C. Ross, P. Barrax. 

Company G, Capt. C. Marmillion, commanding — Wounded : Capt. C. Mar- 
million, Lieut. Kendall, Sergeant C. Constard. Killed : Private Bergearn. 

Company H, Captain L. Gastranski, commanding — Wounded : Capt. L. 
Gastranski, Sergeant E. Roubbau, Corporal McCasley, F. Ruffeatz. Pri- 
vates M. Masterson, J. Henry, C. Jacob, J. Wolf. Killed : J. Burk, C. Gner- 
rette, Gillcss. Missing : A. Dayton, 



10 Battles in Virginia. 



Company I, Captain A. Jonte. commanding — Wounded : Capt. A. Jonte, 
Privates A. Babiron, Jean Marie. Killed : Sergeant Burnon, J. Humagall. 
Missing : A. Galiz. 

Company K, Captain A. Penodin, commanding — Wounded : First Lieut. 
E. A. Seaton, Second Lieut. J. Eyan, Sergeant Kerinan, Corporal S. Mogent, 
Privates M. Ryan, J. Moyless, J. E. Stringer, H. Moss, J. Eedfall, J. Truhan, 
J. Moreau, J. Eglinter. Killed: Sergeant J. Beeves, F. Lark. Missing: 
Sergeant H. Fleshman. 

FOURTEENTH LOUISIANA REGIMENT — LIEUT. COL. D. ZABLE, COMMANDING. 

Company A — Killed : Private W. Cotton. Wounded : Private Dan Green, 
Owen Quin, S. G. Wilson. Missing: Privates P W- Boyle, W McClellan, 
L. Newcomer. 

Company B — Wounded : First Lieutenant Jno. H. Hood, Corporal McFee. 
Privates W. Smith, Henry Eeese and James Hetherton. Missing : A. Kins- 
ley, J. Weinn, Onier Burt. 

Company C — Wounded : Capt. J. W. T. Leech, Corporal John Buckley. 
Privates C. Sullivan, Jas. Nolan. Missing: John King, Jas. Nolan. 

Company D — Wounded : Sergeants D. Markey and E. S. Gardner. Pri- 
vates M. Galvin, F. Pecquery, F. Stadte, N. Shaft. Missing : G. Coulin, T. 
Fowler, John Hughes, Con. Mellon, J. Sullivan, F. Strop, P. McGowan, Jr., 
and W. E. Mitchell. 

Company I — Wounded: Lieut. Wm. Hoffman ; Corporal Gookey ; Private 
H. Murphy. Missing : Sergeant E. D. Bolger and Private John Moriarty. 

Company F — Wounded : Lieut. Wm. Grossler ; Sergeants W. Holliday 
and L. Metrille. Privates W. W. Butler, J. F. Bender, P. Fox, M. Kelger, J. 
M. Whalin. Missing ; J. Eoman. 

Company G — Wounded : Corporal F. McNellis ; Privates J. Brunan, 
William Miller, M. Keough. Missing: None. 

Company H — Wounded : Sergts. C. McDougal, J. Gunsenhouser ; Corpo- 
ral T. Crough ; Privates D. Kane, M. Sailer, F. Havers and Jas. McCul- 
lough. 

Company I — Capt. G. H. Pouncey, commanding — Wounded : Sergt. J. 
Pope; Privates W. Gaffing and C. Allen; Corporals H. Scarborough and 
John Holland. Killed : Corporal Taylor. 

Company K — Wounded : Sergeants McEbeny, J. Weeble, F. Soutry ; Cor- 
porals E. T. Hale, P. Schlesinger; Privates H. Smith, J. F. Scruggs, M. 
Clark. 

FIFTEENTH LOUISIANA REGIMENT, COL. EDMUND PENDLETON, COMMANDING. 

Field and Staff— Wounded : Col. Edmund Pendleton, in hand; Lieut. 
Col. L. McGoodwin, in hand and thigh ; Sergeant Major Haskins, in ankle. 

Company A — Killed: Privates F. Hoffman, P. Burns and Whittle. 
Wounded : Sergt. E. Lente, severely. Missing : Private E. Cain. 

Company B — Killed : Privates Walker, Finnegan, West and Brake. 
Wounded: Sergt. Henricks, Corporal McArthur, Privates Conway, Bren- 
nan, Fitzgerald, Huffy, Eussell. Missing : Private Peters. 

Company C — Killed : Private Brown. Wounded : Lieut. Erwin, seri- 
ously in right arm ; Lieut. Gross, slightly ; Sergt. Hanck, Sergt. Dupuy, 
Privates C. Viger and P. Smith. Missing : Bernard O. Badeau and P. 
Badeau. 

Company D — Killed : Private H. Johnson. Wounded : Lieuts. Powers 
and Lockwood, Sergts. Simcox and Duffy, Privates Eeiley, Klech, Cann, 
Leharvey, Fanning and Gorivan. 

Company E — Killed : Lieut. Haynes, Sergt. Paul. Wounded : Privates 
Cormandy and Brown. Missing : Corporal Burke. 

Company F — Killed : Sergt. Eoe. Wounded : Sergts. Roden and C. Clen- 
denning, Corporal Winn, Privates Knight and Donley. Missing : Corporal 
Holleway, Privates Carroll and Flynn. 



Battles in Virginia. 11 



Company G, Capt. Wm. C. Michie, commanding— Killed : Sergt. McElwee, 
Corporal Tucker and Private Bigger. Wounded: Capt. W. C. Michie, 
slightly ; Lieuts. Bowman and Davenport, Sergeants Wynu and Brown, 
Corporal Aldridge, Privates Lott, Carroll, England, Dawson, Merrillian, 
Braddock, Cannedy, J. W. Mygatt, Crawford, Womack. Missing : Private 
Manning. 

Company H— Killed : Private Wm. Wolf. Wounded : Capt. J. F. With- 
erup, Lieut. Blackstone, Corporal D. Venet. Missing: Privates McPherson, 
McCain er, F. Barnett. 

Company I— Kiiled : Privates D. Hogan and E. Clark. Wounded: Lieut. 
Browu. .Sergeant Transler, Sergeant Napier, Corporal Trisler, Privates Til- 
ler, McClure, Manning, Groer, McQuade and Shae. 

Company K — Wounded and Prisoners : Sergeant Brown and Private 
Keefer. Wounded: Sergeant Buck, Corporals Salvia and Dillon, Privates 
Arnauld, Cunningham, Holt, Heno, Mengis, Norris and Rank. 

GRAND RECAPITULATION. 



1st Louisiana 
2nd do. 


do. .. 


126 


10th do. 
14th do. 


do 

do. 


86 

, 81 


loth do. 


do 


104 


General Staff. 




1 



Grand total of killed, wounded and missing. . . .448 



THE WASHINGTON AETILLEEY. 

List of Killed, Wounded and Missing in the Battalion Washington Artillery. 

First Company — Killed : Sergeant W. H. West, Corporal T. J. Lutman, 
Private J. E. Florence. Wounded : Corporal C. A. Everett, prisoner. Cap- 
tured : Capt. C. W. Squires, Lieut. Edward Owen, Lieut. John Galbraith, 
Sergeant W. T. Hardie, Privates R. Alsobrook, H. B. Berthelot, J. B. Ozant, 
Wm. Fellowes, Jr., J. R. Harby, M. E. Harris, James M. McCormack, A. 
Micou, J. Myers, N. B. Phelps, E. Peychaud, C. Peychaud, P. Siebrecht, T. 
S. Turner, Samuel Turuer, Van Vinson. Drivers Captured : John Eshman, 
John Hock, James Kennedy, P. Rierson, E. W. Smith. 

Second Company — Wounded : Lieut. J. B. DeRussey, Privates Barton 
Kirk, Phil. Van Collin. Captured : Privates H. D. Summers, Wm. Giffln, 
H. D. Coleman. 

Third Company— Wounded : Corporal R. P. Many and prisoner, Privates 
L. Adam, O. Frank. Captured : Sergt. John T. Handy, Privates W. P. 
Noble, Benjamin Dick. 

Fourth Company — Killed : Corporal L. L. Lewis. Wounded : Corporal 
J. Valentine, artificer F. Callahan, driver J. Anderson. 

PIECES CAPTURED. 

First Company — One 12-pound Napoleon one 3-inch rifle. 

Second Company — One Impound howitzer. 

Third Company — One 12-pound Napoleon, one caisson. 

Fourth Company — One 12-pound Napoleon, one 12-pound howitzer. 



12 Battles in Virginia. 



CASUALTIES OF THE 10th LOUISIANA FEOM MAY 5th,' 1864, to 1865- 

Battle of the Wilderness, May 5th, 1864. 

Company A, Captain I. L. Lyons, commanding — Killed : Private Tom. 
Newman. Wounded : Lieut. T. Barron, Privates M. Stanton, P. Stanton. 

Company B, Lieut. H. Eustis, commanding — Wounded : Private Dan. 
Kearney. Missing : Sergt. Tom. Whalen, Privates Pat. Mahan, Mike 
Osborne. 

Company C, Capt. James Scott, commanding — Killed : Private Michael 
Leddy. Missing : Jno. O. Molly. 

Company D, Capt. Ernest Webre, commanding — Killed Pat. Mullins. 
Wounded : Privates Ed. Wynne, Andy Moffltt, John Holland, Dan Eogers, 
Corpl. G. Tally. 

Company E, Capt. Sam. H. Faulkner, commanding — Killed : Pat. Kear, 
Pat. Kane. Wounded : Sergt. T. N. Taylor, Privates J. Shilbert, James 
Moore. 

Company F, Capt. A. F. Pagnier, commanding — Killed : Private J. Myer. 
Wounded : Privates Martin Cusack, J. Herbert. 

Company H, Capt. Leon Jastremski, commanding — Wounded : Sergt. 
Wm. Cunningham. 

Company I, Capt. P. Leclaire, commanding — Wounded : Corpl. A. Jean 
Marie, Private S. Pisani. 

Company K, Capt. August Perrodin, commanding — Wounded : Sergt. 
Jos. Harring, Private Jos. Strange. Missing : Privates Thos. E. Stringer, 
Jos. Richard, George Lalonde, John Toomey. 

Battle of Spotsylvania, May 12th, 1864. 

Wonnded: Major Thos. N. Powel, Lieut, and Ensign T. G. Boykin. 
Missing : Adjt. H. Pierson, Asst. Surg. Henry Shiff. 

Company A, Capt. I. L. Lyons, commanding — Wounded : Capt. I. L. 
Lyons, Private Jno. Lafferty. Missing : Lieut. Dan. Mahoney, Ord. Sergt. 
Wm. McMullen, Sergt. J. Dellahanty, Privates G. W. Loomer, Jno. S. Kail, 
Henry Scott, Thos. Doyle, Dan. Dailey, Wm. McGuire, Jas. Conway, Wm. 
Hackett. 

Company B, Lieut. H. Eustis, commanding — Missing : Ord. Sergt. Dan. 
Tierney, Private J. Moran, Phil. Ryan, P. Doyle. 

Company C, Capt. James Scott, commanding — Killed : Private Jno. 
Henry. Missing ; Private Jas. Gannon, P. Monaghan, P. Carroll. 

Company D, Capt. Ernest Webre, commanding — Wounded : Capt. E. 
Webre. Missing : Private C. Narshtedt, Jno. Saunders. 

Company E, Capt. Sam. H. Faulkner, Commanding — Killed: Private J. 
Cronan. Wounded : None. Missing : Lieut. Chas. A. Chisholm, Privates 
Jno. E. Bell, James Moore, Chas. Reily, Corpl. Geo. Perkins. 

Compauy F, Capt. A. F. Pagnier, commanding — Wounded : Capt. A. 
F. Pagnier. Missing : Privates F. Springis, F. Smith, Sergt. J. Neweomb. 

Company G, Capt. Chas. B. Marmillion, commanding — Wounded :' Lieut. 
T. Louis Mills, Robert Fortier. Missing : Ord. Sergt. H. Danten, Privates 
A. Bejeau, J. Kenner. 

Company H, Capt. Leon Jastremski, commanding — Missing : Capt. L. 
Jastremski, Ord. Sergt. E. Ronbleau, Sergts. Wm. Cunningham, J. McCas- 
land, Corpl. Z. Bond, Private A. Brignac, Robt. Linder, 

Company I, Capt. P. Leclaire, commanding — Killed : Capt. P. Leclaire. 
Missing: Ord. Sergt. A. Purkel, Sergt. C. Mahoney, Privates F. Manchini, 
Paul Moreau, J. G. Metilino, Philip Miller, Louis Bonette. 

Company K, Capt. August Perrodin, commanding— Missing : Capt. A. 
Perrodin, Lieuts. E. A. Seaton, T. Rycon. Ord. Sergt. Jno. Courville, Corpl. 
Louis Nugent, Privates M. Maicantil, Ben. Elender, Walter F. Moss, Jos. 
D. Granger, Jos. Kennedy. 



Battles in Virginia. 13 



Maleern Hill, July 1st, 1862. 
Col. Eug. Waggaman, Commanding. 

Field and staff — Missing : Col. Eug Waggaman. 

Company A, I. A. Conn, commanding — Killed : Privates Con. Hollerand, 
Michael D. Mullen, John McGee, Charles McGill, William Vporvart, George 
Wolf. Wounded : Private Patrick McLaughlin, Frank Powell, Thomas M. 
McGuire, Geo. Seymour, Patrick Tausey, Martin Gilbert. Missing : Lieut. 
Isaac L. Lyons, Sergeant Patrick Barron. 

Company B, Capt. Henry C. Marks, commanding — Killed : Capt. Henry 
C. Marks, Sergt. V. Harrison, Privates Charles Gordon, A. Roach. Wound- 
ed : Privates Patrick Doyle, John Moran, John Smith. Missing : Eobert 
Bracken, Richard Carpenter. 

Company C, Capt. Thos. N. Powell, commanding — Killed : Privates John 
Higgins, John Maugan. Wounded : Serg't Owen Connelly, Priv. Henry 
Boigar, Corp'l James Gill, Corp'l James Gallagher, Priv. John Lavin, Pat. 
O'Brien. Missing: Priv. Michael Mofflt, Michael Kennedy. 

Company D, Lieut. Sam. May, commanding — Killed: Sergt. Wm. Dono- 
van. Sergt. Martin Ready. Wounded : Private Edward Wynne, George 
Tate, John Nash. Missing : Private Dominick Owens, Sergt. Wm. H. 
Parker, Private Thos. Ryan. 

.Company E, Capt. S. Cucullu, commanding— Killed : Corporal John Wal- 
ton, Sergeant Henry Jackson. Wounded : Sergeant Eug. A. Dickey, 
Private Wm. C. Hosea. 

Company F, Capt. John M. Leggett, commanding — Killed: Sergt. Paul 
Moreau. Wounded : Corporal John Richards, Fred. Prietz, Michael Faller. 
Missing : John McFadden, Charles Broglie. 

Company G, Capt. Chas. B. Marmillion, commanding — Killed : Private 
John Edgar. Antonio Riola. Wonnded : Serg't H. Herrero, Private A. Be- 
jean. 

Company H, Capt. Wm. Barnett, commanding— Wounded : Sergt. Adam 
Conrad, Private Z. Borne, Jonn Owens. 

Company I, Lieut. A. Jonte, commanding — Wounded : Andrew Leary, 
John Gustin. Missing: Privates Joseph Cortez, Francois Randy, Philip 
Locker, Antonio Ruiz, Guilaimo Geromini, 

Company K, Capt. A. Peirodin, commanding — Wounded : Corpl. Wm. 
Durio, Private Patrick Coynes, James Moyles, Jos. D. Fargue. Missing: 
Private J as. McKinney 

Battle of Cedar Run, August 10th, 1862. 
Lieut. Col. Wm. B. Spencek, Commanding. 

Company C, Capt. N. Powell, commanding — Killed : Corporal Edward 
Martin, Private Pat. Feeny, Wm. Qumn, Michael Slavin. Wounded : Serg't 
Thos. Ford, Private Daniel Curran. 

Company D, Capt. Ernest Webre, commanding— Wounded : Corpl. Simon 
Kennear. 

Company I, Capt. Henry D. Monier, commanding — Wounded : Andre 
Nicole. Missing : Jules Delherbes. 

Manassas, Xo. 2, August 28th, 29th and 30th, 1862. 
Lieut. Col. Wm. B. Spencer, Commanding. 
Field and staff— Killed : Lieut. Col. Wm. B. Spencer. Wounded : Adg't 
Henry Puissan. 

Company A, Capt. J. A. Cohen, commanding— Killed : Capt. J. A. Cohen, 
Corpl. Thos. White. Wounded : Sergt. Daniel Mahoney, Privates Charles 



14 Battles in Virginia. 



H. Cross, Martin Gilbert, Peter Hammond, "William Hackett, Hugh Larkin, 
Patrick Stanton, Frank Powell, Martin Welsh. Missing : Lawrence Keig- 
han. 

Company B, Capt James Buckner, commanding — Killed : Private John 
Little, David Quirke, P Townley, Robert Wilkenson. Wounded : Sergeant 
Thomas Hunt, Privates E. Carpenter, Richard Doyle. 

Company C, Capt. Thos. N. Powell, commanding— Killed : Lieut. Eugene 
Janin, Priv. John Conner. "Wounded : Capt Thos. N. Powell, Sergts. Owen 
Connelly, Michael Garrithy, Michael Hussey, Privates John Foy, Michael 
Connor, Pat Cheevers, Jas. Gannon, John Moore, J. N. Whitlow 

Company D, Capt. Ernest Webre, commanding — Killed : Corpl. John 
Livick, Priv. Con. Murphy. Wounded: Corpl. Tim. Kelly, Dan. Lockerbie. 

Company E, Capt. S. Cucullu, commanding — Wounded : Capt. S. Cucullu, 
Color Bearer Robert Strom, Sergt. Wm. Carmiehael. 

Company F, Capt. Albert F. Pagnier, commanding — Wounded : Priv. 
Frank Barthel, John Campbell, Dennis Hayes, Henry Meyers, Jean Moisan, 
Sergeant Aug. Lasere. 

Company G, Capt. Chas. B. Marmillion, commauding— Wounded : Ber- 
nard Lafargue. Missing: Anton Wagner. 

Company H, Lieut. — Adam, commanding— Killed : Scrgt. Adam Conrad, 
Privates Theodule Cambre, John Cochrane. Wounded : Privates Dan 
Dean, Alceste Brignac, Wm. Beadle, John Gillis. 

Company I, Capt. Henry D. Monier, commanding — Wounded : Lieut. 
Peter Leclairc, Nicole Danilovich, Antonio Jacques. Missing : Privates 
David Torrenelle, Paul Moreau, Serg't Francisco Brescianini 

Company K, Capt. Aug. Perrodin, commanding — Killed : Sergt. Pierre 
Vincent, Private David Hargrove. Wounded : Lieuts. Isaac Ryan, O. 
Prudhomme, Privates Joseph L. Ryan, Fred. Sark, Pat. McCormick, Wm. 
C. Boland. Missing : Sergt. Henry A. Fleshman, Corpl. I. C. Ruchenbach. 

Battle of Sharpsburg , Md., September 17th, 1862. 

Capt. Henry D. Monier, Commanding. 

Company A, Ord. Sergt. Dan Mahony, commanding — Killed : Private 
David Holmes. Wounded: Private George Seymour. Missing: Privates 
Thomas Hammond, John Dolari. 

Company B, Capt. Chas. Knowlton, commanding — Wounded : Capt. Chas. 
Knowlton, Sergt. Robert Bracken, Private Phil. Ryan. 

Company C, Ord. Sergt. J. Scott, commanding — Killed : Serg't Martin 
Durkin. 

Company D, Lieut. Sam. May, commanding — Killed : Sergt. Jos. Joyce, 
Privates Peter Collins, Henry Friday, Edward Hassey. Missing : John 
Saunders. 

Company E, Lieut. Chisholm, commanding — Killed : Color Bearer Robert 
Strom, Corporal John Sloan, Private Charles Easman. Wounded : Corpls. 
Pat. Kean, Elisha McBride, Private John Moulzer. Missing : Priv. James 
Sheffield. 

Company F, Lieut. Chas. Cooper, commanding — Killed : Louis Arons, 
Henry Jones, James McFadden, Fred. Preitz. Wounded : Sergeant James 
Newcomb, Corporal Edward Edgecomb. Missing : Corpl. James Edgar, 
Private Gus. Boorhead. 

Company G, Chas. B. Marmillion, commanding — Killed : Privates Juan 
Taeon, Victor Nunenmacher. Wounded: Capt. Chas. B. Marmillion, Lieut. 
S. Herrero, Serg't Alexander Romain, Corpl. Hy polite Austin, Priv. Lewis 
Long. Missing : Privates Jugal Constantino, Max Miller. 



Battles in Virginia. 15 



Company H, Capt. Adam Alexander, commanding — Killed : Capt. Adam 
Alexander, sergt. John Thompson, Private John Watson. "Wounded : 
Corp'l Fred. Brogan, Privates John P. Usher, Mike Gavin. 

Company I, Lieut. A. Jonte, commanding— Killed : Serg't Alex. Feuga, 
Privates C. Salonicho, George Zapf. Wounded: Sergt. A. Baldoni, Privates 
F. Lappi, G. Juliani, 0. Paoli Aguis. Missing : G. Mariotte, C. Vallesariz. 

Company K, Lieut. Isaac Ryan, commanding — Killed : Corpl. Joseph 
Auge, Privates J. H. Jackson, Jas. McKinney. 

Battle of Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1861. 

Company E, Killed : Corporal Charles Eilert. 

Company F— Wounded : Sergeant Frank Kasche, Privates F. Barthel, 
Michael Reinhart. Missiug : Private Francois Martin. 

Company H— Wounded : Mike Masterson. 

Company I — Wounded : Serg't C. Mahoney, Priv. A. Baleron. 

Company K — Wounded : Private L. Courville. 

Battle of ChanceUorsnlle, Ta., May 2d and :itf, 1863. 

Lieut. Col. J. M. Leggett, Commanding. 

Field and stan— Killed : Lieut, Col. J. M. Leggett. Wounded : Major 
Henry D. Monier. 

Company A, Capt. I. L. Lyons, commanding — Killed: Private M. Flan- 
nagan. Wounded : Lieut, Daniel Mahoney, Sergeant T. M. McGuire, Corpl. 
John Ford. Privates James Conway, P. Collins, M. Gilbert, P. Hammond, 
John Skail. 

Company B, Lieut. H. Eustis, commanding — Wounded : Sergeant D. 
Kearney, Privates P Burke, I >. Kessener, R. Carpenter. Missing : P. 
Stevenson. 

Company C, Capt. Powell, commanding — Wounded : Capt. Powell, Corpls. 
J. Gill, P. Monoghan, Priv. John O'Mally. Missing : Sergt. M Garrity. 

Company D, Capt. E. Webre, commanding — Killed : Win. Buckley. 
Wounded : Sergt. John Tulley, Privates J. Burnett, Jas. Carroll, W. H. 
Crew, C. Narshtedt. Missing : Sergt. J. Wilson, Priv. J. Cunningham. 

Company E, Capt. Sam. H. Faulkner, commanding — Killed: Color Bearer 
James Anderson, T. C. Anselon, E. McBride, C. Bobo, J. Moran, J. M. 
Campbell. Wounded : Sergeants I. N. Taylor, R. B. Reeves, John C. Bass, 
Corporal P. Keau, Privates J. Westfall. J. Cronan, P. McCoy. 

Company F, Capt. A. F Paguier, commanding — Killed : Lieut. Charles 
Cooper, Sergeant Charles Ross, Corpls. G. Parks, Henry Leicby. Wound- 
ed : Corporals E. Edgecomb, J. Edgar, Privates J. Campbell, R. Lubeight, 
J. Quigley, J. Ulmer. Missing : Private P. Barran. 

Company G, Capt. C. B. Marmillion, commanding — Killed : Private J. 
Bergeron. Wounded : Capt. Chas. B. Marmillion, Lieut. L. H. Kendall, 
Sergeant C Constant. 

Company H, Capt. L. Jastremski, commanding — Killed: Corp'l C. Jacob, 
Private J. Burk, J. Wolf, A. Dayton, Jno. Gillis, C. Gueret. Wounded : 
Capt. L. Jastremski, Sergt. E. Roubleau, Corpls. A. Keller, A. McCasland, 
T. Rafftery, Privates P. Havery, M. Masterson, J. Henry. 

Company I, Capt. A. Jonte", commanding — Killed : Capt. A. Jonte", Sergt. 
J. Bremont, Private J. Fumagali. Wounded : Corp'l A. Jean Marie, Priv. 
A. Balleron. Missing : Corp'l A. Galli, Private Sesto Pisani. 

Company K, Capt. A. Perrodin, commanding — Killed : Sergeants H. A. 
Fleshman, Jas. Reeves, Privates J. Moyle, Fred. Sark. Wounded : Lieuts. 



16 Battles in Virginia. 



E. A. Seaton, Isaac Ryan, Sergeant B. Kirkman, Corporal L. Nugent, 
Privates J. Trahan, T. E. Stringer, J. Reeves, M. Ryan, W. F. Moss, G. 
Kanghfall, J. Ellender, J. Maran. 

Battle of Gettysburg, July 1st and 2d, 1863. 
Company A, Capt. I. L. Lyons, commanding — Killed : Corporal E. Webb, 
Privates B. Conway, W. McDermott. Wounded : Sergeants C. Briggs, 
G. W. Loomer, Corporal J. Ford, Privates J. Conway, D. Daley, T. Doyle, 
J. Gillion, J. Kane. 

Company C, Capt. C. Knowlton, commanding — Wounded : Lieuts. H. 
Eustis, R. Bracken, Sergt A. McDonald, Privates P. Madden, J. O'Grady, 
C. Ryan. 

Company C, Capt. James Scott, commanding — Killed : Privs. J. Vander- 
griff, P. O'Brien. Wounded : Captain J. Scott, Sergts. Thos. Kahoe, F. 
Kelly, M. Hussey, J. Gallagher, Corp'ls P. Laffy, W. Lawless, Privates M. 
Maloney, T. Logan, M. Kennedy, P. Higgins, F. Gallagher, T. Flynn, P. 
Cheevers, P. Carroll, Henry Boigar, J. Keegan. 

Company D, Capt. E. Webre, commanding — Killed: Corpl. G. Petrovich, 
Private J. Cunningham. Wounded : Lieut. S. H. May, Sergeant J. Tully, 
Corp'l S. Kennear, Privates J. Connor, D. Farrar, C. Narshtedt, M. Stapple- 
ton. Missing : Private J. Burnett. 

Company E, Capt. S. Faulkner, commanding — Killed : Corp'l J. Sheffield, 
Privates E. Conner, G. Zwiegler. Wounded : Capt. S. Faulkner, Sergeant 
I. N. Taylor, Corporal E. Beard, Privates J. Westfall, J. Jarnagen, J. Bobo, 

Company F, A. F. Pagnier, commanding— Killed : Privates P. Turquais, 
A. Berthancourt. Wounded: Sergeant August Saucier, Corporal P. Tapie, 
Privates J. Newcomb, J. Candidi, P. Barran. Missing : Privs. Fred. Smith, 
C. Schwartz. 

Company G — Killed : Privates J. Wilder, B. Lafargue, A. Lopez. Wound- 
ed : Sergt. H. Dantin, Privates M. Miller, J. Lima, A. Constancia. Missing: 
L. Courajoux, M. Castanio, S. Estrado, L. Gros, H. Austin, C. Fassaldatto. 

Company H, Capt. L. Jastremski, commanding — Killed : Sergeant F. 
Webber, Corporal F. Brogan. Wounded : Capt. Jastremski, Sergts. J. P 
Usher, W. Cunningham, Private C.Holmes. Missing: Corpl. T. Raftery, 
J. Burke. 

Company I, Capt. P. Leclaire, commanding — Wounded : Privates J. Del- 
herbes, P.Miller, F. Mauchini, A. Ruiz, V. Allis, Corp'l A. Galli, Serg't J. 
G. Metalieno. Missing : A. Stallbaumer, D. Gelancovich. C. Dondaro, N - 
Danilovich,. 

Company K, Capt. A. Perrodin, commanding — Killed : Privates J. Reeves, 
J. Regan. Wounded : Serg't J. G. Harrington, Corpls. L. Nugent, A. La- 
londe, Privates J. Toomey, J. L. Strange, Geo. Lalonde, P. Sherry. Miss- 
ing : Privates L. Couville, J. Granger, E. Linder, R. F. Pierce. 

Battle of Payne's Farm or Moore's Bun, Va., November 27th, 1863. 

Lieut. Col. Henry D. Monibe, Commanding. 

Company A, Capt. I. L. Lyons, commanding — Killed : Priyate H. Lar- 
kin. Wounded : Private M. Stanton. Missing : Private P. Stanton. 

Company B, Capt. C. Knowlton, commanding — Killed : Private D. Mc- 
Carthy. Wounded: Capt. C. Knowlton, 

Company C, Capt. J. Scott, commanding — Killed : Private J. Lavin. 
Wounded: Privs. Pat Higgins, Wm. Lawless. 

Company D, Capt. E. Webre, commanding — Killed : Serg't J. Tully. 
Wounded : Privates W. H. Crew, J. Stephen. 



Battles in Virginia, 



Company E, Capt. S. Faulkner, commanding — Wounded: Color Bearer 
T. G. Boykin, Sergeant I. N. Taylor, P Kean, P. McCoy. 

Company F, Capt. A. F. Pagnier, commanding — Wounded: Corporal 

G. Malone. 

Company G, Capt. C. B. Marmillion, commanding — Wounded : J. Baker, 
A. Constancia. 

Company H, Capt. L. Jastremski, commanding — Killed: J. O'Donnell. 
Wounded : M. Masterson. 

Company I, Capt. P. Leclaire, commanding — Wounded : Lieut. G. Sauve", 
Private L. Bonetti. 

Company K, Capt. A. Perrodin, commanding — Killed : Private J. 

Moreau. Wounded: Privates V. Lebleu, T. E. Stringer. 

Battle of the Wilderness, May 5th, 1864. 

Lieut. Col. Hexry D. Monier, Commanding. 

Company A, Capt. I. L. Lyons, commanding — Killed : Private T. New- 
man. Wounded : Lieut. P. Barron, Privates M. Stanton, P. Stanton. 

Company B, Lieut. H. Eustis, commanding — Wounded: Private D. 
Kearney. Missing : Sergeant T. Whalen, Privates P. Mahan, M. Osborne. 

Company C, Capt. J. Seotb, commanding — Killed : Private M. Leddy. 
Missing : Private J. O'Mally. 

Company D, Capt. E. Webre, commanding — Killed : Private P. Mullen. 
Wounded : Serg't J. Holland, Corp'l E. Wynne, Privates A. Moffatt, D. 
Eogers. 

Company E, Capt. S. Faulkner, commanding — Killed : Private P. Kean. 
Wounded : Sergeant I. N. Taylor, Privates J. Shibert, J. Moore. 

Company F, Capt. A. F. Pagnier, commanding Killed : Private J. Myer. 
Wounded: Privates M. Cusack, J. Herbert. 

Company II, Capt. Jastremski, commanding — Wounded : Serg't W. 
Cunningham. 

Company I, Capt. Leclaire, commanding — Wounded : Corp'l A. Jean 

Marie, Private S. Pisani. 

Company K, Capt. Perrodin, commanding — Wounded : Sergeant J. G. 
Harrington, Private J. L. Strange. Missing: Privates G. Lalonde, J. 
Richard, T.,E. Stringer, J. Toomey. 

Battle of Spottsylvania, May 12th, 1864. 

Lieut. Col. Henry D. Monier, Commanding. 

Field and staff— Wounded : Major T. N. Powell, Ensign T. G. Boykin. 
Missing : Adjt. H. Puissan, Surgeon H. Shiff. 

Company A, Capt. I. L. Lyons, commanding Wounded : Capt. Lyons, 
Private J. Lafferty. Missing : Lieut. D. Mahoney, Sergeants W. McMillan, 
J. Dellahanty, Privates G. W. Loomer, J. Skail, H. Scott, T. Doyle, D. 
Dailey, W. McGuire, J. Conway, W. Hackett. 

Company B, Lieut H. Eustis, commanding Missing : Serg't D. Tierney, 
Privates J. Moran, P. Doyle, P. Ryan. 

Company C, J. Scott, commanding Killed : Private J. Henry. Missing : 
Privates P. Monaghan, P. Carroll, J. Gannon. 

Company D, Capt. E. Webre, commanding Wounded: Capt. E. Webre. 
Missing : Privates C. Narshtedt, J. Saunders. 

Company E, Capt. S. Faulkner, commanding Killed : Private J. Cronan. 
3 



18 Uutlltti in, Virginia. 



Missing : Lieut. C. Chisholm, Corporal G. Perkins, Privates J. E. Bell, J. 
Moore, C. Riley. 

Company F, Capt. A. F. Pagnier, commanding Wounded : Capt. Pag- 
nier. Missing: Serg't J. Newcomb, Privates A. Springer, F. Smith. 

Company G, Lieut. T. L. Mills, commanding Wounded : Lieut. T. L. 
Mills, Private E. Foster. Missing : Serg't H. Dantin, Corp'l J. Kenner, 
Private A. Bejean. 

Company H, Capt. L. Jastremski, commanding Missing : Capt. Jastrem- 
ski, Sergts. E. Roubleau, W. Cunningham, A. McCasland, Corpl. Z. Borne, 
Privates A. Brignac, R. Linder. 

Company I, Capt. P Leclaire, commanding Killed: Capt. Leclaire. 
Private J. G. Metilieno. Missing: Sergts. A. Purkel, C. Mahoney, Corp'l 
P. Miller, Privates L. Bonetti, P. Maureau, F. Manchini. 

Company K, Capt. A. Perrodin, commanding Missing : Capt. Perrodin, 
Lieuts. E. A. Seaton, J. Ryan, Serg't J. Courville, Corp'l Louis Nugent, 
Privates B. Ellender, J. D. Granger, J. Kennedy, W F. Moss, M. Marcantel. 

Flank Movement, May 19th, 1864. 
Company C — Missing : Private J. O'Mally. 
Company D — Killed: Private G.Tate. Missing: Private J. Sanders. 

Flank Movement, June 3d, 1864. 

Company C — Wounded : Corpl. C. Hammerick. Missing : Private M. 
Gorman. 

Company F — Wounded : Private J. Labranck. 

Company K — Wounded : Private J. Strange. 

Battle of Monoccaeij, Md., July 9th, 1864. 
Company A — Wounded : Lieut. P. Barron. 
Company C — Wounded : Corpl. C. Hammerick. 
Company F — Wounded : Private Geo. Malone. 

Combat near Cedar Creek, August 12th, 1864. 
Company F Wounded : Privates M. Cusack, F. Bartel. 

Combat near Leetown, August 2oth, 1864. 
Company B — Killed : Private R. Doyle. 
Company D — Killed : Private D. Rogers. 
Company E Wounded : Sergeant J. M. Bass. 

Battle of Winchester, September 19th, 1864. 

Field and staff Wounded : Col. Eug. Waggaman, Ensign T. G. Boyken. 
Killed : Lieut, and Acting Adj. H. Eustis. 

Company A— Missing : Sergt. J. Ford, Private P. McLaughlin. 

Company B— Killed : Private Hugh Hall. 

Company C — Wounded : Sergt. P. Moran. 

Company D — Killed : Private A Moffatt. 

Company E — Missing : Private T. McCoy. 

Company F — Missing : Sergeant F. Jorger. 

Company G Wounded: Lieut. P. Guzman. 

Company H — Missing: Sergt. J. P Usher. 



Eelati.ig to Louisiana. 23 



Louis H. Kendall ; elected 2d Lieutenant Jnne, 1862 ; wounded at Gettys- 
burg. 

S. Herrero ; elected 2d Lieutenant, jr., June, 1862 ; wounded in three places 
at Sharpsburg. . 

(Co. H Orleans Blues). 

Wm. H. Barnett, Captain ; resigned January, 1863. 

Charles Eoussel, 1st Lieutenant ; resigned September, 1862. 

Emile A. Bozonier, 2d Lieutenant ; resigned November, 1861. 

Kichard Clague, 2d Lieutenant, jr. ; resigned January, 1862. 

Victor Lobit; elected 2d Lieutenant, jr., November. 1861 ; resigned Decem- 
ber, 1861. 

Adam Alexander ; elected 2d Lieutenant in January, 1862 ; appointed 1st 
Lieutenant in September, 1862 ; and killed in the battle of Sharpsbnrg 
on September 17th, 1862. 

Leon Jastremski; appointed Captain in November, 1862; wounded at 
Chancellorsvillc. 

Co. I (Orleans Skirmishers). 
Eugene Waggaman, Captain ; elected Lieutenant Colonel in January, 1862 ; 

badly wounded at "Winchester September 19th, 1864. 
Alphonse Canonge, 1st Lieutenant ; resigned in March, 1862. 

Henry D. Monier, 2d Lieutenant; elected Captain in January, 1862, and 
appointed Major in December, 1862 ; wounded at Chancellorsville. 

Paul Forstall, 2d Lieutenant, jr. ; resigned in May, 1862. 

Alphonse Jonte' ; elected 2d Lieutenant in January, 1862, and appointed 
Captain in December, 1862 ; killed at the battle of Chancellorsville 
May 5th, 1863. 

Henry Puissan ; elected 1st Lieutenant in May, 1862, and appointed Adju- 
tant in June, 1862, with rank of Captain ; wounded at 2d Manassas. 

Peter Leclaire ; appointed 2d Lieutenant in August, 1S62 ; 1st Lieutenant 
in December, 1862 ; Captain in May, 1863, and killed at the battle of 
Spottsylvania May 12th, 1864. 

George Sauve" ; elected 2d Lieutenant in August, 1863 ; badly wounded in 
the battle of the Wilderness. 

Co. K (Confederate States Rangers). 

Wm. H. Spencer, Captain; elected Major January, 1862; appointed Lieu- 
tenant Colonel August, 1862. 

Michel Prudhhomme, 1st Lieutenant ; died on the Peninsular in November, 
1861. 

E. A. Seaton, 2d Lieutenant ; elected 1st Lieutenant in January, 1862; died 
in Fort Delaware in 1864. 

Louis Prudhome, 2d Lieutenant, jr. ; resigned November 1861 . 

Auguste Perrodin, elected Captain in January, 1862. 

Octave Prudhomme, elected 2d Lieutenant in January, 1862. 

Isaac Eyan, elected 2d Lieutenant, jr., in January, 1862 ; killed at siege 
Petersburg. 



24 Biographical and Historical Papers 



THE LOUISIANA BRIGADES IN VIRGINIA AND 
THEIR LAST COMMANDER. 



Journal of the Tenth Louisiana.* 



In the hall of an elegant residence on St. Charles street 
hangs a massive basket-hilted sword, richly mounted in silver 
and bearing evident signs of considerable antiquity. Many 
dents hint that it has seen rude service, has been often used 
for the straight thrust or down cut, or perhaps in private quar- 
rels in tierce and parry. The soldier who brought it here was a 
Spanish Commandante. Possibly the blade has received the 
ice-brook temper of Toledo and been used in the Moorish wars 
when Christian fought against Paynim, or perhaps in some of 
the Indian fights mentioned in the early annals of this State. 
Whatever its previous history its next possessor, after the 
death of the Commandante, was a distinguished senator, who 
terminated in a duel a brilliant political career. Its present 
owner carried it in Lee's and Jackson's battles, cutting his way 
with it in the desperate bayonet charge at Malvern Hill, into the 
enemy's line, but having to lose it at last, and only recovering 
it by a sort of romance accident. It was last used at Lee's sur- 
render, when the then commander of the Louisiana Brigades or- 
dered his men to ground arms. But it finally came back to its 
old resting place, and there it hangs now a little rusty and half 
forgotten by the lucky owner, who survived to bring it home, 
or only referred to when, with slippered feet and surrounded by 
friends he tells of former encounters, or of some imminent peril 
in the deadly breach. It is pleasant to record that its present 
possessor, too modest to allow of men tion of his name, is one of 
the happy Sinbads who survive their shipwrecks, and who 
live to enjoy gaily the honors and emoluments which better 

'In the facta given in this paper Major E. D. Willett, and Captains Manning, I. L. 
Lyons, Puissant, A. S. Bythe and other officers of the Louisiana Brigade have been 
consulted. The narrative is especially indebted to Capt. Henry Monier, who on many 
occasions waein command of the 10th regiment, for a clear and carefully prepared journal 
of the war. Nearly the whole of this has been quoted with scarcely any change. The 
company rolls, casulties, etc., are contributions from the samohand, 



Relating to Louisiana. 



days bring with them in the pleasant company of their families 
and friends. 

Sinbad, if the truth was known, probably went, like 
Capt. Cook, on one voyage too many, which he had no oppor- 
tunity afterward of relating; just as has happened to Dr. 
Livingston and the balloon men of recent date; and just as 
happened to many a famous old campaigner and soldier, who 
pushed their fortunes too far. Destiny affixes the word " Dan- 
ger" to some men's career; peril follows them aud hangs the 
Damocles sword over their heads, and the best fortune they 
can hope for is the sudden dramatic death which Caesar asked, 
and which, as if his prayer had been answered, he with the 
last hundred of the Caesarian name and blood ultimately en- 
countered. 

Still a few of the danger seekers are permitted not only to 
hunt for the bubble reputation at the cannon's mouth, but to 
bear the prize away; to return home and " hang the old sword 
in its place ; " and crowned with bays and substantial honors, 
to forget the hailstorm of bullets and the whirlwind of battle. 

There were forty officers allowed to a regiment at one time, 
and of these 31 of the 10th were killed or wounded. The 
regiment lost 12 color bearers by death on the battle field, 6 
alone at Chancellorsville, and 20 wounded. The following 
officers are known to have fought all through and survived the 
war : Waggamau^* Lyons, Mahoney, Janin, Buckner, Knowl- 

*Waggaman is the great- grand son of Baron de Bruner, a Commandanteof the Province 
of Louisiana in the days of Spanish and French domination, and is the son of Senator 
Waggaman, who for six jears represented this State in the United States Senate. In 
1843 one of the much talked of events of the day was the death of the Senator in a duel 
growing out of the bitterness at the time of political strife. The spot where he with so 
many others fell a victim to honor is still pointed out at the Oaks 

After graduating at St. Mary's College, in Baltimore, the war found him assisting his 
mother in the management of the large estate left by his father. But fate had not destin- 
ed him for this quiet life. The storm which was then lowering over the country, at once 
suggested to a man of his active and stirring disposition, the career and field in which his 
talents would find their fullest exercise. With the first note of alarm he set to work to 
organize a company in Jefferson Parish, among the sons of neigboring planters. As 
horses were there easily to be obtained aud every one accustomed to travel mounted, the 
organization alrupst necessarily took the shape of cavalry. But horses at the commence- 
ment of the war were not what horses became afterwards, and the exigencies of the in- 
cipient Confederate government did not admit of the necessary transportation to the 
scene of service. The company after having learned the cavalry drill and secured their 
cavalry outfit, were unwilling to attach themselves to any other arm of service, in spite 
of a strong effort upon Waggaman's part (and with probably some after regrets of their 
own) to induce them at once to enlist as infantry. Finding himself now alone he joined 
Col. Mandeville Marigny in organizing his regiment, together with Captains Alfred 
Philips. I. L. Lyons, Cohen, and others. 

As for Capt. Phillips he was a favorite of fortune. He was well educated, handsome 
aud single ; elected a professor in the University of Louisiana, and taken as a partner 



26 Biographical and Historical Papers 



ton, Eustis, Brocken, Scott, Garcia, Webre, May, Faulkner, 
Ohisholm, Gusman, Kindall, Herero, Jastremski, Monier, 
Puissant, Saucier, Perrodin, Prudhomme ; nearly all of these 
received one or more wounds. Without having authentic 
data at hand for the other regiments, it is believed that their 
casualties were equally great. 

This statement is made now because the time has arrived 
when, from policy, a dispostion is shown to speak of those who 
served in the late war as the refuse of society, and the officers 
as " commanders of 60 roustabouts who served through the 
war without receiving a scratch." 

The 10th regin.ent, in the month of July, proceeded to 
the " Peninsula" and remained on Warwick River near Lee's 
Mill during the dreary year which followed the commencement 
of the war, and which period of weariness and despondency and 
absolute loathing of life the old soldier remembers with more 
horror and disgust than the misery he ever after experienced 
from hard marching, cold, hunger and all his other ills put 
together.* The time, too, devoted to acquiring the first lessons 

of Christian Roselius, the most prosperous member of the New Orleans Bar. But ,.\l of 
these advantages and a fortune of $200,000 besides, did not keep him from dying a young 
man in the summer of 1875. 

January 26. — Secession of Louisiana, and Montgomery Convention, shortly after. Each 
State called on for a quota of troops. 

Mandeville Marigny was commissioned among others to raise a regiment of infantry. 
Col. Marigny was a gentleman of tall commanding figure, and probably at that time one 
of the best specimens of the French Creole (before broken with age), in physique, general 
appearance, manners, accomplishments, that the State has produced. His father who 
resigned a title to become an American, was old Bernard Marigny, who once owned, besides 
other possessions, one-half of the land upon which New Orleans is built, and who spent a 
$500,000 plantation in hospitality to Louis Phillippe and his suite, when the latter was 
traveling as an exile in this country. The King of the French showed his gratitude after 
his accession, to the extent of having Bernard's son entered as a pupil in a French Military 
School, and the talents of Mandeville secured him subsequently advancement and position 
in the French army. He afterwards returned to Louisiana, and was received with great 
honor by the people of his native city, who besides other testimonials of their esteem 
elected him to several profitable offices. His popularity soon enabled him, after receiving 
his commission, to obtain as many companies as was necessary to make up his regiment. 
From those that offered at Camp Moore the companies as given on page 250 were selected. 

"July 29tu— Regiment departed for Virginia by the Jackson Railroad. 

August 3 — Arrived in Richmond after a fatiguing journey ; received with great 
honor by the citizens and Confederate authorities. Camped at the Fair Grounds. The 
testimonials of lavor hare shown by ladies and citizens were remembered by the old soldiers 
as among the pleasantest souveuirs of the war. 

August 18th— Ordered to the Peninsula. 

August 23d— Marched— the first one made— under heavy rain from' Williamsburg to 
Eutopia Bluff, on the James Roads made slippery by the rains, and marching very se- 
vere on raw troops Temporary Camp for a portion of the regiment. The right wing 
sent, under Lieut. Col. Dennis, six miles below the Bluff. 

Sept- 13th— Left wing proceeds to Lee's Mills and go into camp. Joined a few days after 
by the right. Men set to work at constructing fortifications and building corduroy roads. 
Spades and pickaxes so disgustingly plentiful that the mere sight of them was enough to 
send men to the hospital. The fortifications finished, winter quarters were built, and 
pronounced by Magruder to be the best in his army. Meanwhile steady drills, parades, 
guard duty and frequent expeditions to innumerable points, with a view to deceiving the 
enemy. 



Relating to Lotiisiana. 



in military discipline, the establishment of attachments and 
friendships, and in understanding individual eccentricities in a 
military organization formed a very trying period, and until 
the details in the life of a soldier had become a pleasant habit, 
instead of an irksome task, there was no comfort or happiness 
for either officers or men. They each had to learn to work and 
pull together. Fortunate indeed were those officers, who suc- 
ceeded in maintaining discipline and good understanding, at 
an early clay, in their companies, and who, instead of making 
the hearts of men sore by galling and needless tasks, could 
while away the long hours not occupied in duty in their tents, 
with such stray volumes as chance would send in their way. 

From this monotonous and half solitary life Oapt. WAGGA- 
man was one day aroused by an incident as pleasing as it 
was unexpected. He was now informed that the vacancy in 
the office of Lieut. Colonel* had been supplied with his name. 
He was the best officer for the situation and the men knew 
and recognized the fact. 

About the same time McOlellan arrived in the Peninsula, 
and the first shot fired was directed upon the redoubt in which 
the 10th Regiment had been stationed.t The position of 



"Lieut. Michael Pruilhome dies and his body sent to St. Martin's Parish. 

Jan 15th— Reorgainzation, Waggaman elected Lieut. Colonel; W. H. Spencer, Major. 

March 31, le'62 — Picket duty at Young's Mill. McClellan advances with 120,001) men. 
A wounded scout reports the enemy two miles distant. Position taken on the high 
grounds around Warwick Court House. The gleam of the enemy's bayonets now first 
seen glistening in the forest, and the command given to load. It is answered with a yell. 
The men very much disgusted at being ordered from headquarters to fall back. 

April 5th— Drews Battalion tire a shot. Furious cannonade from (he Pederals which is 
responded to— loss in the regiment 20. The next day some firing and both armies for 
some days after remain in the same position. 

The 10th and Drew's Battalion under Gen. McLain. 

April 16th — The enemy capture a dam which they break and attempt a crossing. 
Cheeked in their first assault. On attempting a second the 10th came to the front at a 
double quick. Cheers and yells of the latter are followed by a wavering and a falling 
back of the Federals across the dam after a loss of 500 on their part. 

May 3d — Retreat to Richmond commenced. The 10th Regiment take an active hand in 
the battle at William sport. Sent to guard a road south of Petersburg. 

May 6th— Move all night and at noon ; following day, bivouac at New Kent Court House 
near the Chickahominy. After some marching and countermarching camp until May 13, 
at which time Col. Marigny, who is disgusted at the favoritism shown at Richmond, to his 
prejudice, is sent to organize the cavalry of Mississippi and Louisiana. Col. Waggaman 
takes command of the 10th. 

June 2 — A. P. Hill sounds the preluding note to the Seven Days Fight. 

June 9th- Battle of Malvern Hill. Ordered iorward in the final desperate charge. 
Waggaman in command. 

tApril 6th — While company F (Orleans Rebels) was out on picket Lieut. Alfred Scanlan 
of said company at a late hour proceeded to make the rounds on the skirmish line. He 
mistook his way, got beyond the line into the woods, and was finally hailed and challenged 
by a sentry. Discipline was then very rigid — the men raw in military experience, and bis 
response when he answered back was not heard by the sentinel. The sentinel (poor Hays 



Biographical and Historical Papers 



Magruder's forces was critical now. Upon a slender line of 
11,000 extending from Warwick Eiver to the York, the whole 
of McOlellan's army were moving. This was the period 
when the shallow rivulet known as Warwick Eiver, not ordi- 
narily more than 18 inches deep, was dammed up in such a 
way as to make it a line of defence, and to render it so deep 
that men were not uuf'requently drowned in its accumulated 
waters. This also was the time when stove pipes were trans- 
formed into Quaker guns, and every artifice used to deceive 
the enemy- Finally the army of Johnson arrived only to return 
again to Eichmond, and shortly after the joy-awakening intelli- 
gence was received that the Louisiana troops were to be put 
in motion. Then commenced the first of those marches which 
carried the Pelican standards through the fights around Eich- 
inond, through the valleys, over the mountains, and across the 
rivers of Virginia, and into so many dangers that the old sol- 
diers not unfrequently have forgotten their details, and can only 
remember in a general way that some fifteen or twenty fights 
or skirmishes occurred during a given month or around a par- 
ticular locality. 

We need not dwell in detail therefore on their services on 
the Chickahominy, in whose dense swamps the men were for 
weeks encamped. But in the storming of Malvern Hill 
the 10th Louisiana, that day commanded by Col. Wagga- 
man, were undoubtedly the heroes. These men were the last 
that were ordered up to the frowning guns of McOlellan's 
almost unassailable position, and the only ones that succeeded 
in penetrating the enemy's lines. 

A daring attempt in the first place had been made to 
flank Malvern Hill ; but this movement had been met by 
a superior flanking party of the enemy. The brigade now 
pressed forward across the open field fronting Malvern Hill, 

of Co. F) did as he had been instructed to do, firei-, and hearing a groan, ran forward. 
Beaching the spot and bending over to see his victim he recognized in the dying man the 
face of a gallant officer, who had won the esteem of his men by his soldierly bearing and 
amiable manners. The sentinel was s' ill standing silent and motionless when the sergeant, 
alarmed by the shot brought outthe picket line. Litters, tender care, and the surgeon's art 
proved of no avail. He sank rapidly and his body still lies where his comrades put it m 
the little church grave yard near Lee's Mills. Scanlin before the war was foreman of the 
Picayune office. 



Relating to Louisiana. 29 



with the ardor of young soldiers pantiug for their first lau- 
rels, aud ignorant of the madness which had doomed so many 
of their number to cruel wounds, or certain death. As they 
advance the troops on the flank give way, though all of 
Semmes' brigade continue on gallantly, in spite of the waning 
light. When within five hundred yards of the Federals, the bri- 
gade reformed, aud the desparate cry rung out : "Fix bayonets, 
— Charge "—-commands almost equivalent to a death sentence. 
But with the natural ardor of the troops from the Pelican State 
the men labored up the crest of the plateau immediately in 
front of 33 pieces of Artillery. Up the hill they go at a double 
quick, Col. Waggahan jumping imprudently far in advance of 
the regiment, but the men tearing on after him. On the last 
fifty yards of the charge comes the strain. It lasts but five 
minutes. Iu that time 127 men are lost out of 272. So 
withering was the storm of shell and bullets with which they 
were received, that at one time they walked over a whole regi- 
ment who were lying down, colors aud all, and who appeared 
iu the dusky twilight to be so many corpses. Onward still 
the little band pursued its way, although unsupported by 
the other troops, until it crossed bayonets with the Federal 
infantry. It thus happened (one of the rarest occurences of 
the war) that the whole of the 10th Louisiana engaged iu a 
bayonet struggle along almost their entire line, with a force 
fifteen times greater than their own number. The advanced 
Hue of the Federals having been driven back the 10th finds it- 
.self among their canoneers. While Dean, a ferave Irishman, 
was receiving his death wound at the side of the leader of the 
10th by a bayonet through the neck, the latter succeeded in 
knocking up the muskets in his immediate front and in cutting 
a path as far as the second line of the enemy's artillery.* His 
death seemed inevitable. Cries of " Kill him," " Bayonet him," 
sounded on every side. His command, which it may be said, 



'Major Chase, who constructed the principal Fort at Pensacola. stated in a report made 
to Washington, that the charge of the Louisianians at Malvern Hill was more desperate 
though less known than that of the allied troops at Balaclava. The chances of surviving 
the fight were so few that during the night, after the enemy had withdrawn, some of 
Waggaman's friends went to look for his body. 



30 Biographical and Historical Papers 



in passing had been ordered forward by a military error, and 
never for a moment had a ghost of a chance of success, were of 
course nearly all either killed or captured by the formidable in- 
fantry line in their immediate front. Those of the 10th who suc- 
ceeded in stumbling back over the bodies of their fallen com- 
rades, owed their escape to the darkness. The Colonel of the 
10th was captured (along with Oapt. Isaac Lyons). That night 
tired and worn out they supped off of the bleeding beef allow- 
ed the prisoners, and slept on the piles of shucks which their 
captors awarded them — perhaps as a compliment to their 
gallantry — and were shortly after sent off with the transports 
to the North. They remained prisoners for a considerable 
time at Fort Warren, near Boston, and having met sympathiz- 
ing friends in Baltimore did not fare badly. 

As to what occurred among the Louisiana troops during the 
subsequent months, the following memoranda, taken from the 
accurate and interesting manuscript of Capt. Monier, will show: 

July 7th — The troops placed in the breast-works about Richmond. 

July 29th — The Louisiana troops organized into brigades and put under 
A. P. Hill. The 10th sent to Rocketts and put under command Gen. W. C. 
Starke — a thirty years resident of the Crescent City — along with the 1st, 
2nd, 9th and 15th, together with Coppen's Zouaves and the Chasseurs a 
Pied. Gen. Starke had been a large cotton dealer in New Orleans, knew 
the habits and character of his troops and was well suited to his position. 

July 31st— Brigade under command of Col. Stafford start by the cars to 
reinforce Jackson. Bivouac at Gordonsville to right of the railroad . 

August 2d — Camp 4£ miles from town near a saw mill. 

August 6th — Move forward, and at break of day, on the 9th, through 
Orange Court Honse, and then cross the Eapidan. After picketing and 
counter marching, halt near Cedar Run, at the foot of Slaughter Mountain. 
At 6|, P. M., after harassing and rapid marching, the brigade is led to with 
in a mile of Jackson's battlefield. The brigade stacks arms to rest in a wood ; 
ten minutes after, started forward on the double quick, until they came to a 
stubble field where wheat was in the shock ; formed and advanced through 
a bloody cornfield where a battle had just been fought; then through a 
wood and then into another field. Here they were exposed to a galling fire, 
until darkness ended the combat and permitted them to rest where they 
had fought. 

The day after Companies C and F picketed under Capts. T. Q. Powell and 
A. F. Payonier, and held their ground against a Federal advance with a 
loss of 4 killed and 3 wounded. 

August 11th — After lighting camp fires the brigade falls back to the 
Rapidan. Cross at sunrise, near Liberty Mill. Bivouac at Orange Court 
House (12th). Pitch camp at Gordonsville. Brigade here attached to 
Jackson's old Stonewall division, under command of Gen. Talliaferro. 

August 20th — Break camp. 

August 26th — Picket at Manassas Junction — right under Maj. Spencer, 
left under Capt. John M. Leggett. Commissary stores exceedingly plenti- 
fnl here and could be obtained by the car load. Any one who wanted 



Belating to Lovisiana, 31 



clothing and something to eat had only to break open a box, case or barrel 
and help himself, taking care to destroy what he could not carry off. Often 
in after days when the men were hungry and badly shod, the recollection 
of the immense stores here destroyed recurred to their mind. 

August 28th — Sharp engagement, until sunset, along the Warrentown 
Turnpike, at which time it became severe until 9 ; Talliaferro and many 
field officers wounded. Starke placed in command of the division, Stafford 
of the brigade. 

August 29th — The woods to the front blue with Federals. Capt. Perro- 
don's company (K) picketed and hold their ground until the commands 
' fall in," " fix bayonets," are given. The men answered it with a yell, 
and started off on a double quick on their own impulse. They carried 
everything before them, even the sacond line of the Federal reserve. Lieut. 
Thos. Mills, of Co. G, captured a piece ; great numbers of killed strewed the 
field and 500 prisoners were captured. The 10th was relieved at sundown 
by the brave Col. Forno with the 1st, and allowed to go back and rest a 
little before the approaching decisive battle. As the Louisianians marched 
back they were complimented by Old Stonewall and greeted along the line 
by prolonged cheers. 

August 30th — A hard day's work from sunrise (at which time the men 
fell in and commenced double quicking) until late at night. Jackson, 
whose situation was now extremely critical, ordered them to hold the 
railroad embankment at all hazards, and they held it with the loss of 
many of their men, including Col. Spencer. He is succeeded, during 1862, in 
command of the regiment, by an excellent officer, Capt. H. D. Monier. So 
desperate was this day's fight that at one time the Confederate and Yankee 
standards were not 20 feet apart. Then ammunition became scarce and the 
brigade fired with the care of old hunters. Finally, as the enemy were 
once more advancing, the ammunition gave out. It was here that the Louis- 
ianians laid down their muskets and drove back the Federals with rocks. 
At this moment Barksdale's troops came up and hastened their flight. 

The Brigade now marched a little distance towards the ammunition wag- 
ons, when Jackson rode up. His simple words of " Louisianians I need 
you once more " made the men forget all of their weariness, and back they 
went over the railroad and into the woods. Here they obtained ammunition 
by removing from the killed and wounded of the enemy, who had previous- 
ly held this ground, their ammunition pouches. As the men pressed onward 
and formed themselves for a charge a tremendous yell and a deafening 
rattle of artillery greeted their ears. The North Carolina troops whom the 
2nd brigade had come to support, had just captured a splendid battery. 
This ended the fight for them, and the men slept where they were. Killed : 
Lieut. Col. Spencer, Capt. Cohen and Lieut. Janin. Wounded : were Capts. 
Cucullu and Terrill, Adjt. Tiersan and Lieut. Peter Leclaire. 

Sept. 1 — Heavy fighting for the brigade about Germantown. 

Sept. 2— Battle of Oxhill— Picket the Fairfax Eoad. 

Sept. 5 — Cross the Potomac at White's Ford. Sept. 6th — Camp 3 miles 
beyond Frederick. 

While pasing through this city, the first the Confederates had seen for 
many months well stored with every sort of supplies, some of the roughs 
gave way to brutal excesses, which led to charge being made to Gen. Jackson 
of maltreatment of ladies by a gang of miscreants. Gen. Jackson there- 
upon ordered the 2d Louisiana Brigade io be marched to town for identifi- 
cation, for an obvious reason, as the guilty parties had been described as 
foreigners. Gen. Stark, who was sensitive to the reputation of his brigade, 
refused to obey, as casting a stigma on his command, unless the order was 
made general for the other troops at the time in town. Stark was there-, 
upon placed under arrest. Investigation meanwhile shewed that the 
malefactors came from Jackson's old Stonewall brigade. The guilty parties 
however, owing to the lapse of time or opportunity, were never punished. 
As for Starke, he enforced orders so rigidly that some of his_officers were 
put under arrest for neglecting to keep their men in ranks. 



Biographical and Historical Papers 



Sept. 10th — Brigade marched to Harper's Ferry. 

Sept. 15th— The white flag waves from Bollivar's Heights ; 11,000 men 
and great quantiy of arms and stores surrendered. 

Sept. 16th — Cross at Shepherdstown and take place in line of battle at 
Sharpsburg on the extreme left. Heavy shelling from sundown till late at 
night. 

Sept. 17th — Terrible cannonade at dawn, and musketry fire ; the line 
thrown in great confusion by an overwhelming Federal advance. Gen. 
Starke takes Gen. Jones' place, who has been carried from the field, and 
while endeavoring to restore the line of battle is shot from his horse. 
Stafford takes his place and orders the brigade to charge and avenge his 
loss. Drives the Federals into a cornfield 500 yards beyond the Hagers- 
town Road. Here the men are assailed by a desperate fire, rear and flank, 
and are driven foot by foot; reinforced on the edge of a wood they again 
shove forward and drive the Federals, until they are in turn reinforced. 
The brigade now marched by the left flauk to right of Stuart, and face the 
enemy who are there massed. The brigade holds its ground with desperate 
tenacity. At 10£ they are being forced back and send to Early for assist- 
ance. They are now reinforced and drive back the enemy in a charge. The 
report of Capt. Henry D. Monier, then in command of the 10th regiment, 
shows a casualty of 71 men and 4 officers out of 207 muskets and 11 officers. 

Iu the Hollywood Cemetery the body of Geu. W E. Starke 
now rests. He was killed in Sharpsburg while endeavoring to 
stay the flight of a brigade of troops from his native State, 
(Va.) This brigade had been exposed to a terrible fire and had 
become demoralized. Thereupon Gen. Starke, abandoning for 
the time the command of the Louisiana brigades, who were 
ordered up to support the former, seized the colors of the Old 
Dominion and ordered a charge along his whole line. These 
colors were waving over him when he met death like a true 
son of the Old Dominion and of his adopted State. In the 
same railing sleeps the body of his son, the gallant Adjt. of 
the 59th Va. 

During the desperate fighting which has been briefly shown 
in the journal of Major Monier, Col. Seymour who had been 
in command of the First Louisiana Brigade, had been killed 
and Gen. Mcholls dangerously wounded. A word of biog- 
raphy about two gallant officers whose names are respected 
as much as any that Louisiana contributed to the war, will 
not be seen without interest by the reader.* 

Col. Isaac G. Seymour was unanimously elected commander 
of the 6th La. He was with his regiment in the battle of 
Manassas, was assigned charge of the rear guard at Johnson's 



For the gallant services of Gen. Hays and other o/licers not now mentioned, the reader 
is referred to foregoing chapters of this work. 



Relating to Louisiana. 



retreat to Eichmond, and was with Jackson in bis most bril- 
liant campaign. He fought tbe First Louisiana Brigade for 
two days at Richmond; at Gaines' Mills he was struck by 
two minie balls and instantly killed. 

Col. Seymour occupied a position in New Orleans for integri- 
ty and ability which few citizens have equaled. After fight- 
ing in the Indian and Mexican wars, and after having been 
for six years elected Mayor of Macon, Georgia, Col. Seymour 
became editor of the New Orleans Bulletin, and remained its 
proprietor until the time of his death. It was conducted after 
his election to the command of the 6th, by his son Major Win. 
J. Seymour (until suppressed by Butler), assisted by our oldest 
and most reliable commercial writer Mr. J. C. Deunies. A 
curious circumstance attending Col. Seymour's death, was that 
the acting editors were sent for many months to prison at Fort 
Jackson for writing and publishing an obituary notice in 
which Col. Seymour was said to have soldiered and died from 
a sense of duty. His son Major Wm, J. Seymour became 
afterwards Chief of Staff of the 1st Louisiana Brigade. 

Apropos of journalism, it may be said here that scarcely 
any one was connected with newspapers during and previous 
to the war, but what did more or less military service, and 
many of them did not discover that the pen was mightier than 
the sword until the struggle ended. In the latter class was 
Colonels Jos. Hanlon, J. O. Nixon, Majors Israel Gibbons, 
Dan. Scully, Judge Burwell, Jack Wagner, Baker, Quintero, 
and many others whose names are not now recalled. 

Gen. Francis P. Nicholls, who lost two of his limbs while 
leading on the Louisiana, troops in Virginia, was born in 
Donaldsonville, Parish of Ascension, on the 20th of August, 
1834, and was the son of Thomas C. Nicholls, one of the judges 
of the Court of Errors and Appeals in this State. He died 
in 1846, and in 1852 was followed by the General's mother. 
This lady was Louisa H. Drake, the sister of Joseph Rodman 
Drake and the author of the " Culprit Fay," one of the most 
exquisite poems ever composed by American genius. 

The future General had five brothers and two sisters. The 



31 Biographical and Historical Papers 



elder two of the brothers gained great distinction in the 
Mexican war, in Blanchard's company of Louisiana Vol- 
unteers, and were favorably mentioned in the military reports 
of the day. The appreciation of the citizens of Ascension, was 
shown by the presentation to each of the brothers of a sword 
upon their return 

Gen. Mcholls entered West Point as a cadet in 1851, and in 
1855 when he graduated, he was assigned to duty as Brevet 
2d Lieutenant in the 2d U. S. Artillery, stationed in the Ever- 
glades of Florida. He was thence transferred to the 3d U. S. 
Artillery as 2d Lieutenant and remained in it — stationed at 
Fort Yuma on the Colorado River — until October 1856; he 
then resigned and returned to Louisiana. 

Having received his license at the bar he commenced prac- 
tising law in Ascension. After a few months he removed to 
Assumption and formed a partnership with Alphonse Gentile, 
under the name of Gentile & Mcholls. This firm was dis- 
solved the next year. He then formed a partnership with his 
brother Laurence D. Mcholls, under the name of L. D. & F. 
T. Mcholls. The General in 1860 married Miss Catharine 
Guion, of Lafourche, and is now the happy father of. six 
children. 

At the breaking out of the war, his brother in Ascension, 
and the General in Assumption, organized together a company 
from the two parishes, which went to Camp Moore under the 
name of the Phoenix Company. It afterwards became com- 
pany "K" of the 8th Louisiana Regiment, with Francis as 
Captain, L. D. Mcholls 1st Lieutenant, Victor Saint Martin, 
2d Lieutenant and Benjamin F. Birdsall as Junior 2d Lieuten- 
ant. When the company was thrown into the 8th Regiment, 
the General was elected Lieutenant Colonel of the Regiment. 
His brother became Captain of Company " K," and the other 
officers rose each one step, Martin being elected as Junior 2d 
Lieutenant. Captain L. D. Mcholls was afterwards killed in 
the battle of Gaines' mills in the " Seven Days Fight " before 
Richmond, Victor Saint Martin became Captain, and was killed 



Relating to Louisiana. 



at Gettysburg ; Lieut. Birdsall was killed at the battle of 2d 
Manassas. 

Lieutenant Whit. Martin resigned, returned to Louisiana 
and organized a .company which was thrown into the 26th 
Louisiana Regiment. He became the Major of the 20th, and 
was killed at the siege of Vicksburg. These deaths and 
changes caused vacancies which were filled by Williams Sims, 
Frederick Duffel and Dodridge Smith. 

Captain Sims was for a very long while at Johnson's Island 
a prsisoner. They were all good officers. The 8th Regiment 
was at Mitchell's Ford in reserve at 1st Manassas, and under 
fire, but not actively engaged. It went into the Valley of Vir- 
ginia in the Spring of 1362 under Gen. Jackson's command. 

At the first serious fight in the Valley (that of Winchester) 
the 8th was on the extreme lefl of our line. In attacking the 
enemy's position and charging, the General was shot in the left 
arm and his elbow shattered. The arm only was amputated. 
The wound however was so serious that the following week 
he came very near dying. 

On the day of the amputation, our army fell back, and he 
was left in the hands of the enemy. Nicholls was then ex- 
changed at the end of September, 1862, and was immediately 
promoted Colonel of the 15th Louisiana, a new regiment made 
from a battalion and two detached companies. 

A few days afterwards however, he was appointed Bigadier 
General and assigned to the 2d Louisiana Brigade, then at 
Skin Run's ^eck near Fredericksburg. The Brigade was com- 
posed of the 1st, 2d, 10th, 14th and 15th Louisiana Regiments. 
It was part of the force which, under Gen. Jackson, turned the 
enemy's flank near Chaucellorsville. During the night of 
Saturday and just after Gen. Jackson was wounded, the enemy 
opened a very heavy artillery fire down the Plank Road on 
which his Brigade was. A shell passed through and killed 
his horse, and in passing out took off his left leg entirely, just 
at the ankle. 

On recovering from his wound, which when healed incapaci- 
tated him for active service in front, he was assigned to the 



3(5 Biographical and Historical Papers 



command of tbe Lynchburg District, and there remained until 
August, 1864. lie was now ordered to the Tras-Mississippi as 
Superintendent of the Conscript Bureau of that Department, 
with headquarters at Marshall, Texas. He was acting as 
such at the end of the war. 

On his return home, he resumed the practice of his profesion 
and is still engaged in it. 

The officers of the 8th Regiment, were : Henry B. Kelly, 
Colonel ; Francis T. Nicholls, Lt. Colonel ; John B. Prados, 
Major; T. D. Lewis, Adjutant. 

The officers in the reorganization of the Regiment in 1862, 
were: Henry B. Kelly, Colonel; F. T. Mcholls, Lt. Colonel; 
T. D. Lewis, Major. 

Col. Kelly is now practising law in New Orleans. 

Major Lewis afterwards became Colonel of the 8th, and was 
killed at Gettysburg. Alcibiade DeBlanc, of St. Martin, was 
Colonel at the close of the war. 

Capt. William Sims is now at Donaldsonville. Lieutenant 
Frederick Duffel at the same place. 

Capt. William P Harper of the 7th Louisiana Regiment, 
afterwards Sheriff of New Orleans, was the Acting Assistant 
Adjutant General of the Brigade whilst Gen. Nicholls had 
command, Lieutenant Samuel C. Hipburn his Aid-de-Camp. 
Capt. Victor Saint Martin of Company " K," 8th Louisiana, 
acted as Assistant Adjutant General for a short time. 

Major Frank Rawle now a prominent broker in New Or- 
leans, was the Brigade Quartermaster. 

J. M. Goodman was Quartermaster of the 8th Regiment. 

Dr. Semmes, a brother of T. J. Semmes, was Surgeon, and 
John E. Duffel the Assistant Surgeon. 

The other Surgeons of the various Louisiana Regiments, so 
far as known, were: Drs. Stevens (2d), Assistant Surgeon 
Martin (7th), Dr. Davis (9th), Dr. Smith (lOtb), Dr. T. S. 
Taney, afterwards Surgeon of the Brigade (15th), Dr. White. 
Dr. Egan of Louisiana (Regiment not known) was killed in 
the discharge of his duty at Sharpsburg. Dr. Sauve was 



Relating to Louisiana. .'!7 



wounded at Winchester. Another Surgeon, name not known, 
was killed at Martiusburg. 

After Gettysburg, eighty Surgeons, left in charge of the 
wounded, found themselves herded together at Fort McHenry, 
in a suffocating manner, and compelled at times to do menial 
duty When they afterwards went back, they were ordered to 
examine the Richmond prisoners, and they then made oath that 
the inmates of the latter fared infinitely better than had the 
Surgeons left behind in the cause of humanity. 

Three other Xew Orleans physiciaus, Drs. De Blanc, Chas- 
tant and Foineuto (the latter at the Louisiana Hospital), were 
Confederate Surgeons. 

Waggaman commanded the Louisiana Brigades in the 
Valley campaigns of 1S04, and his conduct is always spoken 
of with feeling by the surviving veterans, when leading his 
men in the victorious charge, rolling the first line back upon 
the second, and capturiug artillery ; or lastly at the Winches- 
ter battle of the 19th September, wheu victory definitely turn- 
ed her force against the Confederates, he was seen wounded 
and struggling like a maniac, with his bridle-reign between 
his teeth, to stay the waning fortunes of the Confederacy. 

He is then remembered when the " All is lost " of a great 
battle was heard, and nothing was seen but flying cavalry, 
wagons and ambulances — as covering the route of the Confed- 
erate army ; and shortly after, at Fisher's Hill (where the 
Southern Cause was so desperate that not one man could have 
escaped if properly pursued) as doing his duty, even while 
suffering with an inflamed wound. 

In the well known raid to Washington which Early made 
during the seige of Petersburg, Waggaman's command took 
an active part. Early's corps gave the enemy an eternal 
cleaning out at Martiusburg, and one of the incidents of the 
campaign, was the bivouac of the Louisiana Brigade at Chrys- 
tal Springs, Montgomery Blair's well kuown residence near 
Washington. At one time it looked as if the Crescent City 
Regiments would stack arms in the National Capital, and give 
a point and emphasis to their 1500 miles march, by serving 



38 Biographical and Historical Papers 



that city as the Romans did Carthage. And had the right 
move been made, had there not been a delay of three days on 
the part of Early in commencing the attack, according to the 
Federal authorities, Washington would undoubtedly have 
been captured. 

The Valley campaign was the turning point of the war. 
There was an extraordinary amount of strategy and hard 
marching developed and but little victory. So desperate was 
the race between the opposing armies at one time to reach 
Martinsburg first, that sometimes the hostile columns would be 
marching by parallel roads not over half a mile apart. But 
the fiat had gone forth that Ilium was to be destroyed, and 
the heroic valor of no corps or commander could save her. 

Thus weary weeks and months of hard fighting rolled on, 
bringing Plutonian shadows for some and promotion to others. 
Sixteen battles and fights had been fought, and in one of them 
(Winchester) every single officer on horseback had been 
wounded. 

The ranking Generals Hays, Starke, Mcholls and Yorke, 
having been killed, crippled up, or assigned to other duties, 
and at the time, when death seemed more probable than dis- 
tinction or promotion, Waggaman was still at the head of the 
Louisiana troops,* with Alcibiade DeBlanc as the ranking 
officer of Hays' Brigade. None envied such honor at the time. 
The truth was that the life of an officer on horseback, or a flag- 
bearer was not then thought to be worth a week's rations, 
and promotion only brought to mind the Trappist maxim 
" Brother, thou too must die." 

In the following February the Brigades were ordered to the 
Petersburg line at Hatcher's Bun, and there, like many other 

*Tho gallant Col. Peck who preceded Waggaman in rank, had heen made a General 
and heen sent elsewhere. He died since the war. He was a man not only worthy of 
rememhrance tor what he did, from a soldier's sense of duty, but was a remarkable man 
in other respects. He was nearly six feet and a half high, and though of a daring nature 
never received a wound during the whole war. He rode a horse equally large and stout in 
proportion. His brother who was the Porthos of the Confederate army, was sis feet 

nine inches high, and lost his life in consequence of his extraordinary statue that 

is by having his head shot off. Gen Peck was in command of the Louisiana Brigades 
during much of the war, greatly distinguishing himself at the Monoccacy in Early's raid, 
and Hatcher's Eun. He was a man of such modest nature, that although a speaker oi' 
sentiment and fire, and possessed of considerable wealth and influence, his name never 
appeared before the public. When he died, none of the journals knew that Louisiana had 
lost one of her bravest and moat distinguished sons. 



Relating to Louisiana. 39 



gallaut veterans, were compelled to realize slowly, step by 
step, day by day, the destruction of long years of hope and 
the certain death of those patriotic dreams, which had for 
many years hovered around the Southern soldier's pillow. 

On the last of February the men took their final position in 
the breastworks about Petersburg. Immediately to the rear of 
their position was the Daedalus labarynth of underground 
roads and passage ways, cut for the purpose of sheltering the 
soldiers iu marching, from the never ceasiug rain and hail of 
enfilading bullets, and which rendered it at the same time, 
difficult for even the experienced, with no Ariadne's clue, to 
find entrance or exit. Nearly touching the right was the site 
where the Confederate fort had been blown up by undermin- 
ing — the final burying ground of hundreds of brave men. 

A week before the final coup was given to Secessia, Wag- 
gaman was summoned at night to a Division Council of 
war, in which the question of making an offensive movement 
and the capture of the opposing fort by a storming party, 
was discussed. It was here that a high tribute was paid to 
the courage of the Louisiana Brigades, when an assault upon 
Grant's lines had been determined upon, and the duties of the 
various officers assigned. " On account of the valor of your 
troops " said Gen. Evans, " you will be allowed the honor of 
leading off in the attack. This you will make with unloaded 
arms." This honor of course meant that the Louisiana troops 
were, as had happened in nearly every battle before, to be the 
Forlorn Hope, to suffer the brunt of the attack ; or in other 
words that they were to be allowed the same opportunities for 
distinction, that David permitted Uriah, when in love with the 
latter's wife. 

At three o'clock in the morning, Waggaman who had been 
watching all night, silently awakened his men and moved for- 
ward, outside of the breastworks. In so doing his command 
during the darkness and confusion, was cut in two by the 
marching of other Confederate commands. He passed out 
through Grace's Salient to the objective point of the Federal 
works and the key of their position, towards the guns of Fort 



40 Biographical and Historical Papers 



Steadman. Though the men had been quietly awakened and 
preparations had been made as noiseless as possible, no ad- 
vance of the sort could of course be undertaken without some- 
thing of the confused hum, which always indicates that a 
camp is in motion, or that some great movement is on foot. 
As the column pushed forward, it had to contend with the 
darkness and the boggy soil, and at one time the com- 
mand seemed in danger of being entirely cut up, in the gen- 
eral mixing up of regiments, and in the treacherous character 
of the ground. Waggamau himself had to be extricated from 
the mud of a ditch, by a private who succeeded in reaching 
the opposite bank first and in extending him a helping hand. 
Beaching the outer edge of the Fort, the men following, their 
officers rushed forward through an embrasure of Fort Stead- 
man and fought their way inside. The situation was fearful 
for several moments. As they jumped into the enclosure 
where its defenders were now fully awake and stirring, such 
was the excitement and desperate energy of the struggle, that 
the combatants fought as was afterwards said " as if they had 
drank two quarts of brandy." The fort was finally carried, 
though it was rough and tumble fighting; the opposing 
soldiers being locked together like serpents. It was a little 
before sunrise as they entered the Fort, with just sufficient light 
to enable them to see their way. As the defendants refuse to 
surrender they were knocked in the head with the musket or 
bayoneted by the assailants.* 

The guns were finally captured, were ordered to be turned 
on the other fort, and the Louisianians emerged forth to 
attack another redoubt ; but they had now lost more than 
half their original number and were no longer able to take the 
initiative. Besides, after the Louisianians had captured the 
fort, each command commenced diverging in the prescribed 
direction previously arranged, and the daylight revealed their 
weakness. The enemy at first panic stricken, discovered their 
small number and rallied ; and now circling around them with 

Bresman was one of the Louisiana Brigades who were bayoneted in the storming ol 
this Fort, and who, though run through the abdomen, recovered. & 



Relating to Louisiana. 41 



a crushing force drove them back to Fort Steadman, the point 
whence they had emerged. In other words the 2d Corps con- 
sisting of 6000 men, found itself opposed by the whole of 
Grant's arniy.* 

The day was lost, the assaults of the Confederates were re- 
pulsed, and the final order from Gen. Gordon at length came 
of satire qui peut. Immediately after the disaster when the 
troops had retired inside of the lines, Col. Waggaman meeting 
Gen. Evans and solicitous for the honor of his men, inquired 
if the Louisianiaus had done their duty ? His answer was 
" They did." 

But the end of all things comes at last, and it was so even 
with the siege of Petersburg. A week after the preceding 
attack (April 1st) a few random shots and a gradually increas- 
ing fire, hinted that the day of the great struggle had come — 
that Lee's army had slept their last night aronud Petersburg, 
Indeed before midnight of the same day the firing and boom- 
ing of the guns had extended along the whole line. This of 
course compelled the men to remain awake at their post 
expecting the final attack. At day-break on Sunday (April 
2nd) the enemy made an attack upon the Confederate lines 
and pierced them in three places. They throw themselves 
upon the Louisiana Brigades at Graves' Salient but are there 
successfully repulsed. Then the Louisianians are ordered to 
assist Cook in a desperate attack which he sustains at the 
Crater. The Confederates were not at this point able to dis~ 
lodge the Federals from the hold they had obtained. They 
however succeeded in keeping them hemmed in the Salient 
and prevented them from advancing. This the Brigade con- 
tinued doing during the 22 hours which this long battle lasted. 
At nightfall, Gen. Lee had been driven to the inner line of 
Petersburg, and this position was irretrievable. 

'Some of the soldiers of the other Confederate Brigades showing a disposition to return, 
the commander of the Brigade prevented this by drawiug his revolver and compelling 
them to halt. An officer with some of Ms followers rode up and asked why his men had been 
stopped. He continued expressing his views in a dictatorial way and assuming a gen- 
eral authority. The commander of the Louisiana Brigade who had been the only lucky 
officer who had accomplished his work, losing all patience, excitedly collared him, with 
the remark, that he was not fit to command any body or anything and thrust him aside. 
Immediately after, Bhouting to his men that now was their time, Waggaman lead them 
forward in the last attack of the occasion. 



4i> Biographical and Historical Papers 

The silence which followed was one of the most striking 
incidents of the day Nothing now was heard but the occa- 
sional stamp of a picketed horse— the faint rattling of a cannon 
carriage in the directiou of Petersburg, or the indistinctly 
heard tramp of large bodies of men. On the breastworks 
the sentinel stood motionless, the moonlight flickering on 
their bayonets thus deceiving the enemy. To-night is the 
last guard-night upon these ramparts; on the morrow the 
camp and battle-field will be sufficiently deserted for the 
ploughman to re-commence his labors, and the old uniform 
and battle-flag will then be traditions of the past. 

At 10 o'clock, P M., the Brigades retreated in perfect silence, 
still leaving behind active sentinels upon the breastworks, 
who were to rejoin the main body at the Petersburg bridge. 
This latter was crossed by part of the Louisiana troops a little 
while before it was blown up. The rest ot the march to Ap- 
pomattox C. H. was made with the usual amount of skirmish- 
ing by day and fighting by night, the Brigades acting as the 
rear guard. The rations were reduced down to a biscuit and 
an ounce or so of bacon, and every hour added to the difficul- 
ties of the situation. 

The Brigades on the retreat had an opportunity allowed 
them of distinguishing themselves by the manner in which 
they checked pursuit, thus giving Gen. Lee's army an oppor- 
tunity of filing by So hard pushed was the rear guard, that 
they would not unfrequently be pressed by the Federals to 
within twenty yards and be entirely flanked, and then have to 
run back under a close range fire of the enemy. For the skill 
with which he performed this part of a perilous duty, Captain 
Blythe, of Claiborne Parish, is frequently spoken of by his 
men. 

When tbe Brigade reached the Long Bridge, the measured 
step of the men produced a vibration or swing that threaten- 
ed to destroy them by snapping the bridge's timbers. They 
now showed a passive proof of courage and discipline, by 
promptly halting at the word of command, instead of giving 



Relating to Louisiana. 43 



away to panic, until the vibration had ceased and the Brigade 
could break step. 

Their last attack was made on the day of Gen. Lee's surren- 
der. The men, when ordered to move forward, had to march 
over a freshly ploughed field half a mile wide, and their 
courage found it difficult to sustain itself. against pure exhaus- 
tion. However, they remained true to their colors, and though 
meanwhile, exposed to a hea 1 y artillery fire, and although the 
Federals were sheltered behind a fence, they boldly drove them 
into the adjoining woods. They were just upon the point of 
laying hold of the batteries which had hitlierto been enfilading 
the Confederate lines and which the Brigades had already driven 
from position. Iu the moment of victory, and while they were 
capturing the colors of a regiment from a fiag-bearer (who already 
was run through with a bayonet,) came the command " Fall 
back." " What did it mean '? " asked the men of each other ; and 
as they lay down on the ground to rest like troops Hushed with 
victory, who had successfully accomplished their task, a 
whisper, so strange that it might have started in the air, said 
that the Brigades would never charge any more, and that Lee's 
army had surrendered. Men looked at each other forgetful of 
rank, aud stared hard at the brazen mouths of the artillery, 
the signification of whose movements every old soldier knew, 
and which had been previously parked on Appomattox Hill. 
These were now passing around, and the abandonment of such 
a position could have only one meaning. Every moment the 
whisper became louder. Every additional manoeuvre proved 
that what had thus far been a rumor, was an undisputed 
certainty. Aud now came the agonized look, which the brush 
of Salvator Bosa could never paint — the gaze of despair which 
settled like a cloud on powder stained faces, and which said 
that the bloody tradegy was ended, their four years struggle had 
been useless, and that having appealed to the arbitrament of the 
sword, the only thing to be done was to accept the result with 
the best grace they could. The cup had been drained — the 
last act of the drama had arrived. The situation simply was 
that every cartridge had been fired; 140,000 Federal soldiers 



44 Biographical and Historical Papers 



stood in easy cannon range according the honors of war, and 
that the grand old man, whose name history will ever perpetu- 
ate, could no longer lead them. 

The concluding incident of the war, so far as concerns this 
narrative, was that just as our men grounded their arms, 
and the old veterans marched past the triumphant Fed- 
eral army, it gave the Louisiana troops a soldier's salute 
with their arms, and showed by their demeanor, by the absence 
of scornful laugh or word, their respect for the Pelican Bri- 
gades. 

JOUKNAL OF MAJ. MONIEE, FEOM SHARPSBURG TO APPOMATTOX. 

Continued from Page 3&. 

Sept. 17th, 1862. — At the close of the battle of Sharpsburg we are sent from 
the held, two miles to the rear for ammunition. Remain there until 
7 o'clock P. M. Then sent to support some artillery in rear of Sharpsburg 
Stayed there one hour and came back to the woods near the springs. Slept 
here all night. 

At 3 o'clock next morning, go to the front and take the same position we 
previously occupied in the line ; then throw out a line of skirmishers and 
remain there until midnight, when we begin retreating. Cross Potomac at 
Shepherdstown, at about break of day. Take position on the hill on the right 
of town. At 9 o'clock A. M., fall back about two and a half miles. Camped 
in the woods at 4 P. M. Return to Shepherdstown to support Gen. A. P. 
Hill. At dark fall back to Opequan river, 6 miles from Martinsburg and 
camp ; we remained in this camp until the morning of the 23d of Septem- 
ber, when we crossed the Opequan river, passed through Martinsburg, and 
camp about one mile from town, to the left ; stayed there until the 25th 
of September, then marched to Bunker Hill. 

Oct. 18th. — March to Martinsburg and camp. 

19th. — Destroy the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

23d. — Returned. 

24th. — March to Elizabeth Farm, near Ripley, and camp there. 

Nov. 1st. — Within seven miles of Winchester. 

4th. — March to Whitepost, passing through Berryville and camp near 
town. 

8th. — Pass through Winchester ; camp seven miles from Bunker Hill. 
Picket the roads to Martinsburg and Jordan Springs. 

22th. — At sunrise we break camp, pass through Winchester, and taking 
the valley main turnpike, move up passing through Kernstown. 

23d. — Pass through Middletown and camp near Strasburg. 

24th. — Pass Strasburg and Woodstock, and camp one mile from this 
place. 

25th. — March through Edenbury, then to and through Mount Jackson, 
and camp half a mile from this place, south of the north branch of 
Shenandoah river. 

16th. — Pass through New Market, then filing to the left, 
cross the Massahutten Mountain. Camped for the night on the bank of 
the Shenandoah river. 

27th. — Enter the Blue Ridge Mountains at Thornton Gap. March all day 
over mountains. At dark, camp at the foot of a mountain near 
a smiill village. 



Relating to Louisiana. 45 



Nov. 34th. — Move at sunrise. March until about 3 o'clock, P. M., to 
within 5 miles of Madison Court House. 25th, inarch through Madison. 
Crossed Rapidan River at Liberty Mill and camp within 6 miles of Orange 
Court House. Passed through Orange ; take the plank road to Fredericks- 
burg and camp in the evening about 8 miles from the Court House. 

"29th. — Pass by Fredericksburg, leaving it on our left, and camp 8 miles 
from it at dark.' 

30th. — March to within two and a half miles of Guinea Station, on the 
Richmond and Fredericksburg Railroad. Remain here until spring. 

CAMPAIGN OF 18G3. 

April 28th, 1802. — Left camp and proceeded to Port Royal, a town on the 
bank of the Rappahandock River : arrive at dark and camp two miles from 
town. 

29th. — Return to Camp Seymour. 

30th. — At break of day march for Fredericksburg ; camp two miles be- 
yond town. Camp on the Fredericksburg and Orange C. H. plank road. 

May 1st. — Arrive on Brock Road ; follow it to the old turn-pike leading 
to German ford; take the pike, move about two miles and form line of 
battle in the woods on the right of the road. Remain here about half hour, 
then form line on the left of the pike, advance and strike the enemy's 
flank and rear and drive them back two miles, capturing 4 pieces of artil- 
lery and a number of prisoners. At dark move to the front on the plank 
road and form line of battle at the left of road and rested all night on arms . 

At day-break the next day we advance in line on the Wilderness ; march 
about half of a mile and then moved by the left flank about 500 yards; 
then moved by the right flank and advanced to the top of a hill. Meet the 
enemy; severe fighting. Our brigade being outflanked, fall back to the 
wooden breastworks previously erected by the Yankees. In the evening 
ordered to charge a battery posted on a commanding position and support- 
ed by two lines of infantry; we boldly advanced to the assault, but want of 
support forced us to fall back to our original position. Remained here all 
night. 10th La. act as skirmishers. 

May 4th.— Same position. The balance of the brigade has moved to the 
right to build breast works. 

5th. — The enemy has recrossed the river. We are sent 6 miles from bat- 
tle-field to camp. Go to Hamilton Crossing and camp. Resume the usual 
duties of camp life. 

June 5th. — Move, taking the road for Spottsylvania Court House, passed 
through this place and after a tramp of 18 miles rested for the night. 

6th. — At 8 o'clock, A. M., we marched about two miles, but returned to 
cook rations. At 2, P. M., we resumed march and camp at dark. 

7th. — Moved at day-break; crossed the Rapidan River at Sommerville 
ford ; camp on the south bank of Cedar River, to the right of the Orange 
and Alexandaia Railroad. 

8th. — Marched at 6 o'clock, A. M., on the road to Culpepper Court House. 

10th. — At 2 o'clock, P. M., we marched about 10 miles on the Sperryville 
pike. 

11th. — We move at 4 o'clock, A. M., passed through Woodville, Sperry- 
ville and Little Washington. 

12th. — Resumed the march, passing through Flint Hill, Gaines Cross 
Road and Front Royal, crossed the Shenandoah River. 

13th. — At break of day moved on the road to Winchester and came in 
sight of the enemy 3 miles from town at about 10 o'clock, A. M.; formed 
line of battle in a wood on the left of the road and remained there nntil 
dark. 

14th. — Changed position and came in view of town. 

15th. — At sunrise, near Jordan Spring, met the enemy moving by the 
right flank about two hundred yards from our line ; we moved by the left 



4G Biographical and Historical Papers 



flauk at double quick time, and after a race of about 200 yards we faced 
into line, jumped over a fence, fired into the enemy and charged them, com- 
pletely routing them, capturing about 200 prisoners, one stand of colors 
and killed and wounded quite a number. (Stand of colors captured by Jos. 
Moreau, private of Co. C, 10th La. Eegt.) At 3 o'clock, P. M., camped near 
battle field. 

16th. At 11 o'clock, A. M., marched about one mile, then returned from 
whence we had started. 

At 2 o'clock, P. M., passed through Brucetown and went to the left of 
Smithfield and. camped. 

17th. Moved at sunrise ; at 2 o'clock, P. M., passed through Shepherds- 
town, crossed Potomac and went 2-J miles from Sharpsburg and camped. 

19th. — Same position. 

20th. — Moved at 9 o'clock, A. M., passed through Sharpsburg and formed 
line of battle, half-mileeast of town and remain thus all day. 

21st. — Same position. 

22nd. — Six Companies, A, B, E, D, G and K of the 10th La. Eegiment 
went on picket on Antietam Creek, about half-mile from camp. 

23d.— -Moved forward, camped in half-mile of Pennsylvania line. 

24th. — Resumed the march at sunrise, cross Pennsylvania line, and camp- 
ed two miles south of Chambersburg. 

25th. — Same position. 

26th. — Moved forward at 8 o'clock, A. M. 3 o'clock, P. M., went to camp. 

27th. — At 7 o'clock, A. M., went to camp 4 miles south of Carlisle. 

28th. — Remain in camp. 

29th. — At 12 o'clock in the day marched back ; camped in 5 miles of Shipper- 
burg. 

30th. — Resumed march at dawn and camp 4 miles beyond Scotland. 

July 1st.— At 7 o'clock, A. M., move on the Baltimore turnpike, arrive at 
Gettysburg and form line of battle one mile on left of town (marched 30 
miles). 

2d. — Moved forward, crossed a creek and attacked the enemy. 

3d. — Fought all day ; remain in line of battle part of night ; between mid- 
night and dawn moved to the right. 

4th. — Remained in sight of Gettysburg all day; at dark began retreat- 
ing ; march all night. 

6ih. — At 7 o'clock, A. M., resumed retreat, camped one mile beyond 
Waynesboro. 

7th. — Move at 8 o'clock in the morning, going through Latinsburg and 
camped, 2 miles from Hagerstown, until the 10th of July at sundown ; then 
march through Hagerstown and go to camp 3 miles beyond the 
Williamsport road. 

11th. — Went and took our position in the line of battle ; build breast- 
works. 

12th. — Remain in the trenches. 

13th. — At 6 o'clock in the morning the regiment went on picket one mile 
from the line; skirmish all day with the enemy; at 11 o'clock P. M. fall 
back, marched all night, at daylight passed through Williamsport and 
crossed the Potomac at this place, joined the brigade one mile from the 
river, then marched on to Martinsburg pike and camped 4 miles from town. 
Remain here until 2£ o'clock, P. M. 

15th. — When we move, march through Martinsburg and go to camp 
near Darksville. Remain at this place July 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th. 

20th. — March to and through Martinsburg, and destroy at this point the 
Railroad; at night camp in wood west of track. 

21st.— Finished destroying the railroad ; we fell back to our old camp 
near Darksville. (This day Brigadier General Alfred Iverson, from Georo-ia 
was temporarily assigned to the command of our brigade.) 

22d. — Marched at 6 o'clock in the morning ; passed through Darksville 
Bunker Hill, and came to camp about 3 miles of Winchester. 



Relating -to Louisiana. 47 



23d.— Resumed the march at sunrise ; passed through Winchester and 
over Front Royal road ; marched to the rear of Front Royal ; kept moving 
to and fro until midnight ; rest for the night at the edge of town, after a 
march of 25 miles. 

24th.— Move at daylight ; march through Front Royal to the Luray Pike ; 
camp about half a mile from Milford ; march 12 miles. 

25th.— Move at 5 o'clock A. M. ; march 8 miles on the Luray turnpike. 
Camp. 

26th. — Same position ; inspection by Gen. Iverson. 

27th. — March at 4 o'clock in the morning, cross the Blue Ridge moun- 
tains at Thornton Gap and go to camp, having marched 16 miles. 

28th. — At 5 o'clock A. M., move to and through, Sperryville, and go and 
camp in 12 miles of Mason's Court House. 

29th — At 5 o'clock A. M., within 5 miles of Madison C. H. 

31st. — March through Madison C. H. and camp 4 miles beyond town, 
on the road to Gordonville. 

August 1st. — March at sunrise, pass Milford and Liberty Mill, and take 
the road to Orange Court House ; camp 4 miles from town at Camp Mont- 
pelier. Pass the residence of President James Madison. In this camp we 
drill. A regular corps of sharpshooters is organized, with target shooting. 

Sept. 17th.— Form liLe of battle a mile and a half beyond Orange Court 
House, in a field on the left of the old turnpike. The Yankees make some 
demonstration at the ford on the Rapidan river. 

18th. — Remain in line until 1 o'clock P. M. March through Orange Court 
House and camp on the hill east of town. 

21st. — At break of day we again pass through Orange Court House and go 
to Morton's Ford on the Rapidan river to meet the enemy, who is reported 
crossing in force. Arrived there at dark, form line of battle parallel with the 
river. Work all night erecting breastworks. The next morning at 
11 o'clock, move about 400 yards to the woods in rear of Gibson's house, 
and camp. We remain 15 days in this camp, drilling and picketing the 
bank of the Rapidan, from Morton's Ford to Mountain Run. 

Oct. 8th. — At 4 o'clock P. M., march to Pisgah Church, about 6 miles of 
Orange Court House and camped. Next day, move forward at sunrise, 
passed through Orange Court House ; cross the Rapidan river at Union 
Mills and camp at Jack's Shop, 8 miles from river. 

10th. — Pass by Madison Court House, leaving it on our left, and camp 8 
miles from town. 

11th. — Camp 4 miles of Culpepper on the right of the turnpike. 
12th. — At sunrise move forward, leaving Culpepper on our right, cross 
Hazel river by fording ; pass through Jeffersontown, and halt three-quar- 
ters of a mile beyond town. The cavalry are fighting, the Yankee's trying 
to effect a passage. At dark we resume the march, cross the Rappahannock 
river, and camp near Warrenton Springs. 

13th. — March to and through Warrenton and camp a mile and a half 
from town. . 

15th. — Pass over Gen. E well's farm and camp 2 miles from Bristow Station, 
on the Manassas and Culpepper Railroad. 

17th. — At sunrise cross the railroad and form line half mile from Bristow 
Station. Stack arms and tear up the track. 
18th. — Same thing. 

19th. — Retreat, following the railroad and come to camp within 2 miles 
of Rappahannock river. 

20th. — Cross river and camp 2 miles from the banks. 

22d.--Retreat to Brandy Station and go into camp, 2 miles on the left — 
built winter-quarters. 

Nov. 6th. — Go to Kelly's Ford on the Rappahannock, it being reported 
the enemy are attempting a crossing at his place. Arrived there at 9 P. M., 
finding everything quiet ; to-morrow will move back toward our camp. 
7th. — Breaking camp. At daylight arrive within 2 miles of Culpepper, 



4:8 Biographical and Historical Papers 



form line of battle and build breastworks. At dark fall back, cross Rapi- 
dan river at Raccoon Ford and camp 1 mile from river 

8th. — Return to our old camp near Morton's Ford and to rear of Gibson's 
farm. 

9th.— Pisgah Church ; camp in the wood about i mile in front of Church, on 
the right of the Old Orange and Fredericksburg turnpike. 

12th — Camp near Mountain Run, 2^ miles from Rapidan river. 

13th. — March about midway between camp and the river, form liue of 
battle and build breastworks ; came back to camp at dark. Stay in the 
place eleven days, during which time, we picket, by details, Mine Run. 

26th. — At daylight march 200 yards beyond Zoar Church and picket 
several roads. 

27th. — At dawn took position on the breastworks in front of our camp 
Dear Mountain Run ; at 9 o'clock A. M. cross over the works, take the road 
to Bartlett's Mills, cross Mine Run at this place and go to James Farm ; 
met the enemy. Form line at the edge of wood by the road edge and 
parallel with it, and throw up wooden works. Remain there until 3 
o'clock P. M., when we move forward, drive back the enemy's skirmishers, 
and attack their line. Arrive in a lane leading from the main road to 
Squire Gaines' house and hold the position until dark, when we fall back 
to our works. Johnson's division alone, to which we belonged, held in 
check and defeat the whole of French's Yankee corps ; loss slight. At 9 
o'clock P. M. fall back to the other side of Mine Run in the direction of 
Zoar Church and camp. 

28th. — March to Zoar Church and build breast-works perpendicular to 
the road leading to Morton's ford. The next day stay behind the trenches 
until dark; 10th and 1st La. Regts. went on picket in front of Mrs. Dare's 
farm on the right of the road and 2 miles from the church. 

30th. — At 8 o'clock relieved from picket ; find the remainder of the Brig- 
ade building earthworks diagonally to the former line about 1| miles from 
church. Worked all day. At ten o'clock, P. M., we were ordered to fall in. 
Move by the right flank, marching inside the line of works. As we move 
we keep up the fires which the other troops build. 

Dec. 1st.— At dawn rest i mile from Mine Run and Zoar Church road. 
At 9 o'clock cross Mine Run, march about one-half mile, come back and re- 
cross the run, go to Zoar's Church and take the road to Morton's ford. At 
8 o'clock, P. M., arrive in the works formerly occupied by Rhode's Division 
in rear of Buckner's House, one mile from Rapidan River. The next day at 
about 11 o'clock, A. M., march back to our old camp near Mountain Run. 
Remain here twenty days picketing Mine Run. 

23d. — Move at sunrise and camp in the woods in front of Pisgah Church, 
between Mountain run and the old Fredericksburg and Orange C. H. turn- 
pike. Here we build winter quarters. 

31st. — Go on picket to Rapidan from Morton's ford to Mountain Run. 
Picket five days and return to camp. 

Jan. 20th, 1864. — Again on picket; remain seven days and come back to win- . 
ter quarters. 

Feb. 6. — At two o'clock, P. M., march to Morton's ford to support the 
picket, the Yankees are coming. Arrive there at dark, too late to do any- 
thing. Gordon's, Walker's and Stewart's Brigades had driven the enemy 
back. Go to rest for the night on the road leading to Gibson's house in 
front of our old camping ground of September 1863. 

Feb. 7th. — Fall back to breast-works and remain there until next morn- 
ing, when we return to winter quarters. 

CAMPAIGN OF 1864. 

April 30. — Move from winter quarters near Pisgah Church and go to 
camp 1$ miles from Morton's ford on Rapidan River. 



Relating to Louisiana. 49 



May 4th.— At 12 o'clock, M., cross Mine Run and camp on the right of the 
old turn-pike about 1 mile from Locust Grove. 

5th. — Move on the turn-piKe at sunrise ; march about 5 miles and arrive 
in a dense wood on left of the road ; form line of battle and manoeuvre to 
and fro in the wood until 10 o'clock, when we meet the enemy and drive 
them from our front. We were however flanked on the left and at one 
time were nearly surrounded. Finally get out of the scrape and fall back 
about one-half a mile and throw up works. 

6th. — Work all day fortifying our position. 

7tb. — Work all day ; at 8 o'clock, P. M., move to the right of the line, 
following the breast- worl s; march all night. 

8th. — At 7 o'clock, A. M., resume the movement to the right down the 
Spottsylvania road ; at sunset support Rhode's Division then fighting. At 
midnight take position on line and erect earthworks. 

9th 10th and 11th. --Work all the time fortifying the line and occasion- 
ally skirmishing with the enemy. 

12th.— In the morning a very heavy fog. The enemy, taking advantage of 
this, advance in 4 lines of batlle and charge Jones' fiout, taking possesion 
of their works ; charge our front, but we keep them at bay ; then they 
come in our rear, flank and front. We hold our ground to the last. Being 
overpowered ; we fall back to the second line, having been engaged all day. 
At dark we charge our old position without success. Fall back to second 
line and work all night. 

13th. — Go to the rear for rest. 

14th. — Same position. 

May 15th. — Go back to the front, in breastwork on the left of Gordon's 
Brigade. 

16th. — Slight demonstration by the enemy ; move to the left about 400 
yards. 

17 th. — Same position. 

18th. — Assault by the enemy on our front ; drive them back, inflicting 
upon them very heavy losses. 

19th. — Enemy having disappeared from our front, at 1 o'clock, P. M., we 
move forward and meet them entrenching about 7 miles from Fredericks- 
burg. Attack them and fought till dark ; then fell back to original 
position. 

20th.— All quiet. 

21st. — Move on Spottsylvania C. H. road, to the right of the line ; reach 
Telegraph road and camp. 

22a. — March at 4, A. M., reach Hanover Junction and camp. 

23d. — Move towards North Anna liver on the right of Fredericksburg 
R. R. Bivouac in woods all day. The enemy reported to have crossed 
above ; we return to camp at Hanover Junction. 

24th. — Move early in the morning to the front ; kept in reserve. After 
dark, march to the right, formed line on Central R. R., and rest for the 
night. 

25th.-26th. — Work all the time at fortifying our line. 

27th. — Moved to the right between Fredericksburg and Central Rail- 
roads, cross South Anna river and camp for the night about 10 miles from 
Richmond on the Hanover C. H. road. 

28th. — Marched at daylight towards Richmond ; turn to the left, take the 
road to the Old Church in search of enemy ; halt in woods about 4 miles 
from Mechanicsville, and &£ miles from Richmond a nd camp. 

29th. — Deployed in line to the left of the road and throw up breast- 
works. 

30th. — About 1 o'clock, P. M., went to the right along the works, cross 
over, went through field to Mechanicsville pike, retained as reserve, sup- 
porting Rhodes' Division then fighting, rest there for the night. 

31st. — Work at fortification, skirmish with the enemy in the evening, 

7 



50 Biographical and Historical Papers 



move on to the left at the old position of the 29th inst. Kept moving to and 
fro all night. 

June 1st. — At 3 o'clock A. M., heavy skirmishing. At 3 o'clock, P. M. 
relieved and sent to the right on Mechauicsville. pike; sharp skirmishing, 
heavy fight on the left. 

ad. — Take position on the right of Mechanicsville turnpike. 

3d-4tk-5th. — Same position. 

6th. — The Yankees gone from our front ; we move forward about 4 miles 
and find the enemy entrenched behind a swamp ; skirmish and manoeuvre 
until dark, when we return to our old position. 

7th. — Move out to the front ; skirmish all day ; in afternoon return to 
breastworks. 

8th. — Same position. 

9th. — In the evening move to the right, to Gaines' farm, and go about one 
mile to the rear. 

10th-llth-12th. — Same position. 

131 h. — Marchat 4 o'clock, A. M., via Ellyson's Mill to Brook turnpike , on 
to the road to Louisa Court House ; at a point about 20 miles from Rich- 
mond, we camp. 

14th. — Move at sunrise in the direction of Louisa C. H. March about 19 
miles and rest for the night. 

15th. — Resume the tramp at 6 o'clock, A. M., pass through Louisa C. H. 
and camp near Spring Bottom, near Mechanicsville. 

16th. — March at sunrise, pass through Mechanicsville and Charlottsville 
and camp for the night 5 miles from latter place. 

17th.— March to the cars ; there being no room, we move down to North 
Garden depot to await trausportation. 

18th. — Take the cars at 9 o'clock, A. M., at 2 o'clock, P. M. arrive in 
Lynchburg. Go to the Fair Grounds to rest, in the evening go to the front 
form line of battle to the left of the pike and throw up breastworks. 

19th. —Move forward in pursuit of the infamous Hunter ; pass through 
New London and meet the Federal rear guard about 2 miles from Liberty ; 
route it and camp at the outskirts of town. 

20th. — Move early in the morning, reach Buford Gap ; skirmish with 
enemy's rear guanl, having driven it back ; rest here for the night. 

. 21st. — At sunrise move in the direction of Salem, pass through Big Lick, 
about 2 miles from Salem, move off towards Falling Rock and camp. 

22d.— Same position. 

23d. — March at daylight and come to camp on a fine creek 4 miles from 
Buchannau. 

24th. — At 3 o'clock, A. M., cross James river; pass Buchannan, rest two 
hours at Natural Bridge (Rockbridge County) aud went to camp eleven 
miles from Lexington. 

25th.— Move at break of day ; atlO o'clock, A. M. pass through Lexington. 
Jackson's old corps tiled in the cemetary and march by the grave of the 
Great Chieftain with reversed arms, then go about six miles from town, 
halt aud cook rations ; move again at sunset aud rest for the night about 25 
miles from Stanton. 

26th. — March at 6 o'clock, A. M., rest 2 or 3 hours during the heat of day ; 
in the evening march about 5 miles and camp. 

27th. — Move at 3:30 o'clock, A M. ; at 10 o'clock, A. M., camp 2 miles from 
Stanton. 

28th — March at daylight ; pass through Staunton, cross South Fork and 
camp near Mount Crawford. 

29th.— Move at sunrise ; pass through Mount Crawford. Harrisonburg, and 
camp near Lacey's Spring. 

30th.— Start for the march at 4:30 o'clock, A. M., pass through New 
Market, Mount, Jackson aud camp on the outskirts of the last named place, 
near the Shenandoah river. 



Relating to Louisiana. 51 



July 1st. — Resume the march at 3:30 o'clock, A. M., pass through Eden- 
burg, Woodstock and camp on Fisher's Hill, 2 miles from Strasburg. 

2d. — Move at sunrise : pass through Strasburg, Middletown, Newton and 
Kernatown and camp 1-J- miles from Winchester. 

3d. — March at daylight ; pass through Winchester ; meet the enemy at 
Bunker Hill, who retreated ; pass through Darkville ; iu the evening drove 
the Yankees from Martinsburg, capturing all their Commissary and 
Quarter-Master stores ; camp 1 mile beyond town. 

4th. — March at 3 o'clock, P M., on the Harper's Ferry road and camp 
about 4 miles after passing the Shepherdtown road. 

5th. — Move at daylight on the Shepherdstown road, pass through town, 
cross Potomac river and camp on the canal about 9 miles from Harper's 
Ferry. 

6th. — At 7 o'clock, A. M., met the enemy about 5 miles from Harper's Ferry ; 
drive the enemy to Maryland Heights. 

7th. — Remain all day in sight of the Heights, skirmish with enemy ; at 
8 o'clock, P. M. fall back, pass through Ronseyville, Md., and camp a while 
to rest. 

rith. — At 7 o'clock, A. M., move forward and camp on the left of the pike, 
8 miles from Frederick City. 

9th. — Arrive at Frederick City, rest near town until 3 o'clock, P. M. ; move 
forward, cross to Monocacy creek, strike the 6th Federal corps on its left 
flank ; drove them to Monocacy Station ; here rout them. Rest on battle 
fieJd for the night. 

10th. — March at sunrise on National pike ; go to camp 4 miles from 
Rockville. 

11th. — Resume the tramp ; pass through Rockville, go on picket 1| miles 
from town on the Baltimore and Rockville road, to protect the safe 
passage of our wagon train. March again in the evening and joiu the 
command at Blair's mansion, 4 miles from Washington City. 

12th. — Move forward at sunrise and form line of battle on the left of the 
pike 2 miles from the city. At dark, begin retreating. March all night. 

13th. — At daylight, pass through Rockville and halt to rest a while on 
the road to Edward's Ferry, 9 miles from Rockville. Resume the march 
in the afternoon and march all night. Reach Potomac river at break of 
day. 

14th. — Rest on the bank of the river until our train has crossed. Ford 
the river and camp at Big Spring, 2 miles from Leesburg. 

15th. — Same position. 

16th. — March at daylight, pass through Leesburg, take road to Berry- 
ville, pass through Hamilton, and Snikersville. Cross Mountain at 
Sniker's Gap ; cross Shenandoah river at Sniker's Ferry and camp on the 
banks. 

17th.— Resume retreat at sunrise ; come within one mile of Berryville. 
Then ordered back to picket the rear. Heavy skirmishing in the evening. 

18th — At 10 o'clock, P M., relieved of duty by Evan's troops. Go back 
about two miles to rest, but are immediately summoned to the front, the 
enemy having effected a crossing. Drive them back with great slaughter. 
Camp near Wilson's farm for the night. 

19th. — Same position. 

20th. — Resume retreat at 10 o'clock, A. M., pass through Berryville, 
Milwood ; go within 2 miles of Newton, turn off to the left and go to camp 
within 5 miles of Front Royal 

21st. — March at daylight on the back road to Middletown ; pass through 
town and camp in woods on the outskirts of it. 

22d. — Move at runrise up the Valley pike ; cross Cedar creek and form 
line of battle near Strasburg. In the evening guard a ford on the creek, 
near the Massahutton Mountain. 

23d. — Same position. 

24th. — March at daylight, pass through Middletown, Newtown and meet 



52 Biographical and Historical Papers 



the enemy near Kernstown. We attack him and drive him through 
Winchester, toward Bunker Hill. Camp 3 miles from Winchester. 

25th. — March at 5 o'clock, P. M. to camp at Bunker Hill. 

•26th. — March at 6 o'clock, A. M. to Martinsburg ; camp one mile beyond 
town : go to work destroying the Ohio and Baltimore R. R. 

27th. — Same position. 

28th. — Move across the Opequan and camp. 

29th.-30th. Destroy railroad to within a few miles of Harpers Ferry. 

:31st. March soon in the morning. At 10 o'clock A. M. go to camp near 
Darksville. 

August 4th Cross Potomac river at Shepherdstown ; pass through 
this town, take the pike to Shepherdstown and camp 1^ miles from this 
place. 

5th. Move at 5 o'clock, A. M.; cross Potomac river at Shepherdstown, pass 
through Sharpsburg, form line of battle ou Antietam creek , to the right 
of the town ; drove in the Yankee cavalry and rest there for the night. 

6th. At sunrise, move on the Hagerstown road ; turn to the left at cross 
road ; take the road to Williamsport ; pass this place, recross the Potomac 
river and camp at Falling Waters. 

7th. — March at 7 o'clock, A. M. ; pass through Martinsburg and go into 
camp at Darksville. 

8th.— Same positiou. 

9th. — Left camp at 1 o'clock P. M.; go to Bunker Hill, where we bivouac 
for the Dight. 

10th. — Move at sunrise up the Valley pike ; took the road to Jordan 
spring ; pass this place and camp half way between the Berryville and 
Winchester pike and the spring ; at dark go on picket to the spring. 

11th. — March at sunrise and form line on the left ®f Winchester at 11:30 
o'clock A. M. ; move by the left flank in parallel line with the Main valley 
pike to protect our train ; reached Newtown ; form line west of town, about 
1 mile from it ; skirmish with enemy : at dark fall back near town and 
bivouac. 

12th. — Move at sunrise ; pass through Middletown, cross Cedar creek and 
go to the old position at the ford, near Massahutten mountain; skirmish 
with the enemy ; in the afternoon our sharpshooters driven back ; at 8 
o'clock P. M. fall back through Strasburg and go to Fisher's Hill, in the 
breastworks. 

13th-14th-15th-16th. — Work all the time at fortifying our line of de- 
fence. 

17th. — Move forward at daylight ; pass through Strasburg, Middletown, 
Newtown and Kernstown ; meet the enemy at this place, engage him, and 
drive him through Winchester towards Berryville ; camp near Winchester. 

21st. — Move forward at sunrise ; pass through Charlestown, and camp at 
the edge of town, in a fine oak forest. 

22d-23d. — Same position. 

24th. — Move to the front formed line of battle ; at dark go in picket near 
Bolivar Height. 

25th. — March at daylight to Leetown ; pass through town ; meet the enemy 
about 1 mile from it; attack and drive him through Shepherdstown, across 
the Potomac ; camp at dark, 1£ mile from town. 

20th. — March at 1 o'clock P M. and go to camp near Leetown. 

27th. — March in the morning and go to camp near Bunker Hill. 

28th. — Same position. 

29th.— March at 11 o'clock A. M. on the road to Smithfield ; meet enemy 
near Opequon river ; drove him back through Smithfield and beyond ; re- 
turn at dark to camp near Bunker Hill. 

30th-31st-September 1st. — Same position. 

2d. — March at 10 o'clock A. M. toward Summit Point ; finding no enemy, 



Relating to Louisiana. 53 



came back and pass through Brucetown, and camp 1 mile from town and 
6 miles from Winchester. 

3d. — At sunrise move toward Bunker Hill, but soon return to camp ; at 
dark march to and through Winchester, and went to camp 1 mile from 
town, on the Front Royal road. 

4th. — At dark pass through Winchester and camp on the left of the pike, 
1 mile from town. 

5th. — Go on the Pughtown road, about 2 miles from Winchester, to 
picket. 

6th 7th-8th. — Same position. 

9th. — In the evening march back to camp near Brucetown. 

lOth.-l 1 th.-12th. — Same position. 

13th. — About 9 o'clock A. M. pass through Brucetown ; go to Opequon 
creek ; skirmish with enemy and drive them back ; at dark return to camp. 

14th-15th-16th.— Same position. 

17th.— Move at 3 o'clock P. M. to Bunker Hill. 

18th. — March at sunrise ; pass through Darksville and Martinsburg; meet 
the enemy 1 mile beyond the latter place and drove him across the 
Opequon ; then return to Bunker Hill. 

19th. — Move ia morning ; arrived near Winchester, formed line and 
charged the enemy; drove them back with severe losses; the cavalry giving 
way on the left forces us to fall back ; retreat to Middletown and camp. 

20th. — Resume retreat; pass through Strasburg aud take position in the 
works on Fisher's Hill. 

21st. — Skirmish with enemy. 

22d. — Skirmish from morning till 4:30 o'clock P. M. ; enemy having 
flanked the left of our line, the troops give way ; our boys remain bravely 
in the works until all others bad left, then withdraw and fall back to 
within li miles of Edinburg. 

23. — At daylight resume retreat, passing through Edinburg, Mount Jack- 
son ; form line of battle 2 miles from the pike, on Rood's Hill. 

24th. — Begin falling back, skirmishing all the while; pass through New 
Market, near Lacey's Spring, turn off toward the mountain, and camp near 
Keezeltown. 

25th. — Move at daylight ; pass through Keezeltown, cross Shenandoah 
river at Port Republic ; go to camp at Brown's Gap, near the Furnace. 

26th. — Same position. 

27th. — Move forward ; meet the enemy near Weer's Cave ; drive them 
back and camp. 

28th. — March at 10 o'clock A. M. ; camp 2 miles from Waynesboro. 

29th. -30th. — Same position. 

October 1st. — Move at daylight on the road to Valley pike, near Mount 
Sidney ; camp near Mount Crawford. 

2d-3d-4th-5th. — Same position. 

6th. — At sunrise resume marching ; pass through Harrisburg and camp on 
left of the pike, 2 miles from town. 

7th. — March at daybreak ; pass New Market, and camp 1 mile from said 
town, on road to Jordan ville. 

8th-9th-10th-llth. Same position. 

12th. — Move at sunrise down the Valley pike, pass through Mount Jack- 
son, Edinburg, and camp 1 mile from Woodstock. 

13th. — Resume march at 6 o'clock A. M.; pass through Woodstock ; arrive 
near Strasburg ; leave this place to the right ; go to Cedar creek ; meet the 
enemy and drive them back ; at dark fall back to our former position on 
Fisher's Hill. 

14th. — Move to the front of onr works on the hill, overlooking Strasburg ; 
skirmish with Federal cavalry ; at dark fall back to the hill. 

15th-16th-17th. — Same programme. 

18th. — At dark move noiselessly in the direction of Massahutten moun- 



54 Biographical and Historical Papers 



tain, followed the base of the same, cross Shenaudoah river, and rest near 
Cedar creek, on the enemy's left flank. 

19th. — Surprise the enemy's pickets at Cedar Creek ; waded the stream, 
formed line immediately, and charged the enemy ; we drive them from the 
camp, capturiDg 1900 prisoners, Id pieces of artillery, a great many wagons 
and ambulances, and most all of their ordnance, quartermaster's and com- 
missary stores ; we forced them back beyond Middletown. In the after- 
noon was driven back ; fell back to Fisher's Hill ; march all night ; in 
morning pass through Edinburg, Mount Jackson, and go to old camp near 
New Market. 

21st-22d-23d-24th.— Same position. 

25th. — Change camp about 1 mile ; go near the north branch of Shen- 
andoah. 

26th. — Same camp; temporary consolidation of the Louisiana Regiments ; 
10th and 15th Louisiana regiments organized into the company known as 
Company D, York's command. 

27tb-28th-29th-30th-31st. November lst-2d-3d-4th-5th-6th-7th.-Same camp; 
daily drills and parades. 

8th. — Go to camp, 4 miles above New Market, on the right of the Great 
Valley pike. 

9th. — Same position. 

10th. — March at sunrise down the pike ; passed through New Market, 
Mount Jackson, Edinburg, and camp 1 mile of Woodstock. 

11th. — Move at 6 o'clock A. M.; march through Woodstock, Strasburg, 
Middleton, and camp 1 mile of Newton. 

12th. — Skirmish all day with enemy near town ; at dark fall back to 
Fisher's Hill. 

13th. — Resume retreat at sunrise ; pass through Woodstock and camp 
near Edinburg. 

14th. — Move at 6 o'clock A. M.; pass through Edinburg, Mount Jackson, 
New Market, and go late to camp. 

15th-16th-17th-18th-19th -20th-21st.— Same position . 

22d. — March to Rood's Hill to support our cavalry, which had been driven 
back to Mount Jackson ; drove the enemy back, re-established our cavalry 
line of pickets, then returned to camp. 

23d-24th-25th-26th-27th-28th-29th-3t0h. December lst-2d.-Same position, 
&c. 

3d. — Move to change camp ; march about 1 mile up the valley and camp. 

4th-5th. Same camp. 

6th. — March at sunrise up the valley pike ; pass through Harrisonburg, 
Mount Crawford, and camp near Mount Sidney. 

7th. — Took the road to Waynesboro, arriving within 1-J miles from town, 
at dark; embark on the cars and proceed to Richmond. 

8th. — Arrive at Richmond at 10 o'clock A. M.; march to the Petersburg 
depot, take cars, go to Petersburg, and camp in Law's brigade quarters ; 
again move to the right of the line and occupy Davis' quarters. 

9th. — Go to extreme right of the line to re-establish the cavalry picket 
line, and reconnoitre the position ; return to Davis' quarters at dark. 

10th-llth-12th. — Same camp. 

13th.— Organize a camp on the extreme right, near Hatcher's Run, 1 mile 
in rear of Burgess' Mill; here build winter quarters. 

February 5th. — Fought the enemy on the north of Hatcher's Run ; at dark 
return to camp. 

6th. — Fought the enemy south of Hatcher's Run, near Armstrong mill ; 
kept him in check. 

7th. — Worked all day fortifying ; at dark returned to camp. 

March 12th.— Left winter quarters near Burgess' Mill, on Hatcher's Run, 
ann go in the breastworks in front of Petersburg, near the Crater. 

13th. — At dark move about 700 yards to the left, and take the position 
formerly occupied by Grace's brigade. 



Relating to Louisiana. 55 



14th to 24th, inclusive. — Remain in same position, skirmishing with the 
enemy. 

25th. — At about 2:30 o'clock in the morning, move by the left flank and 
take a position on the left of Evan's brigade ; at dawn cross the breast- 
works at Grace's salient ; move forward, capturing the Yankee pickets, 
and assault and take possession of Fort Steadman, &c; capture 4 guns and 
3 mortars and nearly the whole garrison. An advance is now made towards 
battery No. 5 and arrive within 300 yards of it. Here the confident progress 
was arrested by large reinforcements reaching the enemy.. Lee orders a 
retreat, which is executed under a terrible fire of artillery and musketry. 
At about 10 o'clock both armies occupy their original position (order of 
attack), the corps of sharpshooters, Louisiana brigade, head of attacking 
column. 

29th to 31st, inclu8ive.--Same position and all quiet. 

April 1st. — At 10 o'clock P. M. grand demonstration by the enemy ; 
heavy shelling and skirmishing, which lasted the whole night. 

2d. — At break of day move to the right to diive the enemy, who has 
forced a portion of our line ; after several charges, recapture about 200 
yards of our works, but fail to drive him away. [The Louisiana troops 
while hemming in the corps, which had succeeded in effecting an entrance 
at the Crater, had to remain passive while under a galling fire during a 
large portion of the 22 hours battle. Their Hues were enfiladed, and the 
only chance for any preservation of life whatever, was in closely hugging 
the coins of vantage about the breastworks. All of the men killed were 
shot through the head, and frequently the men, in order to tell what was 
the force of the storm of battle, would hoist a cap on a pole and count the 
number of bullets it received in a given time, just as the steamer tells of the 
number of feet it is drawing by its lead soundings. As to what this bullet 
fury amounted to, the following incident will suffice : 

During the quiet days of the occupation of Petersburg, the officers and 
men had been accustomed to attend church service on Sunday. The last 
battle about Petersburg occurred on Sunday, and at about 10:30 A. M., Col. 
Waggaman, who had frequently attended on these occasions with Powell, 
the son of the well known old Surveyor of the same name, by way of in- 
quiring what was the hour, jocularly asked if they would yet have time to 
get to church. " Hardly," said Powell, consulting his watch, " unless we 
leave quickly." He had scarcely finished speaking before a bullet came 
along which caused his instantaneous death. His comrades could hear it 
crash in passing through his head. His expression did not change until he 
had lost his last drop of blood. His father's death, doubtless brought on by 
he loss of his promising son, followed soon after.] At half past 1 o'clock, 
on the morning of April 3d we evacuated our position on the line of Peters- 
burg, cross the Appomattox river and relocate on the Woodpecker road, 
towards Amelia Court House, and camp after marching 10 or 11 miles. 

4th. — At daylight move on the Hickory road, recross the Appomattox 
river, and camp i\ miles from Amelia Court House. 

5th. — Pass through the Court House and march towards Burksville. 

6th. — Retreat, all the time fighting the enemy, on the left of the road 
leading to Burksville; being closely pressed, we fall back across the road, 
where we are confronted by another line of the enemy's troops ; we retrace 
our steps and meet our troops ; ordered at the bridge to defend its passage, 
but before reaching it are ordered to fall back ; at dark, ordered to support 
one piece of artillery, posted on a road, to defend any approach in our 
direction, whilst the army retreats to Farmsville ; remain in the position 
until 9 o'clock, when we resume the retreat and meet the main body of our 
army at High Bridge ; rest there and then march to Farmsville, where we 
bivouac until daylight, 

7th. — Cross Appomattox river ; form line of battle on the hills bordering 
the river ; at 8 o'clock A. M. begin skirmishing and build breastworks with 



56 Biographical and Historical Papers 



fence rails, expecting an attack in force; remain there until our train had 
passed, then move by the left flank on the right of the road leading to 
Appomattox Court House, now and then halt and form line of battle. 

10th. — Surrender. 

13th. — Left Appomattox Court House. 

16th.— Left City Point. 

21st.— Transferred from the United States transports to the steamship 
Atlanta, and left Fortress Monroe at 2 o'clock P. M. on our way home. 

[Lieut. Col. Monier (foi with this latter title he came home after Ap- 
pomattox), here ends a journal which is as remarkable for the patient in- 
difference or forgetfuluess of the hardships which the brigades must have 
endured, as for the enumeration of the marches, military movements, and 
continual encounters to which they were every day exposed. The journal 
gives enough to show what was done and no more. If any more remarkable 
career of service during the whole war can be found than is co?\tained in the 
simple journal of these brigaded, it has thus far failed to meet the present 
writer's eye.] 



Beader, one sigh for the gallant Tenth — 
One sigh for the fallen brave ; 

Their tale is told, their deeds at length 
But a line in history crave. 

Where are the dead, and who have wept 1 

Full many are their graves ; 
Alas ! who comes where they have slept, 

Alone, where the willow waves ? 



Far from their homes, in a distant clime, 

Most from beyond the sea ; 
Unknown their fate, untold by time, 

Buried in mystery. 

From the Ehine and Khone, from foreign land, 

From Northern icy shore ; 
Their hearts beat warm, a noble band, 

For the Southern cause full sore. 



From Britain Isle, from sunny France, 

From Erin dear they came; 
And fiercely fought the North's advance, 

And for our Southern fame. 



Devoted to death for Southern right, 
Fighting in Freedom's cause ; 

Can country e'er their deeds requite, 
Or honor by the laws ? 

No more exists the gallant Tenth, 

With us no more in name, 
But though extinct and gone in strength, 

Shall perish not in fame. 



Relating to Louisiana. 



THE SIXTH LOUISIANA REGIMKXT 



The Oth Regiment of Louisiana volunteers, composed of the 
companies as shown below, was organized at Camp Moore, on 
the -i: d of Max, 1801. Col. I. J. Seymour, a veteran of the 
Florida and Mexican wars, was elected Colonel ; Captain Louis 
Lay, of the Violet Guards, Lieutenant Colonel, and Captain 
S. L. James, of th- Irish Brigade, Major. On the 11th of June 
the Eegiment started for the seat of war in Virginia, and, on 
arriving at Manassas, were immediately sent to the front. It 
there occupied the advance posts, under General Ewell, until 
the approach of the enemy, when it fell back to the Bull Run 

line. 

During the light of the 18th July, the Regiment was in re- 
serve, aud was not called into action. On the memorable L'ist 
of July, the position occupied by the Regiment was not at 
tacked, and a movement on the part of 10 well's command, con- 
templated by General Beauregard, was not executed, in conse- 
quence of the disappearance or the courier bearing the order. 

On the organization of the army of the Potomac, this Regi- 
ment, with the 7th, 8th aud itth La. and AVlieat's Battalion, 
formed the Sth Brigade of that army, under General Walker. 
Gcueral Taylor was afterwards assigned to the command of the 
Brigade, and on the retreat from Manassas, for a long time pro- 
tected the line of the Rappahannock. 

The history of the Oth Regiment from this time was identi- 
fied with that of Jackson and Ewell. On the death of Colonel 
Seymour, at Cold Harbor, the command devolved on Colonel 
Strong. He also met the death of a soldier at the battle of 
Sharpsburg. The command then devolved on Colonel Mon- 
aghau, its last commander, who was killed at the head of his 
regiment. 

The muster roll given below represents the regiment at t lie 
commencement of the third year of the war.* 



At the departure of the regiment Dr. lIoKelvey was surgeon and remained so during 
die tirst SQjd second years of the war: Lieut. Lewis Graham was also Adjutant during 
the first iud second years of the struggle. 

S 



58 Biographical and Historical Papers 



STAFF. 

Col. W. Monaghan. Lieutentant Colonel J. Hanlon. Major W. H. Man- 
ning. Surgeon W A. Robertson. Assistant Surgeons C. H. Todd, J. M. 
Maxwell. Quartermaster J. A. Reed. Commissary J. G. Campbell. Adju- 
tant John Orr. Sergeant Major J. Tobin. Quartermaster's Sergeant M. 
Egan. Commissary Sergeant C. Moran. Color Sergeant P. Bogler. Hos- 
pital Matron M. S. Hill. 

COMPANY A.— (Saline Rifles.) 

Captain J. F Philipps. Lieutenants, E. C. Kosh, J. S. Gilbert, J. S.Wey- 
mouth. Sergeants, E. J. Riohelberger, J. C. White, W. Beard, W. B. Cud- 
dell. Corporals, F. F. Gilbert, J. F. Brolton, T. J. Gilbert, R. A. Maines. 

Privates— H. Bath, A. M. Bright, J. H. Briggs, J. Bently, J. Butts, H. Car- 
lin, J. B. Carley, J. Curtis, T. M. Cook, R. D. Carson, G. W. Carson, S. T. 
Diekerson, T. L Davis, J. Davis, J. A. Dean, A. M. Peason, H. S. Fritz, 0. 
P. Freeman, R. M. Gilbert, A. M. Gilbert, C. J. Gilbert, J. M. Gully, J. D. S. 
Goodwin, C. C. Hayslip, S. B. Hodges, J. Howard, W. A. Hays, C. Honeycut, 
G. Heath, W. D. Jordan, W- R. Johnson, C. Kalker, W. C. Lee, W. H. Low, 
J. H. MoCabe, S. W. Morris, J. Martin, J. P. McGough, B. F. Pearson, J. C. 
MeLemone, W Pugh, W Patterson, T. Province, H. Reynolds, J. H. Rey- 
nolds, P. P. Roach, J. Shepherd, B. J. Smith, R. W- Sibley, B. O, Scar- 
borough, A. J. Traylor, J. Thomas, R. Ursery, Y. Ursery, S. B. Wininger, 
S. Wineberg, W B. Williams, T. P White, J R. Traylor, S. Traylor, M. 
L. Taylor, S. T. Taylor, B. B. Thompson. 

Company B — (Calhoun Guards, N. O.J 

Captain Thomas Redmond, Lieutenants Archibald Duncan, H. Long, H. 
Muldowney; Seargeants P Flannegan, T. Cassey, J. K. McGuinness, Edwar* 
Shaw, W- Kennedy; Corporals M. Freret, J. Ricker, John Killacky. 

Privates — C. Adams, T. Brett, C. Brown, T. Byrnes, R. Boyne, M. Carlos, 
D. Curry, W- Co ffee, T. Clayton, W Cooney, T. P. Cavanagh, B. Collum, C. 
Devon, J. Donavan, B. Dunn, J. Devine, J. Doyle, P. H. Ennis, T. Flanna- 
gan, John Fay, P. Foley, T. Gaffney, J. Good, R. Grimstead, M. Gohan, J. 
Gallaher, M. Hughes, P. Aughes, G. Hughes, M. Hanley, J. Hart, J. Hussel- 
by, R. Hines, W. Henry, S. Jenkins, S. Keiger, J. Kesla, A. Kennedy, J. Kain, 
J. Kegao, F. Lynch, P. Lawler, T. Long, L. Miller, J. Mack, E. Murdock, J. 
Maloney, C. Mnrphy, J. Murphy, J. Mehan, J. McClung, P McGuin, J. Mc- 
Donough, P. McEvoy, M. McDonald, J. O'Bryan, J. Ryan, T. Quinally, J. 
O'Reedy, J. Rafferty, L. Schidell, M. Shanaghan, M. Tiner, J. Sullivan, P. 
Ward, J. Wilkinson, J. Walker. 

Company C — (St. Landry Guard, St. Landry ^Parish.) 

Captain L. A. Cormier ; Lieutenants P. Scott, F. O'Reilly, L. E. Cormier- 
Sergeants A. Phiel, G. W. Hanna, A. Lacomb, H. Graham, H. O. Tubre ; 
Corporals E. Lallenr, F. Kirol, A. Young, U. W Fisher. 



E elating to Louisiana 59 



Privates — W. Arden, A. Andrus, A. Barton, M. Bushnel, C. S. Belbow, C 
Baddeau, M. Bolendorf, M. Bihm, A. W. Blair, W. W Bowen, A. Bertrand,' 
E. Curtis, T. Craig, D. Cunningham. T. N. Cheiner, J. Cox, F. M. Drinkard 
A. Disbert, L. T. Darby, W. Douglas P. Derosier, B. Fontenot, J. Fitch, O 
S. Fontenot, E. Fontenot, M. Fontenot, P. H. Fontenot, M. Ford, J. B. Fus- 
ilier, G. P Gordon, J. S. Gale, L. Gleary, C. J. Going, Z. Guillory, A. Guil- 
lory, J. D. Hain, W Hebert, F. Hardy, J. H. Hull, C. Humble, F. Sacob, B. 
Johnston, P. Jackson. A. Lacomb, P. Lambert, A. Lawney, W Labarge, E. 
Lejeune, J. Lejeune, J. Mulhollaud, J. Morris, J. Mullen, L. Meriviere, A. 
McKinney, L. McGee, A. Manuel, T. N. Overall, W. E. Olds, T. O. Connor, J. 
Porter, L. Pitre, A. Quintard, C. N. Bichmond, L. Eichard, J. E. Scott, B. 
Savant, J. Sam, A. Schenk, 0. Smith, T. Smith, J. Steven, F. N. Stout, P. Y. 
Simpson, L. Fessenden, J. Otraiuor, J. B. Vidrine, H. Vable, A. Vahle, E. 
W Winkler, A. Winkler, H. Young. 

Company D. — (Tensas Rifles — Tensas Parish.) 

Captain B. F. Buckner. Lieutenants, W. H. Gibson, J. G. Davs. Ser- 
geants, J. Coleman, W E. Wood, L. N. Coffey, James Mildoan. Corporals, 
W. E. Trahan, J. C. Allen. 

Privates— E. Allen, J. Bonnily, K. M. Burodyne, T. H. Chew, J. A. Gui- 
llard, J. Donoho, L. Farnhan. C. Drank, P. F. Ford. J. K. Guilbert, J. M. 
Guilbert, C. B. Green, B. C. Guire, Thos. Hays, W Harris, J. C. Hilliard, J 
Isenhard, M. Kelly, J. C. King, I. S. Lee, H. L. Lilly, P. Meinhart, J, L, 
Nevers, A. S. Nealhery, J. U. Paxton, S. D. Pitman, A. Phillip, A. Eeinfrank. 
C. Eeinhart, J. M. Eosson, Alex Eeed, J. S. Eiley, Tim Sullivan, J. H. 
Smeje, T. H. Woodward, Wm. Wheelan, Wm. Weldons, Mich Welsh, W T. 
Wells, E. White. 

Company E — (Mercer Guards, New Orleans.) 

Captain, J. J. Eivera ; Lieutenants, Eobert Lynne, Geo. Lynne ; Ser- 
geants, W Lacklin, W Strohfeldt. Eobert Black, T. T. Byrne. 

Privates — J. T. Aitkens, J. W. Brady, Joseph Burci, Henry Burgess, W 
A. Beard, N. Buckholtz, M. C. Cullen, J. F. Carney, Wm. Elmore, M. L. 
Gleeson, H. C. Hall, F. Cane, C. Moran, J. Moran, W. Murdock, A. F. Moy- 
nan, James Madden, J. H. Murray, F. Eosch, D. Eomer, J. H. Smith, J. 
Shannon, E. Sattele, J. P. Skalon, E. Alexander, N. Brugniens, P. Burci, W. 
Burns, Gus. Cenas, Delaney, C. Deisler, M. Donnolly, M. Driscoll, M. Evans, 
E. Gorman, D. Hutchings, W. Hutchings, E. Harney, I. Hayes, B. Hubert, 
Kane, James Kelly, H. E. Kelly, Kelly, J. Murphy, S. Moore, W Meisner, M. 
Obermeyer, John Park, A. Palmer, E. Eobertson, John Eobinson, E. M. 
Eusha, C. Sherwood, John Wills, Wm. Wilk, D. Williams, J. Williams. 

Company F— (Irish Brigade, New Orleans.) 

Captain, M. T. Connor ; Lieutenants, J. O. Martin, J. Orr, M. Murray ; 
Sergeants, J. J. Conway, M. Long, J. Ward, M. J. Edwards, T. Bone ; Cor- 
porals, E. Gready, E. Cahill, W. Phair, J, Murray. 



(JO Biographical and Historical Papers. 



Private*--!. Adams, J. Brainard, T. Bowe, J. Burns, A. Cahill, F Cum 
mins, P Dunn, D. Carroll, P. Canahler, L. Flanagan, M. Flanagan, J. Fitz- 
gerald, F. Fairot, D. Floiery, B. Fox, W Fox, P Gannon, E. Green^Galla- 
glier, M. Hogan, S. Hill, S. W. Hill, J. Hanby, P Holland, M. Hays, H. Hall, 
D. Haley, J. Johnson, M. Joyce, T. Keane, R. MoGee, R. Murphy, J. Murphy' 
P. McCormick, M. McCormick, M. Moran, W. Murray, M. Murray, B. Mc- 
Coole, W Mooney, M. Nolan, W O'Brien, T. O'Brien, Jas. O'Neil, P. O'Mara, 
H. Phew, J. Poolta, D. Porer, D. Rionda, M. Riley, Pat. Ross, John Ryan, J. 
South, W South, P Sweeney, M. Sinault, M. S. Walsh, H. Walsh, C. White. 
Jno. Wkeelon, F. Austin. 

Company G. — (P ember ton Guards, New Orleans. J 

Captain, Frank Clarke; Lieutenants, Jeff. Van Bentliuysen, John Shay ; 
Sergeants, Philip Bolger, Andrew Hill, Jno. A. Skiver, Jno. Bruuniug, A. A. 
Steiunitz, Jno. Klopher ; Corporals, A. Bock, A. Beach, G. Dick. 

1'rirates — J. Abel, H. Boelte, F. Dorsing, T. Daegner, A. Elkins, H. Eugle- 
kardt, P. Fitzpatrick, P Ford, J. Fraid, W. F. Hugden, H. Husselmau, P 
Knapp, P. Lievre, M Lush, J. Lorentz, F. Lorentz, J. McDonnough, A. 
Miller, F. O. Rourke, Jno. O. Reilly, L. Pfister, N. Peters, J. Renicke, J. P. 
Rogers, H. Smith, James Smith, John Smith, F. Scliwenterman, F. Spers, L. 
Shaw, W Thers, C. Waldman, J. Vogler, J. Weik, C. Wagner, E. Weigert, 
John Weis, Fred. Wolf, A. Young. Musician— H. Husckky. 

Company H.— (Orleans Rifles, N. 0.) 

Captain, Charles Pilcher. Lieutenant Thomas Lucas. Sergeants, Wil- 
liams Rourke, C. Meyers, H. C. Hiedelberg, M. J. Kennedy, D. Crawford. 
Corporals, Louis Bertand, Ford, Rosse. 

Prirates— H. Brabas, T. Conuell, J. Flynn, H, Grabble, John Joy, F. Koes- 
ner, PI. McC'ance, R. Carr, P. Duffee, E. Farrell, H. Leman, W- Jackson, \V 
Lyle, J. F. Morris, A. McAllese, P. Clark, C. Flohr, N. Pigenshne, L. Hous- 
ton, F. Kelly, J. E. Lamgriage, J. F. Michell, J. Mayee, C. Olding, J. Quinn. 
W Ryan, M. Rabbuck, J. Richardson, H. S. Safford, H. Steuart, G. Single- 
ton, J. F. Shannon, N. Scofield, F. Stern, J. A. Schrieber, J. Singrey, 

Templeton, C. Turner. 

Company I.— (Irish Brigade, N. 0.) 

Captain, B. T. Walshe. Sergeants, P. Byrnes. J. Mulroouey, D. Filzger- 
ald, J. Buckley. 

Privates — J. Clancey, J. Cahill, N. Conner, B. Clarke, J. Clarke. J. Con- 
don, P. Denavan, John Donalioe, T. Davis, M. Dabis, E. Fitzgerald, T. 
Flynn. T. Flanagan, E. Gunderson, T. Hughes, W. Hart (1), W Hart (2) 
William Knox, J. Keefe, Richard Kelly, J. Kellecher, J. Lewis, P Murphy, 
M. Moffat. C. Managan, J. Mullen. J. Maguire, J. McCarthy, R. Nolan. M. 
Roouey, J. Riley. D. Ryan, J. Sullivan, R. Tobin, M. Walsh. 



Relating to Louisiana 61 



Company K. — ( Vi )let Guards.) 

Captain, Geo. P. King. Lieutenants, Samuel 0. Kirk, Edward Flood, 
Peter Hare. Sergeants, J. H. Agaisse, W- Harding, B. W. Seales, P. P. 
Hickey, W. Halpin. Orderly Sergeant, John Cahill. Corporals, M. Smith, 
P. Healey, T. Maher, Edward Burns. 

Privates— T. Bartley, M. Clarke, D. Curry, J. W. Colemau, J. Coleman, C. 
Comfort, J. Conley, C. Delmore, P. G. Dunn, D. Driscoll, L. Durr, G. Est- 
low, J. Finuegau, T. Fitzgerald, P. Finnegan,, G. Graham, (J. Grasser, G. 
Gaisser, M. Hughes, T. Hughes, J. Hurley, W- Higgins, E. Hoolahau, O. 
Hearty, W Henry, A. Hutching*, J. Kingston, M. Kerwin, VV. Lucas, P. 
Madden, E. Manning, P. Matthews, T. Murphy, G. Murphy, H. McGurty, C. 
MeMahon, J. McAdains, M. McCue, \V. MeCluskey, M. Niess, M. Plunhartt, 
G. C. Russel, J. Eussel, D. Ryan, M. Sullivau, M. Shay, D. Shay, T. Wallace, 
M. Wilson, L. Walch, J. M. Walsh, P. Wagner, W Wibell, J. Waldron, John 
Waldron, M. Young, D. Singleton, J. Nunon. 



CASUALTIES UP TO 13th DECEMBER, 1862. 



Winchester, May 2~>, 1861. 

Killed- Major McAtthur, Privates Ed. Butt, E. Doyle, T. Murphy, S. 
Newport. 

Wounded — Capt. J. Hanlon, Sergeant D. Horrigan, Corporals C. Drady, 
J. Maher, Privates J. S. Gibbert, A. S. Neathery, E. Allen, R. Cahil, P 
Caughlin, L. Pflster, A. Weik, E. Clarke, T H. Flanagan, P. Frazier, N. 
Magner, R.Tobin, J. Finnegan, J. Shepherd, J. Killacky, M. Wheelan, W. 
Fox, R. Murray, J. O. Reiley, H. Englehart, P Donavan, E. Fitzgerald, P. 
Gleason, C. McAulitf. 

Port Republic, June 8, 1861. 

Killed — Captain I. A. Smith, Sergeant D. A. Fitzpatrick, Corporal Mont- 
gomery, Privates J. Croak, M. Murray, J. Smith, M. Murray, C. Euth, Noo- 
nan, D. Fitzpatrick, A. Benito, F. Gallagher, T. Kane, J. McCormack, D. 
Mullen, C. Sponhammer, T. Windsor, J. Gallagher. 

Wounded — Lieutenants J. O. Martin, T. P. Farrar, Sergeants J. C. White' 
J. Agaisse, D. Fitzgerald, Corporal J. Ward, Privates R. M. Gilbert, M. R. 
Speight, J. McCarthy, J. H. Myers, J. Wade, E. Fontenot, J. Donahoe, M. 
Casey; J. Fitzgerald, P. O'Rourke, J. Shannon, W. Flood, M. Wilson, M. 
Young, W Higgins, P. G. Dunn, H. K. Goldsby, J. A. Dean. J. Kesler, J. 
Fox, W. Smith. L. Metevier, W- H. Corcoran, E. Grady, A. Zang, T. Connell, 
M. Davis, T. Hughes (Co. I), W. Henry, T Hughes (Co. K), J. Finnegan, P. 
Madden. 



62 Biograyhical and Historical Papers. 



Cold Harbor, June 27th, 1861. 

Killed— Col. I. G. Seymour ; Sergeant B. Stagg ; Corporal Torhill ; Pri- 
vates J. Cassidy, T. Counors, A. D. Cassidy, Otto Luderf, J. Hale, M. Lyons. 

Wounded— Lieutenants C. M. Pilcher and B. T. Walshe ; Sergeants E. O. 
Riley, W Harding ; Color Sergeant J. Heill, Turner, M. Conroy ; Corporals 
M. J. Edmond, A. Bock, P. Nealey, L. Hentz ; Privates J. K. McGinniss, J. 
Keegan, H. Schiller, A. Ryan, G. Singleton, A. Tinley, J. Higgins, J. Hurley, 
L. Walsh, D. Shay, P. Ward, J. Gallagher, R. White, W. Reilley, J. Lorentz, 
D. Ryan, H. McGurty, J. Coleman, J. Torpey. 



Cross Keys. 



Killed— C. M. Smith. 



Lee Springs. 

Killed— S. T. Reilley. 

Malvern Hill, July 1st, 1862. 

Killed — Lieutenants S. D. McCauley, G. Frances ; Privates M. Campbell, 
Z. Meyers, P. Higginbotham, J. Adams, J. Leggerton, J. Cullen, J. Sugre, 
J. Flemming. 

Wounded — Captain D. Buckner; Dr. W. A. Robertson; Sergeants J. 
Brunning and Myer ; Privates M. Hughes, M. Sloan, M. Hogan, W. Mooney, 
A. Beach, Fegenshee, McCance, J. Richardson, D. Corfatt, D. Curry, C. 
Delmas, C. Hayslip, M. McDonald, P. Meinhart, F. D. Cummins, D. McCann, 
J. Fitzgerald, F. Lorentz, T. Lucas, S. Murray, J. Delaney, W. McCluskey, 
D. Driscoll, B. Burns. 

Cedar Eun, August 10th, 1862. 

Wounded— P. M. Kelley. 

Bristow Station, August 22d, 1862. 

Killed — Sergeants M. J. O'Connor and Weiss ; Privates B. Merthiu, A. 
Zang, J. Phillips, W. Little, A. Mayer, J. Nolan, P. Frazer. 

Wounded— Corporal M. Smith; Sergeant G. G. Kruse ; Privates B. F. 
Pierson, B. Fontenot, T. Hayes, M. Welsh, N. Bueholz, F. Kane, P. Roe, M. 
Lusk, H. Schmidt, W. Knox, D. Murphy, E. Hoolahan, P. Lambert, S. J. 
Reilley, O. B. Green, F. Rosch, W. Murdock, W. Phair, J. Vogler, E. 
Schwenterman, M. Moffat, M. Shay. 

Manassas (2), August 28th, 29th and 30th, 1862. 

Killed — Lieutenant Healey, Sergeant S. Leslie ; Privates, E. Dillon H 
Gleeson, E. T. Harney, J. Connoly, J. McGovern. 

Wounded — Corporals, T. P. White and Kennedy; Privates, R. Ursery F 
Lawler, E. Weighart, T. Flynn, R. Nolan, P. P. Roach, P. Foley, JW 
Brady, J. Cahill, T. Wallace, P. P. Hickey. 



Relating to Louisiana. 63 



Ohantilly. 



Killed— Corporals, L. Curtis andRoose; Privates, S. Jones, J. Williams, 
C. Vincent, P. McCormack, D. Havigan, J. Brason. 

Wounded— Major W Monagkan ; Captain Rivera ; Lieutenant G. P. Ring; 

Sergeauts. E. Richelberger, Pfeil, R. Black, J. J. Conway ; Privates, 

J. R. Gilbert, D. R. Thompson, J. Venoy, A. G. Swan, J. C. Hilliard, T. Sul- 
livan, W Strohfeldt, D. Brenan, S. Hill, T. Bowe, J. Condon, H. Manning, 
J. Graham, J. M. Gully, S. B. Winegar, J. Reddy, O. S. Foutenot, W. R. 
Olds, J. K. Gilbert, A. S. Xethery, H. G. Lilly, E. Grady, J. Murray, J. Mc- 
Donough, M. Rooney, W Higgins, N. Hunkett. 

Sharsburg, September 17th, 1S62. 

Killed — Colonel Strong : Captain Calloway, Captain H. M. Ritchie, Lieu- 
tenant M. Little, Lieutenant G. Lynne : Sergeant G. W- Joyner ; Privates, 

E. Sloan, P Oger, W Mansell. 

Wounded — Captain M. 0. Couuor, Captaiu G. P Ring, Captain F. Clark . 
Lieutenant J. O. Martin, Lieutenant John Orr, Lieutenant C. H. Smith, 
Lieutenant Heintz, Lieutenant I. A. Reed; Sergeants, J. C. White, J. N - 
Cuft'ey, A. Hill, J. A. Sclireiber, Turner, P. Carr, P. Burns, J. McGuire ; 
Corporals, J. T Baltou , L. Heiutz. Privates, A. Cox, T. J. Gilbert, T. Mc- 
Cook, S. W. Morris, T. F. Gilbert, J. R. Traber, P. Ursery, R. A. Maines' W. 
W Fisher, Wells, Coleman, V L. Farnham, J. Smith, G. Cenas, G. P. Purcy, 

F. Rustin. M. Harkin, M. Sinnott, P. Tewhey, J. Carroll, J. Weiss, Meekler, 
Safford, G. Dunn, P. Burns, M. Sullivan, K. Comfort, P. Manning, Harding. 

Fredericksburg, December 13th, 18G2. 

Killed — Rungenberg. 

Wounded — Captain Buckner ; Sergeat W Wood ; Corporal F. Gilbert ; 
Privates, T. Quinnally, J. Ryan, J. Kane, J. Keegan, J. Gallagher, J. Mor- 
risson, W- Weible, 



MUSTER ROLL OF CO. G, 1st LOUISIANA REGIMENT, 

From August to October, 1861. 

Captain T. M. Dean; First Lieutenant E. D. Willett ; Senior Second 
Lieutenant J. A. Blaffer, resigned October 14th, 1861 ; Junior Second Lieu- 
tenant A. N. Cummings ; First Sergeant A. J. McAlpine ; Second Sergeant W 

Wilson ; Third Sergeant George Richardson ; Fourth Sergeant ; 

Corporals R. E. Gamier, W. L. Doyle, H. Healey, W- D. Jones ; Musician, 
W H. Clark. 



('A Biographical and Historical Papers 



Prirates—M. Crawley, G. B. Anthony, R. A. Cannell, D. DaSilva, John 
Bader, P. W. Carroll, L. F. Degray, L. H. Baker, F. Casserino,* Thomas Fitz- 
gerald, John Begley, E. Cleve, J. S. Gerson, S. Benson*, Charles Collins, W 
Hayeman, John Brennan, W Connery, R A. Edwards, S. Brown, John Cor- 
coran, Thomas Fitzgerald, W Henney, J. D. P. Jones, W. C. Lee, Jr., M. 
Hertz, Charles H. Leonard, C. M. Hillburn, James F. Lyman, John Meehau, 
S. M. Kell, J. A. McDonald, M. O'Rorke,* J. T. Kelly, M. McGregor, R. E. 
Patteson, J. Pendergast, R. S. Pruith, H. Prieur. P H. Raymond, C. W. 
Reade, L. A. Richardson, Charles Roberts, B. Saphier, Robert Sanders, L. 
Sehernger, H Schanb; F. Stnbin, Abbt. Sturm, D. E. Sullivan, W L. 
Thompson, William Tracy, George Werlein, P. Wifigel, L. E. White, George 
Wilson, B. Woolf. 

Transferred to Compaay K, Captain Frost, September, 1861, J. M. Coy ; 
transferred to Company D, Captain Nelligau, September, 1861, Patrick Cor- 
bine, Charles Padden, Thomas Pilkington, H. E. Himan. 

I certify, on honor, that this muster roll exhibits the true state of Captain 
Deane's Company G, 1st Regiment, Louisiana Volunteers, for the period 
herein mentioned. 

Lieutenant E. D. WILLETT, Commanding the Co. 

November 1st, 1861. 



ROLL OF CAPTAIN E. D. WILLETT, COMPANY G, 1st 
REGIMENT LA. VOLS. 

Foe the Month of Febkuaky, 1864. 

Captain E. D. Willett, First Lieutenant M. O'Rourke, detailed as con- 
script officer at Mobile, Orderly Sergeant M. Hertz, Second Sergeant R. 
E . Gamier, Third Sergeant F. Casserino. 

Privates — S. M. Benson, J. Bierman, E. Clerc, absent wounded, on fur- 
lough ; P. W Carroll, W Conery, W L. Doyle, detailed at Jackson Hos- 
pital, Richmond, Va.; D. H. Da Silva, absent on furlough; R. A. Edwards, 
absent, wounded ; J. Mehan, detailed at Stanton Hospital : J Pendergast 
absent, wounded, R. E. Patteson, R. S. Pewett, L. A. Richardson, D. E. 
Sullivan, detailed as Quarter Master Sergeant ; R. Sanders, discharged Feb- 
ruary 27th, 1864. 

I certify on honor that this Muster Roll exhibits the true state of Capt. 
E. P. Willet's Company G, 1st Regiment La. Vols., for the period herein 
mentioned. P. H. CAVANAUGH, 

Lieut. Commanding Company G 

Elected Lieutenant, April until, 18IW. 



Louisiana Tpps in the West. 



BEIGADE OF THE ARMY OF TENNESSEE. 



After the retreat from Corinth to Tupelo, Miss., the brigad- 
ing of troops from the same State, under instructions from the 
War Department, was commenced. At this time the following 
regiments composed the Louisiana contingent in that army :* 

The First Louisiana Regular Infantry, under command of 
Col. D. AV Adams, who as Lieut. Colonel had succeeded Col. 

'Apropos of the Louisiana troops in the West and of those which finally 
joined them at Mobile was the "28th Louisiana, which went out a short 
time after the Confederate Kespouse call of Beauregard, and which was 
placed at Vicksbnrg under Peuiberton. Col. Thomas (now of Ascension) 
was its first Commander ; but Allen becoming too crippled to longer com- 
mand the brigade known by his name, Col. Thomas became one of his suc- 
cessors and J. O. Landry became Colonel of the '28th. 

As digressions in a book about curious incidents, and gossip about men 
and places, are sometimes the most readable part, a word about the last 
mentioned name, now held by one of our best known public men, will not 
be read without interest. 

The Landry family, which dates back to the French and Spanish occupa- 
tion of the country, is probably the most numerous of any in the State — the 
blood of the first settler flowing in the veins of fully '2000 of his descend- 
ants. The parish in which it is established bears his name, and a large 
portion of it was given the family as a Spanish grant. The name has given 
to the State Trasimond Landry, for Lieut. Governor, J. Aristide, a member of 
Congress, Narcisse, a distinguished soldier at Chalmette, Amadeo, one of 
the city fathers of New Orleans and Chairman of the Finance Committee, 
and Theodule, as a Surveyor General. In the Confederate War, K. Prosper 
Landry was Captain of the gallant Donaldson Artillery of Lee's army. 

Of Col. J. O. Landry, now Administrator of Commerce of New Orleans, it 
may be stated, by way of showing that races do not degenerate iu this 
climate, that the present representative of the old Norman name is over 
six feet in stature, robust and red faced in proportion, and is physically one 
of the most powerful men in the State. 

Col. Landry went into the Confederate service as Lieut. Colonel of the 
28th Louisiana, carrying with him five companies from his own parish, and 
as many blood relatives as the Chief of a Scottish Clan. 

1 



Louisiana Troops in the West. 



A. H. Gladden (promoted to a Brigadiership and killed at 
Sliiloh). Gladclen's regiment had served with distinction at 
Pensacola and had been transferred in time to take part in the 
battle of Shilob.t 



The numbering of the regiment gave rise subsequently to much confu- 
sion, owing to the fact that another regiment commanded by Colonel 
(afterwards General) Grey was formed in the Trans-Mississippi with the 
same name ("28th), neither regiment, in the disordered condition of the 
State and the absence of all facilities for communication, knowing any- 
thing, at the time of organization, of the existence of the other. As other 
regiments however had meanwhile been organized and numbered, they 
both retained the same name until the end of the war. 

The command from Camp Moore was sent to Vicksburg, and suffered all 
of the miseries incident to that long and memorable siege. 

As a curious illustration of what fighting amounted to there, the follow- 
ing is, in substance, quoted from Mrs. Dorsey's excellent Life of Gov. Allen : 

"The Federals having discovered the weakness of the fortifications in 
front of the 21st called for a hundred volunteers, to each of whom a $300 
bounty and a discharge were offered. They obtained the men, but were 
saved the necessity of making out the discharges. That is, ninety-seven 
men were killed before reaching the ditch, two fell inside of it, and one 
man alone managed to get back." 

At the battle of Chicasaw Bayou, Landry's command were placed in 
Therm opylean style, at a narrow neck of firm land, across which the Federals 
were about marching, in greatly superior numbers. He was ordered to hold 
his ground at all hazards. This, his regiment did, and so desperate was the 
work, for six hours, that tbe two forces were not twenty feet apart when 
the 28th was relieved. 

When Ereckenridge made his attack on Baton Eouge, Col. Landry, who 
was serving on military commission, patriotically accompanied that 
General, who had been deprived by sickness of the attendance of some 
of his staff, as one of his aids. This expedition was made brilliant by some 
of the most desperate fighting of the war. 

Col. Landry was paroled at the surrender of Pemberton at Vicksburg, 
and was exchanged some thirty days after. He then took command of the 
22d at Enterprise and reported to Maj. Gen. Dabney H. Maury at Mobile. 
He there took charge of the fortifications around Mobile and was after- 
wards sent out on picket duty to Pollard Station to check Federal raids. 
He remained at Mobile until the surrender of that town at the close of the 
war. He has since held the position of City Controller, and is now one of 
the City Administrators. 

t Probably as varied a career of service as any seen by any soldier from 
this State was that of Capt. Wm. Taylor Mumford, the host now of tbe City 



Louisiana Troops in the West, 



The Eleventh Louisiana, Col. S. F. Marks, which had honor- 
ably participated in the campaigns of the Western army, dis- 
tinguishing itself at Belmont and Shiloh. 

The Tsvelfth Louisiana, Col. S. M. Scott, which had also 
meritoriously served in the same campaigns. 

The Thirteenth, Col. R. L. Gibson,* which had been similar- 
ly situated. 

The 16th,t Col. Preston Pond. 

The 17th, Col. Hurd. 

The 18th, Col. Moutou. 

The 19th, Col. B. L. Hodge. 

The 20th, Col. Reichart. 



Hotel, who went out as Second Lieutenant in Hubert's Regiment of 
Artillery. The Major served with distinction at the capture of New 
Orleans, was made prisoner and had the same luck happen to him at the 
siege ot Vicksburg, while serving as a staff officer. He did good service in 
the Western campaigns, in the battles of Tennessee and Georgia, and was 
captured for the last time at the siege and fall of Mobile. 

*Uen. Gibson entered the army with a great reputation for literary 
attainments, having carried off the valedictory at Yale, graduated iu the 
Law Department of the State University, and having served as attach 1 a 
year at the American Legation at Madrid. He commanded the rear guard 
of the Western Army the first day of the retreat from Nashville, and was 
then sent to Mobile. He was assigned the conduct of the operations (near 
the water battery of the Spanish Fort) with a division of infantry and 
forty pieces of artillery, including his own brigade and Col. Patton's 22d 
Louisiana Artillery. In the race of '74 he was elected to Congress. 

tE. John Ellis, Esq., was elected 1st Lieut. St. Helena Rebels early in the 
summer of ItiGl. This company was mustered into the 16th Louisiana In- 
fantry, under the command of Col. Preston Pond. It participated in the 
battle of Shiloh, and in all of the subsequent movements of the Western 
army under Gens. Johnson and Bragg. On the reorganization of the army, 
Ellis was promoted Captain. He was in the engagements at Murfreesboro, 
Tenn., and Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge, in which latter battle he 
was made prisoner, in a hand to hand fight with the enemy. He 
was imprisoned at Johnson's Island for the remainder of the war, and pa- 
roled in July, l-<65. Since the war he has, with his partner, Gov. McEnery, 
occupied a leading position at the bar, been elected to Congress, and holds 
a position in the public mind for honesty, capacity, and past discharge of 
duty second to that of no one who has been entrusted with similar high 
positions. 



Louisiana Troops in the West. 



These were all new regiments, which had been hastily raised 
and hurried forward to the army, where they were reinforced 
by the 25th, Col. S. W. Fisk, commanding. 

Besides these infantry regiments, a battalion of infantry, 
which had been stationed at Columbus and Fort Pillow, was 
augmented by several independent companies and constituted 
the 21st Louisiana, under Col. Kennedy. 

These regiments composed all the organized bodies of 
Louisiauians serving as infantry in the Western Army, if to 
them were added the three companies of Clack's Battalion of 
Confederate Guards. The Battalion of Orleans Guards had 
disbanded, many members joining the Orleans Guards Battery, 
Capt. Ducatel, or the Washington Artillery, 5th company — the 
two Louisiana batteries. 

At the time of the arrival of the troops at Tupelo, Miss., the 
older regiments had been much worn in service and diminished 
by sickness and casualities in battle, during a service of six or 
eight months, active campaigning, in the winter and spring. 
The new regiments, on the other hand, recruited mostly from 
the country districts had fallen, to a great extent, victims to 
the unwholesome location of Corinth, and its fatal effects. 

In this condition were these regiments, when Gen. Bragg 
took command of the army and commenced a re- organization, 
preparatory to carrying the summer and fall campaign into 
Kentucky, and by the time the forces were transferred to the 
neighborhood of Chattanooga, and ready for the onward march, 
the formation of the Louisiana troops had undergone considera- 
ble change in perfecting the State organization. Leaving undis- 
turbed the 1st and 12th regiments, the old 11th had been dis- 
banded, and a battalion of two companies of sharpshooters had 
been formed under command of Maj. Austin,* and the balance 



*Jas. B. Lingan, Esq., (grandson of the Gen. McC. Lingan, killed in the 
now almost forgotten political disturbance in Baltimore in 1812) was with 
this organization. After following the fortunes of Dreux's Battalion to 
Pensacola, in April, '61, he was with that officer in the fatal reconuoissance 
on the Peninsula, which led to the death of the first volunteer battalion 
leader from the State. Lingan came home with others of his command 



Louisiana Troops in the West. 



of the regiment was distributed among the other regiments. 
Clack's Battalion had been also disbanded and similarly dis- 
tributed, but on the eve of the march, under orders from Eich- 
mond, it was re-organized, and together with the 18th and 
Crescent Regiments,t was transferred to the Trans-Mississippi 

in charge of the casketed corpse of Dreux and took part in the funeral 
— the great sensation pageant of the day. Lingan was afterwards elected 
'2d Lieutenant of Cannon Guards, in Marks' 11th Regiment and was 
with the first troops that disembarked with the invading army of Ken- 
tucky. The 11th had a hot time of it at Belmont, having to cross the 
river to the support of Cheatham, but after a variety of vicissitudes, 
came off with a number of prisoners and a standard of colors Gen. 
Polk would have promoted him for his part in capturing these, but for 
Lingan's honesty, who declined the proffered advance in rank, on the 
ground that some other comrade was really entitled to the honor. He 
served in the Sharpshooters after its organization, as Captain of a company, 
and was looked on as one of its most efficient officers. 

After the battle of Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge, his command 
having been shattered by casualties in battle and reduced to scarcely more 
than a corporal's guard, he accepted a staff position under Lt. Gen. Polk 
and served under Col. T. F. Seviere (now of Sawanee College, Tennessee) 
as Asst. Adjt. General. Just before the close of the war he was ordered to 
Richmond as bearer of dispatches, and was assigned to duty as Asst. Com. 
of Exchange, under Col. Robt. Oulde, by Gen. Breckenridge. at that time 
Secretary of War. 

tThis was commanded (together with a brigade in the last part of the 
war) by Col. Bosworth, who went out with it at the time it left the city, 
as Major, at which time it numbered over one thousand men. In the fight 
which immediately followed its arrival at Shiloh, at a critical portion of 
the day's fighting, it struck Prentiss' Brigade on the flank, and compelled 
its surrender, in reply to a call from Bosworth, who had been galloping 
on ahead, in advance of his men, answered by a downward motion 
of his sword on the part of the Federal officer in command. Bishop 
Polk happening to pass in tkat direction, Bosworth, forgetting 
his hearer's cloth, inquired how he was to fence in the whole d — d batch. 
The Bishop replied by referring him to an Aid, repeating meanwhile, 
mechanically, Bosworth's exact phrase. 

Col. Bosworth was with the regiment in its marches (as given elsewhere) 
in the Trans-Mississippi. He was of too impatient and vehement a temper- 
ament to get along always, without some stormy episodes, at Dick Taylor's 

headquarters and elsewhere, in the generally mixed-up condition of things 
which then existed ; he, however, arrived at the honor of commanding a 
brigade, and has since been named President, by his old Crescent Regiment, 
of the Benevolent Association of the same name. 



Louisiana Troops in the West. 



Department. The 4th, Col. H. W Allen, and 17th had been 
previously detached at Ooriuth and ordered to Vicksburg. 

The Kentucky campaign was now inaugurated, and the 
Louisianians first took up their line of march as a State brigade, 
under command of Brig. Gen. D. W Adams, recently promoted 
and assigned to this duty 

As now constituted, it consisted of the 13th, Col. E. L. 
Gibson; 16th, Col. Gober; 19th, Capt. commanding; 

20th, Col. Eeichart; 25th, Col. S. W Fisk, and the 5th Co. 
Washington Artillery, as well as the battalion of sharpshooters 
under Major J. E. Austin. 

As such its organization continued until the end of the war. 
It participated in the battles of Perry ville, Murfreesboro, 
Chickamauga, Missionary Eidge and in nearly all of the en- 
gagements during Johnson's retreat through Georgia. It bore 
a prominent part in the battles under Hood of the 28th and 
31st July, 1864, in front of Atlanta, as well as at Jonesboro 
and Nashville, in Hood's Tennessee Campaign. At the battle 
of Franklin it was held in reserve. 

Its active career on the field terminated with the defence of 
Spanish Fort near Mobile. 

The brigade surrendered and was disbanded at Meridian, 
Miss., May 9th, 1865, being then embraced in the command of 
Lieut. Gen. Dick Taylor. It remained during its whole mili- 
tary history constituted as it originally was as a brigade, if 
we except that the 1st Louisiana Eegulars, the 4th Louisiana 
Infantry, 4th Louisiana Battalion, under Col. McEnery,* and 

'Governor McEnery was born in 1833 at Petersburg, Va., and came to the 
State when a child. He spent a year in college at South Hanover, gradu- 
ated in law at the University in New Orleans in '53, and in '57 was given 
the lucrative appointment of Land Register, which position he ultimately 
lost by stumping the State for Douglas. He went out to Floyd's assistance 
in West Virginia as an Infautry Captain, and was then sent to Savannah 
and Charleston, tbis latter city being saved by the timely arrival of his 
battalion at the battle of Secession ville. This fact was recognized by Gen. 
Evans, who in a general order declared that the service rendered by this 
battalion was so great that they merited a formal commendation before 
the whole of his troops. The Federal General at the time had captured 



Louisiana Troops in the West. 



30tht Louisiana were joined to it before the commencement 
of the Georgia campaign under Johnson. 

At its surrender the brigade was commanded by Brig. Gen. 
R. L. Gibson and consisted of Austin's Battalion, the 13th and 
20th Regiments consolidated, Gol. P. A. Campbell, the 1st 
Regulars, 4th Battalion, 4th Regiment, 20th, 16th, 19th and 
25th consolidated, under Col. F. C. Zacharie^ comprising in all 
about 250 rank and hie. 

With the 22d at Mobile was Capt. Samuel Barnes in com- 
mand of a battery of Cohorn mortars at Mobile; at which 

Fort Secessionville, when McEnery arrived with 200 men, regained posses- 
ion of the Fort, and finding three gunners among his men, held 10,000 
Federal troops at bay until Confederate reinforcements could arrive. Had 
Secessionville fallen it would have involved the loss of Charleston. The 
battalion was received with great honor afterwards by the ladies and citi- 
zens of that important seaport. McEnery's Battalion was also at Jackson, 
Miss., C'hickamauga (with Wilson's Georgia Brigade), Dal ton, Resaca, and he 
was twice wounded. In 1866 he was a member of the Legislature, and in 
1872 was (though never permitted by the administration at Washington to 
perfom the duties of the office) elected Governor of Louisiana. 

tLeon Bertoli, now City Administrator, who went out with the Orleans 
Guards and who was afterwards with the 30th Louisiana, is an honorable 
instance of the Confederate volunteer, of intelligence and capacity, who 
fought until too badly wounded to be of much service to himself or to the 
Confederacy. He went through all of the battles of the army of the West 
until the autumn of 1864 when he was maimed in his right arm by the ox- 
plosion of a shell, and lost entirely his hand. 

tCol. Francis Charles Zacharie, the son of the well known merchant of 
that name, succeeded to the command of the 25th Regiment upon the 
deaths of Cols. Fisk and Lewis, and among a variety of other brilliant 
services in Virginia, the West and the Trans-Mississippi, commanded the 
Regiment in the charge of Brecken ridge's Division, on the 2d of January, 
1863, and was present at Murfreesboro, when the 25th lost 287 out of 457 
men. After the battle of Spring Hill he was detached and guarded a body 
of 1600 prisoners during a march of 600 miles, in midwinter, and with 
small-pox prevalent as one of the least evils. Zacharie boasts the honor 
of having studied at Mount Pleasant Military Academy, New York, grad- 
uated at Trenton, New Jersey, and at the Louisiana University. Since the 
war he has been twice elected to the Legislature and counted out, 
and failed by only a few votes of obtaining the last Congressional nomina- 
tion, over Gibson. He is now devoting his time to the profession of law. 



Louisiana Troops in the West. 



place he was shot through the head by a ball which passed 
to oue side of his nose and which came out at a corres- 
pondingly opposite point of the skull. His recovery was re- 
garded as but little less than miraculous. 

Another battery was there commanded by Maj. Richard 
Bond, who had been with Majs. Mumford, Squires and Hayes 
detailed to the Trans-Mississippi, to organize the Artillery of 
that department, afterwards recalled to their command, when 
the siege of Vicksburg commenced. Mumford then became 
Adjutant on the staff of Gen. Edward Higgius, commanding 
all of the Artillery. This was organized into a brigade, con- 
sisting of the 1st Louisiana Regulars, 1st Tennessee Regular 
Artillery, 7th Louisiana Battalion, commanded by Ool. Fred. 
Ogden, 22d Volunteer Louisiana, 23d, andthe Bladen Artillery 
of Miss., a light battery The line of batteries was five miles 
long, and there were in position 28 Columbian rifles and 10 
inch mortars. 

Another actor upon this arena was Richard Agar, an officer 
of the British army, who on first visiting America brought 
along his uuiform for the purpose of assisting at the reception 
of the Prince of Wales. He entered the 1st Louisiana Artillery 
as Lieutenant, served with it through the war and is still of 
this city. 

On General Gibson's staff was Captain Hugh H. Beiu, 
Adjutant General, Captain Stewart, Inspector General, Captain 
Nortou and Captain Bustis (uow of the house of Baldwin & 
Co.) as staff officers. The Senator of the same name from the 
parish of Orleans (Eustis) was upon Magruder's staff. 

AUSTIN'S BATTALION. 

The Louisiana Battalion of Sharp Shooters was organized at 
Camp "Lookout," near Chattanooga, Tenn., in August, 1862, 
from the 11th Louisiana Regiment, then disbanded by an order 
of the War Department. Major J. E. Austin was ordered to 
organize a battalion under the special Act of Congress, provid- 
ing for sharpshooters. 

The order gave him liberty to pick about two hundred men 
from the 11th Louisiana Regiment, the remainder of which was 



Louisiana Troops in the West. 



to be distributed between the 13th and 20th Louisiana Begi- 
ments. 

This battalion was organized just prior to Bragg's move- 
ment into Kentucky and its first brilliant service was at the 
battle of Perry ville. 

Gen. Adams was ordered to attack the enemy in a thickly 
wooded eminence in his front, and was moving forward across 
a broken but cleared ground, to do so, Austin's Battalion 
occupying the extreme right of the brigade. 

The enemy were formed in eschelon by brigades, but the 
first line of that formation was not discovered until Adams' 
Brigade had almost passed beyoud it, and then it was only 
perceived on the right owing to the irregular topography of 
the country. As the brigade was moving forward in line of 
battle, Austin's Battalion was seen to change front, form to 
the right in double quick time and quit the main line of battle. 
Adams being in the centre of the brigade, was astonished to 
see this eccentric movement, and seat a staff officer to at once 
order Major Austin to bring his battalion back into line. But 
the staff officer had barely reached the Major with the order, 
when the battalion opened a terrific fire on the enemy's right 
flank and rear. — The enemy were completely surprised. They 
were evidently watching the Confederates in their immediate 
front, and had no knowledge of the presence of a force on their 
flank. The attack was so sudden, furious and dashing that a 
whole Federal brigade was put to rout, across the field with 
immense slaughter ; Col. Jewett, of the l.">th Kentucky regi- 
ment was killed on the spot, and Col. W H. Lyttle, of the 9 ( Jth 
Ohio, afterwards Gen. Lyttle, the author of the famous, " I am 
dying, Egypt, dying," was dangerously wounded and captured. 
The Federal line that was routed was lying down behind a 
stone wall, waiting for an attack in front, and as Austin's Bat 
talion swept by the flank, Major Austin perceived from his 
position on horse-back, the enemy to his right not above f>0 
yards. Both bodies discovered each other about the same 
time; fAit Austin's Battalion beiug in motion, changed front so 
ii 



10 Louisiana Troops in the West. 



rapidly and precipitated itself upon the rear and flauk with 
such impetuosity, that the line of the enemy broke in inex- 
tricable confusion and melted away in fearful slaughter. This 
movement of Austin's Battalion was a brilliant tactical 
manoeuvre on the field and saved Adams' Brigade; for if it 
had moved with Adams' Brigade forward to attack, in front, 
the refused flank of the enemy, it would have been at the 
mercy of the enemy, who would have fallen upon it, front and 
rear. 

Gen. Adams rode to Major Austin on the field and compli" 
mented him in the highest terms and said: " Nothing but such 
a brilliant success could excuse an officer for taking his com- 
mand from the main line without orders." In his report also 
of this engagement from Bryantsville, Ky., Gen. Adams makes 
a special mention of Maj. Austin for conspicuous courage and 
skill, and of the gallantry of his battalion. 

This battalion stood foremost in the army of Tennessee as a 
battalion of Sharp-shooters, distancing all competitors in drill 
and manoeuvre, and took the palm at Tullahoma in March, 1863, 
in the celebrated drill of Hardee's corps over all others. This 
was at the same time that the 13th and 20th (consolidated) 
drilled in presence of Hardee, Breckenridge and others, against 
the celebrated 17th Tennessee regiment, andachieved a victory. 

As to the condition of arms and accoutrements the com- 
manding General in an order dated Tullahoma, March 22d, 
1863, says : " At the inspection of arms, the General com- 
manding found only Austin's Battalion in perfect order. The 
appearance «f the guns does high credit to the commander and 
his officers, as well as to the privates." 



The Orleans Guaf[d Battalion an,d Batterj. 



ORGANIZATION AND MUSTEE-EOLL. 



The following is the complete list of the officers aud men who 
went out with the above organization : 

Battalion. 

Leon Queyronse, Major; E. Puech, Adjutant Major; Dr. 
Ferrier, Surgeon; A. Pitot, jr., Sergeant Major ; AlphonseTer- 

trou, Quartermaster ; Victor Labatnt, Color Bearer. 

Company A. 

Captain, Chs. Eoman. 

1st Lieutenant, J. B. Sorapuru ; 2d Lieutenant sr., T. 
Moreno ; 3d Lieutenant, T. O. Trepagnier. 

1st. Sergeant, P A. Judice; 2d, E. Villere; 3d, L. Menard; 
4th, V Prados; 5th, J. E. Toleando. 

1st Corporal, P L. Bouny; 2d, W H. Hewitt; 3d, Commis- 
sary, Oscar J. Forstall ; 4th, E. Fernandez. 

F. S. Coiron, P. A. Vienne, O. Morel, E. Collon, J. Aldige, 
Just- Andry, A. V. Angiboust, A. Beaudet, J. A. Belaume, J. 
Bermudez, F. E. Bernard, D. Bienvenu, F. Blois, L. Boudous- 
quie, G. Bryan, A. Bussae, E. Bertus, E. Cassard, C. C. Craw- 
ford, A. Cruzat, L. Cucullu, G. B. Cury, A. Darcantel, V Da- 
vid, jr., E. DeArmas, F.jDeArmas, H. DeBuys, A. Delery, G. P 
Devron, E. Ducatel, L. Duffel, A. D. Dugue, E. Dupre, A. 
D'Hebecourt, E. Duplantier, G. Fecel, E. Fixary, U. Forestier, 
L. Forestier, A. Forstall, Octave Forstall, Ernest Forstall, 
Theobald William Forstall, L. Fortin, F. Gaiennie, P. Ganel, 



!'■} Tlvi Orleans Guard Battalion and Battery. 

A. Gardere, G.Del'Isle, jr., S. Gerard, E. Glenny, A. Gri*a, E. 
Harris, R. A. Hebrard, M. E. Hernandez, E.Hoa, 0. Y Lalwrre, 
Jules Larose, 0. E. LcBlasc, Euge ne LeBlanc, E. B.Liva»dais, 
L. A. Livaudais, E. Malus, E. Miltenberger, A. Morel, O. M. 
Opdenweger, G. Pascal, E. Peychaud, A. Peychaud, jr., C. 
Philippi, G. Pitot, W Pilard, J. J. A. Plauche, L. A. Polk, H. 
Eousselin, F. A. Rasch. L. Rocquet, 0. H. Taney, A. Tourne- 
in i iv, C. Trouard, T. J. Verret, James Vienne, J. G. Yienne, J. 
C. Villars, J. A. Webre. 

Company B. 

Captain, Eugene Staes. 

1st Lieutenant sr„, E. DeBuys; 2d Lieutenant jr., O. Car- 
riere; 3d Lieutenant sr., P O. Labatut. 

1st Sergeant, Louis Arnauld ; 2d, G. Poree; 3d, A. Hiacks; 
4th, V Labarut; oth, L. DeBuys. 

1st Corporal, Euiil Carriere; 2d, H. Ferrand; 3d, F. Perry, 
jr.; 1th, J. E. Yillavaso. 

P. E. Crozat, Ernest Bourges, T. Libois, A. G. Romain, F. 
Arnand, E. S. Audler, G. Aguillard, F Avegno, E. Arcenanx, 
Jobn Arcbinard, E. Auzoat, 1ST. Bieuveuu, jr., S. Blassmau, H. 
C. Barnett, E. R. Barnett, J. A. Borduzat, M. F. Bonis, H. 
Boisblanc, Hte Bienvenu, H. C. Benit, A. W Brette, Clis. 
Beanlieux, I). Conturie, Ls. Courcelle, H. Chagnon, J. Colla, T. 
N. Cobb, H. Y. DeMahy, P E. Durand, Paul J. Davon, H. 
Daspit, O. J. Delery, T. I. Danziger, Chs. Liard, L. J. Even, L. 

E. Fazeude, Eraile Fortin, Ex. Guerin, B. Genois, E. Hircb, F. 
Jorda, Albert Jobns, L. P ilarang, A. Kilshaw, B. P, Leefe, 
P Lacoste, B. Lacoste, E; E. Livaudais, P. J. Lefevre, Louis 
Gregoire, Jobn Lefevre, Cbs. Laferriere, Gus. Luminais, A. 
Lusto, E. Laniouta, D. C. Levy, Y Martin, Chs. Marine, Hy. 
Maurras, Alex. McArtbur, F. Nicaud, E. Nicaud, F. Marcotte, 
J. D. Olivier, A.Pecbier, A. Pocbee, Louis Piderit, Jas. Rennie, 
Jos. Scbrempp, Emil Villavaso, L. Villavaso, Justin Wolkart, 
Jules A^olkart, A. G. Wagner, L. A. Gaillard, A. E. DeBIanc, 

F. M. Campbell, Chs. Jumonville, Hy. Bonueval, Francis La- 





V 



N , 



| 




j 



' 









The Orleans Guard Battalion and Batiery. 13 



fayette, O. Andrv, M. Cousin, O. And,ry, Debouchel Prosper, 
Constant Cazeaux. 

Company C. 

Captain : August Roche. 

1st Lieutenant: Fred. Thomas; 2d, EugeneTourne; 3d, Lu-, 
cien Charvet. 

1st Sergeant: A. Granpre ; 2d, E. Barbier; 3d, A. Mmiuais; 
4tli, V Pujos, jr.; 5th. A. Gonzales. 

1st Corporal : F. Greig; 2d, A. Galot; 3d, J. E. Dutillet ; 4th, 
L. Courtiu ; Sappers : A. R. Blair, Tambour : Delimage; Treas- 
urer : George C. Brower. 

A. Aubert, S. Alexander, O. Aymes, Js. H. Brown, O. L. 
Blean, R. Bachemin, L. Bertol, F. Brugier, F. Cavaroc, A. Cas- 
tanedo, E. P Barliu, A.Kadroy, A. Caranovas, C. Cavelier, G. 
Dockter, H. Delasey, E. Dumas, J. Dumas, F, Dupre, L. Des- 
siu, E, Dejean, P. E. Dugue, H. Ferriot, O. Fellou, E. Fagot, 

C. Gessler, Arthur Grailhe, J A. Girod, W H. Guinaud, J. B. 
Jacquin, E. Jastram, E. Krost, T, Kaes, F. Labauve, N. La- 
barthe, J. H. Laudon, R. Legier, A. Lange, P. Lemaitre, L. 
Leefe, Chas. Longuemere, jr., A. Lebesque, J. B. Levesque, J. 

D. Levesque, V Lobit, A- Montamat, Arthur Morehead, J. 
Noblom, A. Olivier, J. Ollie, P Poussou, Ernest Robin, L. Ri- 
vierre, J. Roche, E. Robert, Edward Ruffier, E. Rosiere, L. Si- 
beck, Leonce Soniat, O. St. Alexandre, L. Smith, P. Sarrazin, 
H. Troncbet, E. Treme, J. T. Thibodeaux, J. L. Vincent, H. 
\iavant, E. Duval, H. L. Frebonrg, C. H. Franck, Paul N. La- 
croix, J. B. Delahoussaye, G. A. Callery, Alfred A. Fuselier, C. 
H. Hiuclay, B. DeMonford, C. A. Grevenberg, G. Rosiere, J. 

E. Sauton, A. R. Blais. 

Company D. 

(DeClouet's Guards.) 

Captain : Charles Tertrou. 

1st Lieutenant : Paul DeClouet ; 2d, Alfred Voorhies ; 2d, B. 
De St. Clair. 



14 The Orleans Guard Battalion and Batten/. 



1st Sergeant : A. L. Qtotrou ; 2d, Adelma Broussard ; 3d, 
Charles G-uilbeau ,• 4th, Alex. DeClouet; 5th, Charles Gueri- 
niiere. 

1st Corporal: Edmoud LeBlanc ; 2d, Jules Broussard; 3d, 
Louis Coineau ; 1th, J. S. Kobichaud. 

-J. B. Augell, Louis Al.'iemand, Ozeme Allemand, Dazincourt 
Ba3ifr^ au > Euze Browssard, Alphonse Broussard, Alphonse 
Bulliara, E. B&Ynard, M. Bienvenu, S. Bienvenu, J. B. Barras, 
Numa Bienvenu, C. Babineau, A. Bienvenu, V Bueche, C. 
Breaux, S. T. Bienvenu, C. Badon, D. Badon, 0. Broussard, F. 
O. Champagne, E. C. Caillier, N. J. Caillier, Adolphe Castille, 
Joseph Colette, Pauliue Cormier, S. A. Coudroy, Ferdinand 
Colette, L. Couieau, A'aliere Campagne, S. David, Alcide 
Dupres, J. C. Dupuis, Desire Dugas, Johu Devalcourt, 
Jacques Delhomme, J. B. Dau trend, Antoine Frederic, Homere 
Gautier, Daniel Green, Julien Guilbeau, Jules Guilbeau, Sos- 
thene Guilbeau, Anatole Gautier, Destival Gantreau, O. P. 
Guidry, Aug. Guilbeau, Emile Guilbeau, J. P Guidry, John 
Jackson, Bobert Jackson, Jules Jamard, Arville Hollier, Henry 
Beligare, Numa Landry, Ant. Latiolias, Edinond Latiolais, Ed- 
mond Laperuse, Antoine Lasseigne, Alexandre Lasseigne, C. 
Landry, A. Leblanc, Arville Leblanc, Desire Leblanc, J. Mel- 
ancou, J. H. O'Brian, Alcee O'Briau, Paul O'Raurke, Nutna 
Patin, Ernest Patiu, Adolphe Patin, Alfred Patiu, Jules Patin, 
Auguste Patiu, Felix Potier, Louis Roger, Charles Savoie, 
Ozeme Semere, Bernard Chevalier, Nicholas Thibodeau, Jo- 
seph Thibodeau, B. Thibodeau, Edouard Thibodeau, Homere 
Thibodeau, Ludger Webre, Cesaire Webre, Alcide Webre, 
Jules Webre, Alexandre Woltz, Amade Woltz, Vincedt Bar- 
ras, Aurelian Barras, Jules Barras, 4 Ernest Fontenette, Julien 
Patin, Aurelien Gautreau, Jacques Menard, Henry Comeau, 
Aristide Dugas. 

Battery. 

Captain, Henry Ducatel ; First Lieutenant, Sr., F. Livau- 
dais; First Lieutenant, Jr., M. A. Calongne ; Second Lieuten- 
ant, Sr., G. Legardeur; Second Lieutenant, Jr., F. Lange ; 
Surgeon, Auguste Capdeville. 



The Orleans Guard Batalion and Battery, 15 



First Sergeant, E. H. Keynes ; Second Sergeant, A. P. 
Faurie ; Third Sergeant, A. Arroyo ; Fourth Sergeant, ]ST. 
Delery ; Fifth Sergeant, C. Weysham ; Sixth Sergeant, H. 
Huard ; Seventh Sergeant, A. Baudeon ; Eighth Sergeant, J. 
YV Mader. 

First Corporal, A. Bertus ; Second Corporal, B. Tremoulet ; 
Third Corporal, E. Deverges ; Fourth Corporal, G-. Fortin ; 
Fifth Corporal, A. De Eosoimu ; Sixth Corporal, C. De Armas; 
Seventh Corporal. J. B. cle Mahy; Eighth Corporal, F Dnples- 
sis ; Ninth Corporal, S. P. Lamon ; Tenth Corporal, L. A. 
Lauge; Eleventh Corporal, L. O. Moreau ; Twelfth Corporal, 
H. 1. ]Nores. 

1st Artificier: A. Zamif; 2d, O. Livaudais ; 3d, S. P Mar- 
tinez; 1th, T. Trepagnier ; 5th. P Roman ; 6th, T. Buisson. 

B. Buisson, jr., X. P. Bonlet, E. Buisson. A. Bnisson, A. 
Bougere, J. A. Bonafon. A. Bosonier, jr., H. Bachemin, J. 
Brandiu, A. Bachemin, P Clerc, A. Charbonnet, E. Coiguard, 
C. B. Coignard, J. A. Charbonnet, G. Clauss, J. B. Casanova, 
Placide Canouge, sr., H. Canon ge, O. DeGruy, A. Devoe, Le- 
bretou Descbapelles, E. Deblanc, C. Degruy, E. Dupre, L. Dol- 
houde, A. Durel. 'Win. Delahay, A. Daquin, B. E. Dejeau, M. 
T. Ducros, V Ducros, L. O. Desforges, A.W Duplautier, C. R. 
Egelly, J. Esclapou, E. Elysardi, E. Foulon, E. Funel, A. Ga- 
motis, L. A. Guillet, J. Gaillard, P Grima, N. Gonzales, Jos. 
Garidel, A Gaudin, A. Ganglolf, E. A. Guibet, J. Gl.ynu.jr., E. 
C. Haydel, D. Halpheiu, O. L. Kernion, T. S. Kennedy, O. Le. 
Blanc, E. Laroque Turgcau, H. Lobit, E. Lafoiest, A. Lauve, 
A. Lelong, A. LeBeau, A. F. Lynn, J. Lemarie, A J. Lauza- 
inghein, P. Lagrange, A. Lorreins, O. Lauve, H- Legendre, J. 
Moutreuil, J. Miltenberger, H. Miotou, G. Montegut, O. Menard, 
C. McMurdo, E. Montreuil, F. Marquez, jr., L. Mauberret, G. W. 
Nott, A. A. Oehmichen, G. Oemichei:, J. B. Pelletier, A. Paul, 
A. Pellerin, S. Phillpot, J. L. Percy, Alex. Prados, E. C. Reg- 
gio, J. Rivero, A. R. Roux, A. N. Ruch, P Roubieu, G. Sauve, 
P Sarpy, Chas. SoucIjoii, H. Tremoulet, O. Tremoulet, C. M. 
Tarut, -I. H. Tirado, P. A. Tabary, E. Thomas, A. Tiroux, Paul 
^> 'iallou, Juli's Venot, J. A. Vignaud, C. F Verbois, E. Ver- 



16 TJw Orleans Guard Battalion and Battery. 



gnes, John Wilson, A. Willoz, V Willoz, K. Wiltz, A. B. 
Wickes, D. Wildt, A. Weysham, C. Weysham, O. Zapata. 
31 drivers aud 1 trumpeter. 

Losses of the Orleans Battalion on the 6th and 7th April, 1862. 

Company A — S. Gerard, L. Forestier, E. Leblanc, B. Martel. 
Company B — G. Poree, J. Archinard, D. Coutourie, P Dubou- 
chel, J. Schrempp. Company C — A. Gallot, A. Fleury, J. B. 
Jaquin. Company D— C. Broussard, A. Lasseigue, P. Eourke. 

Wounded and Missing. 

Company A — Lieut. J. Moreno, P. A. Vienne, P. Ganel, O. 
M. Opdenmeyer, C. Phillippi, J. A. Rasch. Company B — none. 
Company C — E. Kobin, G. 0. Brower, P A. Lacroix, F. Cava- 
roc. Company D — P. L. Deolouet, J. Delhomme. 

Wounded. 

V. Prados, J. S. Coiron, B. Bienvenu, G. Bryaud, N. Fores- 
tier, W. Forstall, JR. A. Hebrard, E. Hernandez, G. Pitot, P. 
Judice, L. Menard, A. d'Hebecourt, C. V. Labarre. Company 

B F Percy, Th. Dubois, A. G. Bomain, F. Arnoud, E. S. 

Audler, E. Arcenaux, H. Boisblauc, H. DeMahy, Ch. Diard, 
L. E. Fazende, L. A. Gaillard, L. Gregoiro, E. Jorda, J. Le- 
fevre, E. Tafonta, P J. Darou, Marine, P. Lacoste, Wolcart, E. 
Yillavasso. Company C— V Lobit, H. Tronchet, P Sarrazin, 
H. Ferriot, A. G. Gallery, J. Tbibodeaux, L. B. Delahoussaye, 
Ch. Gessler, E. Robert, H. Hertzog, E. Ruffier, E. Delimage. 
Company D — Ch. Tertrou, P Babineau, G. Broussard, S.«Bieu 
venu, T. N. Champagne, J. Guilbeau, J. H. O'Brian, Ch- 
Lavoie, B. Savalier, A. Wiltz. 

Hissing: 

Company A— Lieutenant Trepagnier, Company B — P. 
Leefe, C. Cazeauz, P. J. Lefebvre, F. Marcotte, A. Poche, L. 
Tillavasso. Company C— P. A. Tbibodeaux, F. Brugier, E. 
Fagot, J. Alexander, A. A. Fusselier, L. Schmidt. Company 
D— A. Declonet, H. David, A. Patin. 



Journal of the Orleans Guard 

DURING THE MOVEMENTS PRECEDING AND FOLLOWING THE 
BATTLE OF CORINTH. 



April 2d — Orders given by Major Queyrouze* to the Battalion to be ready 
at the first signal, with five days' rations and one hundred rounds of am- 
munition. 

3d— At 4£ began to move, with very little baggage and no rations, to- 
wards the enemy. At 10 o'clock, P. M., camped about two miles from Mon- 
terey, by the side of the 18th Louisiana. 

4th — In the morning heavy rain. Left camp and halted about half a 
mile from Monterey. Let Monterey on the right and halted on a hill half 
a mile further. At 1 P. M. a few pieces of meat and biscuits were distrib- 
uted to the men, with recommendatiou made to eat but the fraction. 
During the halt, the battle flag of Gen. Hardee's Division was paraded in 
front of the Battalion so that it could bo recognized on the battle field. 
The Battalion resumed its marching order, the Crescent Regiment to its 
left, the 18th Louisiana to the right. Met a cavalry officer exhibiting Gen. 
Polks Division battle flag for recognition before going into battle ; halted 
for an hour, awaiting orders and listening to the musketry. Received 
orders to bivouac in the neighboring woods, at about six miles above Mon- 
terey. 

5th — Heavy rain. Resumed marching at 6-J o'clock, here and there com- 
ing across dead horses and pools of blood. Towards 2 o'clock our light 
baggage was abandoned on the road and muskets were loaded. At 3 
o'clock Gen. Bragg passed near the Battalion and was received with cheers. 
His answer was that he would soon give us work. Slept on our arms, 
formed in column, until 6 o'clock the next morning. 

At 4 o'clock camped in the woods, near the Tennessee River. 

'The Battalion of Orleans Guards left tinder Beauregard's ninety day call, with a 
following of 411 men. Major Queyrouze, the head of an old commercial house which still 
commands the trade of the Coast and French parishes, went out at the head of these, and 
did good service in fitting out his Battalion and leading them on the field. He took part 
iu the battl* of Shiloh, and received a wound whose duration innre than covered the term 
of enlistm^ht for which he had abandoned his business. 

in 



18 Journal of the Orleans Guard. 



6th — At 5 o'clock ordered into line of battle ; marched to and fro 
until 8, through woods and fields. At about half-past 8 passed through 
the abandoned camp of the 6th Iowa. Found there a bountiful supply of 
bread, hot from the oven, any amount of provisions, wine, fruits, and other 
delicacies ; enough altogether to feed ten regiments. Halted there for a 
half hour. Passed soon after to another camp, abandoned by its occupants 
at our approach, not without their firing a parting volley. The Crescent 
at this camp diverged (owing probably to the dense woods) from the 
line of march of the Orleans and 18th Louisiana. After half an 
hour's march further on, just as it was preparing to assault another 
camp, it was assailed by a brisk musketry fire, which proved to be from th e 
6th Kentucky and a Tennessee regiment. These troops, at sight of the 
blue uniform brought out from New Orleans, mistook the Battalion for the 
enemy. Two men were killed by this error. 

At five o'clock joined the 18th La. in a ravine, about half a mile from 
the Tennessee river, liemained exposed to the enemy's fire from the 
plateau of the hill in front of its line of battle, aud to the shells of the 
enemy's gunboats. 

The Battalion here awaited the order of General Preston Pond, who stood 
twenty yards off ; the enemy meanwhile was a half mile from the Tennessee 
river, which they had fortified. They were now awaiting our attack, hav- 
ing already repulsed that of the 16th La. 

The cry of " Forward, the 18th ! " was now heard on our right. " Follow 
me," was given in the well known voice of Col. Mouton. Then the regi- 
ment disappeared as it charged up the hill, and we could only judge by a 
lugubrious concert of cannon aud small arms that their attack had com- 
menced. It had charged full of fire, and its ranks well dressed. When 
we next saw it, it was mutilated, cut to pieces, leaviug behind it a path 
of blood. Men could be scarcely recognized. Their shirts were covered 
with blood and their faces disfigured with hideous wounds. At this point, 
Major Queyrouze gave the order to charge to the Orleans Battalion. This 
was promptly obeyed, men moving forward, as if they were a machine, to 
the top of the plateau. The command of " fix bayonets '' was given, and this 
was answered by the men with a hurrah. Then they moved forward on a 
double-quick, under a galling fire. The battle flag fell from the hands of G. 
Poree, the color-bearer, who was shot dead. Before touching the ground it 
was caught by Gallot, who was shot dead through the head ; then seized 
by Coiron, whose arm was shattered while holding it. The fourth stand- 
ard bearer was Percy, who was also wounded. The fifth time it was seized, 
without ever having touched the ground, by a soldier, whose name is now 
unknown. 

At forty paces from the enemy we opened fire. This lasted for a few 
moments, after which they were driven from the field. The tramj) of a 



Journal of the Orleans Guard. 3 9 



large body of men was now heard. While we were expecting our total 
destruction, the division reached the field, with the blue flag and white 
center ovale, which had previously been pointed out as indicating Hardee's 
command. 

These troops nobly avenged the losses which had been inflicted on the 
Orleans Guards and 18th La. regiments. Among these losses were Major 
Queyrouze and Captain Charles Tetrou, Lieutenant Moreno, and twenty- 
five per cent, of our number wounded or stretched dead on the field. Cap- 
tain Charles Eoman J succeeded in command. The attack having been 
overpowered by a battery of six pieces and the superior infantry force of 
the enemy, the order for retreat was given. Although the enemy could 
easily have captured the whole command, they made no attempt to follow. 

At 7 o'clock the remains of the Battalion received orders to form as a 
pickeD guard. During the eusniug night the enemy fired an occasional 
bomb to keep our troops awake. 

With this Battalion marched Father Turgis, a priest who hud seen soldier- 
ing in his day, and who was still enough of a trooper to enjoy the incense 
of battle almost as much as that of the altar. Ho shared the hardships of 
the men, followed them into the thickest of the fight, and administered the 
rights of religion to the wounded of both armies. His time with the Great 
Archer came, too, at the close of the war, and his body was followed to the 
Esplanade-street Cemetery by the largest funeral procession of ladies and 
gentlemen on foot ever known in the city. He was a man who was excel- 
lent company for any one, and frank enough in his exhibition of character 
to escape any charge against him of hypocrisy. 

Doctors Capdevielle, McGuire and Ferrier discharged their duty toward 
the sick. 

The following day, rain at 7 o'clock in the morning. A detachment was 
sent on the battle-field to bring in our wounded, but owing to the enemy's 
shells could recover only two bodies. 

April 7th, moved at 6| A. M., without food, under a heavy fire of the 
enemy. Gen. Pond, commanding the 16th Regiment, took another direc- 
tion. During the next two hours our only incident, beside alternate 
marches and halts, was the finding, as we traversed an abandoued camp of 
the enemy, a half-barrel of wet hard-tack. This was our only food for the 

jLe capitaine Charles Roman, qui nous avait conduits au feu depuis que le Major 
Queyrouze avait ete mis hors de combat, nous donnes l'ordre, qu'il avait reeu, de rentrer 
dans notre ancien camp, a un mille et demi de Corinthe. Digne remplacant da bon et 
brave Major Queyrouze, qui nous avait donna l'exemple du sang froid i la bataille du 6. 
Le capitaine Roman devait, jusqu' a notre retour a. Corinthe, marcher i notre tete. — [Co- 
respondence Hew Orleans Bee, from a translation of which most of this account is taken 



U<> Journal of the Orleans (luard. 



day. The failure, however, was not the fault of our quartermaster, Alfonso 
Tertrou, but to Bragg's order to. abandon our wagons on account of their 
haviug become stuck in tlie nnul at Monterey. 

The remainder of the day we were united with the 18th, made.r Col. 
Mouton. 

The colors of the Battalion were now put upon the breast of Private 
Fenot. As the blue color of our uniform was not in the odor of sanctity 
with Confederate sharpshooters, the men were ordered to turn their uni- 
form wrong side^outwards, thus giving them the appearance of going to a 
masquerade ball. As we marched on, Beauregard passed us ; he was re- 
ceived with an immense cheer. He said to us as he passed, " Forward, 
fellow soldiers of Louisiana ! one more effort and the day is ours." Mouton 
repeated the same cry, and we rushed forward to where the lighting had 
already commenced. 

Col. Moutnx was wounded at the first fire, and was succeeded in com- 
mand by Col. Alfred Koman. At a moment of hesitation in our ranks, 
under a heavy fire, Beauregard rushed forward, and seizing the colors, 
shouted, "forward!" 

He was relieved by Col. Numa Augustin, his Aid. The standard finally 
passing into the hands of Major Ernest Puech, who planted it iu the ground 
until the line was reformed. The battalion and the 18th suffered enormous 
losses. Lieutenants Trepagnier, Declonet and Moreno were wounded, and 
our losses, altogether, with those of the preceding day were 33 per cent, of 
our whole number in line. 

8th — 13th. During the following five days the troops fall back to original 
camp, at Corinth. Previous to starting on this retreat the firing recom- 
menced in front of us — one of the shots ricocheting over the battalion, and 
taking off the legs of a tall Texas cavalryman, who was seated twenty 
yards behind, on a waggon. Bivouacked at Monterey. Heavy rain during 
the night ; the ground saturated with water. 

On the second day of the march, the men began to travel barefooted, on 
account of swollen feet. The only food obtained was found by the way- 
side ; no rations being issued during the retreat. Arriving at Corinth, the 
dreary place seemed like paradise ; our tents were palaces, and old friends 
whom we rejoined we hugged like brothers. 



m HE Thirtieth Louisiana Regiment. 



Mustek Kolls of the Officers and Men. 



Lieut. Col. Thomas Shields, killed July, lsiM ; Major Charles J Hell, 
killed V'-rh July, 1-04 ; Capt. A. Pieolet, promoted Maior -2s Mi July, 
1SC>4 ; Lieut. F O. Tivpagnier, Captain, ISol, commanding the lu gi- 
nieuT at surrender ; A. Q. M C. F. Krule : Assistant Surgeon, W. W. Cross i 
Adjutant, 1!. C. Cushinan* ; Chaplain, V Tiugis ; Serjeant Major, E. 11. 
Barnett ; < Irdcrly Sergeant, John Fliim ; Ensign, L. Trinquieri, Quarter- 
master Sergeant, F A. MeCmmico, wounded. 

Company A. 

Captain O. F, Valctte, wounded ; First Lieutenant, II. Fortier, killed 
July v!-th, 1 ■— '( i-4 ; Second Lieutenant, C. K. McCarthy", Junior Second Lieu- 
tenant, J. A. Ruiz* ; Orderly Serjeant, F Fortier ; Serjeants Xieklaus, P. 
GravoU . L. Coineau, wounded ; W Schabel* ; Corporals L. linger, II. 
O'Brien*, P. A. Coudray, wounded August, IdGl ; D. Planchard. 

Privates: C. Aiknian, wounded ; O. Allemeu, killed; Jus. D. Augustin, 
J. P. Angelle, C. Berthaut, K. Barras, A. Barras, V. Barras, P. 15. Bothau- 
eourt, \Y Broadtuiau, D. Badon, C. Breaux*, F Borgne, H. Comeau, 
wounded ; X. Cailler, died from wound ; YV A. Chambers*, A. Carraras , 
J. C. Dupuis*, H. David, A. David, L. David*, P. David", S. David, H. 
Dudley, L. Duvillier, J. Esnard, H. (iautliier, A. Ganthier, J. P. Guidry*, O. 
P Guidry, D. Green*, A. Gautheaux, killed July, 18(54 ; J. Guilbeau*, F. H. 
Guillott, J. J. Guillott*, J. Guillauuie, died in hospital; H. Hatters, J. 
Hatters*, B. Henry, L. Hymel, G. Hull*, A. E. Hotard, J. Jaumar, P 
Jones*, R. Kramwerer, wounded ; E. Laperuze*, H. R. Lorio, N. Landry*, A. 
Lormand, T. Lejeune, H. N. LeBreton, killed 1864 ; U. Loupe, N. Minot, F. 
Myers, E. H. Magnon, L. J. Pisere, A. L. Planchard, died May, W>4 ; T. A 1 
Kuiz, G. Roubic, J. Spencer*, H. Sarazin*, P. Shaffer, E. Schremppe, N. Tis- 
dale, J. Thomas*, W Thompson, J. Webre, J. Wolkart, A. Zimmerman, E. 
Nuer, J. Winterhalter. 

'Taken prisoner. 



The Thirtieth Louisiana h'efjimcut. 



Company B. 

Captain H. P. Junes died 20th November, 1861 ; First Lieutenant N, B. 
Biikov, killed, June, 1864 ; Second Lieutenant L. J. McNeil, Jr.; Second 
Lieutenant K. McNeil, Orderly Serjeant J. W. Cook*. Sergeants D. Mc- 
Gregor killed July, 1863 ; J. W Wilson killed August, 18G4 ; M. MeCaffery*;* 
J. H. Drilliou. Corporals— W. Dalton,* H. Backhardt, wounded, August 
1864; Hy. Gushing, killed, December, 1964; J. F. BurkeP Privates— R. 
Aikman, J. Partus, J. L. Brenmer, D. Bailey, killed, July, 1834; J. A. 
Breaux*; C. Breaux. E. Barley, K. Babin, L. A. Collier*; A- Conway, J. 
Dormer, V. Devausoile, J. Donnovan*; M. J. Doyle, Ckas. Felieck*; J. E. 
Grimes, O. Hield, R. Hackmen, Sam. Hirsch*. Chas. Jolly*; John Kreigger,, 
Jas. Keating, Jas. Leissence"; L. Laurence*; A. D.Landry*; S. Lacroix, 
died; H. Lerry*; J. E. Morisson, wounded; John McDermot*; T. MclSamus, 
R. Cherry, M. Gharra, C. L. Petit, died; K. Rodi, A. Steele, J. H. Fabing*, 
W. E. Todd*; J. B. Thuilier, A. Vilneuve, A. VVaggatha*; G. Weightman*; 
A. F. Wiliiams, R. Barry, H. Fick, wouuded; M. M. Firth, killed; T. Friar, 
W. Heath, G. 8. Hale, John Moriety*; R. A. Walters, wounded. 

Company C. 

Captain R. T. Boyle; First Lieutenant H. C. Wright ; Second Lieutenant 
D. C. Byerly; Junior Second Lieutenant W. B. Chippendale, killed, July 
25th, 1864. Orderly Sergeant A. G. Kane . Sergeants F. A. Vierling, E. 
Delaupe, killed, 28th July, 1864; W. H. Tolson*; T. O'Keefe, wounded, 28th 
July, 1864. Corporals A. Barker ; A. Landry, killed, July 28th, 1864; P. 
W. Kelly . 

Privates: Charles Allietz ; Fred Barrett, Charles Barrett, Geo. Becken- 
kohler°i E. Blanehard, W. J. Boyd, D. Blauchard : Andry Cass, killed, July 
28th, 1864; J. M. Coos°; J. T. Danos, J, A. Dacons, John Parley, C. C. 
Farmer. Gus Faw, J. B. Faw°; M. Fritx Gibbons, Dau Flinn c ; G. B. Fre- 
man, J. E. Guin, S. D. Harris ; T. D. Harris, A. Sacobs, T. J. Johnson, 
wounded, disable: W. J. Johnson, J. E. Keirnan ; E. Lally, wounded, July 
28th, 1864, T. J. Lawler, died in hospital; John Lopue, killed; S. E Mc- 
Cormic°. J, E. Tittlemeyer, Chas. McClarey ; John Murphn, Mike O'Brien, 
killed, July 28th, 1864; Hy. Poison, Geo. Tosey, Hp. Rednouer ; S. Stinson. 
died in hospital; Peter Wirtz, killed, July 28fch, 1864. J. E. Wuerstell, died 
from wound. 

Company E. 

Captain C. \V Cushman, killed December 15th, 1864; First Lieutenant 
A. D'Apreinont ;° Second Lieutenant M. Boland, died ; Junior Second Lieu- 
tenant U. Landry ; Sergeauts M. A. Campbell, Charles King, — Gossen ; w 

°Taken prisoner. 



The Thirtieth Louisiana Regiment. 23 



Corporals Fred Hirt, killed July 28th, 1864; P. Belsom, W. J. Eoss, 
wounded ; Joseph Sabine. 

Privates William Bambery, killed December 17th, 1864 ; Clinton Bell,° 
M. K. Chandler, Oct. Constant, Louis Dalon,° Bernard Ditt6,° Henry 
Durosse, Herman Dohmier, Ambrose Forbes, Alcee" Gainnie, George Gevy,° 
Desire Gravois, Lewis Hass,~ William Hack, John R. Hebrard, J. O. Hebert, 
Thomas Hebert, Murat Landry, William H. Lewis, N. Malum, E. Maher,° 
Peter McGee, John Poche", Victor Paillote, George Smith, William A. 
Smith, Forrest Uzee,° Joseph Stromyer, David Wild. 

Company F. 

Captain F. O. Trepagnier; First .Lieutenant Charles Diard; Second 
Lieutenant Frank Gre^ig ;° Orderly Sergeant A. Luminais ;° Sergeants L. 
J. Yienne, E. Rosiere, O. J. Delery, L. A. Livandais ; Corporals A. Grailhe, 
Henry Delery, c S. J. Blosman, H. D. Canning, E. Anderman, A. Allen, 
killed July 28th, 18(54 ; T. Adam, killed July 28th, 1864 ; S. Alexander, 
discharged ; J. Albert, C. Blache, L. Bertholi, wounded August 25th, 1864 ; 
V Besthelotte, J. L. Bourgeois, George B. Bryant, J. H. Brown, Henry 
Barnett, Jules Bayhi, killed July 22d, 1854 ; Anselme Bayhi,° Gus V 
Bayhi, killed ; H. C. Beuit ° E. Bnrthe, L. Burthe, C. Betat. wounded ; 
Paul Blanc, H. Baudier, P. Bondonsquie, A. Castanedo, C. Cavelier, E. 
Choxnayde, M. Cantrelle, c L. A. Clairin, E. Dej ean,° E. Dumas, E. Duguy, 
E. Drouilhet, F L. Duplessis, killed July 27th, 1864 ; V David, J. Evard,° 
Nnma Fazende, Edmond Fazende, Dorsino Faz9ndo,° H. J. Terriot, G. 
Froisy, H. F M. Fortier, Jules F6cel, F. Gueriu, died from wound ; A. E. 
Garcia, Louis Gauchey, c Charles Giesler, A. Grandpre", Alexander Hum- 
phreys, A. Jorda,° Charles Laterriere, F Labauve, Nuraa Labarthe, 
killed July 28th, 1864 ; Gus. Le Breton, Ang. Lisbony, P N. Lacroix, killed 
July 28th, 1864 ; Louis Leefe, wouuded ; J. A. LeBlanc, Edgar Luminals, 
wounded ; John Lefebvre, Jules E. Livandais, John E. Livandais, Joseph 
Lecorgne, Benjamin Leefe, wounded ; Alexander McArthur, D. May- 
ronne, wounded; O. Mayroune, A. Matherne, wounded; C. Minvielle, 
killed July 28th, 1864 ; A. Morehead, E. Nicand, C. Ollie", A. Ollivier. O. 
M. Opdeniveyer,*' A. Pe"na, C. Philippi, F. Percy, L. Rideau, J. Reinne, H. 
Rousselin,^ F Rome, F. Rapp,° G. A. Reggio, J. J. Roche, Paul Sarazin, 
woanded ; P. Scioneaux, killed ; P. Saulet, F. Froxler, Louis Troxler, 
wour.derl ; Aug. Troxler, Jules Vinet,° J. C. Villars, Gaston Villars, A. 
Verret, T. J. Verret, A. D. Voisin, J. S. Vincent, Charles Willoz, wounded ; 
Joseph Zerinque, killep July 3d, 1864 ; Felix Zerinque, Edrnond Zerinque, 
killed July 28th, 1864 ; Fortune Zerinque, wounded; L. P. Harang, J.N. 
Elliott, E. Mondeil, Peter Forshee, H. Gaccon, Jean Marie, V. B. Sebley, 
Richard Stanford. 



°Taken Prisoner. 



24 The Thirtieth, Louisiana Regiment. 



Company G. 

Captain, L. P. Becnel, -wounded July 28, 1864, died August 2d, 1804 ; Firs t 
Lieutenant, B. Hay del ; Second Lieutenant, A. D. Bougere ; Second Junior 
Lieutenant, L. Becnel; Orderly Sergeant, O. RousseP, Sergeants, Emile 
Boyer, Honorat Bodrigue , Aristide Oubre°, Frank Webre, wounded ; Cor- 
porals, M. Laurent , wounded July 28th, 1864, and left ou the field; An- 
toine BecneP, Victor HymeP, Adam Guedry , O. Belsome , O. Benoit, M. 
Boudreax, Emile Boudro, Gaspard Boudro, Louis Boudro , Chas. M. Bou- 
dro°, O. Bourgeois , T. Brou°, Ed. Chaix, wounded ; C. Cazeaux, E. Cham- 
pagne , F. Champagne , E. Chiasson , A. Clement , Jos. Faude, Ernest 
HaydeP, T. C. Healey, H. Hertzog, W. C. F. Hosea, S. Hymel, Ulysee 
Jacob, John Kealy°, E. Levert , L. Lario, C. Naguin, E. Nicolle , T. Nicolle, 
wounded ; F Nicolas, J. B. Nicolas , T. Porthier, L. Riviere, Edgard Rod- 
rigue°, F. Rodrigue, J. E. SantorP, Sullivan Streck , F. Schexnaydre , 
J. Schexnaydre, Octave Schexnaydre , Ozeine Schexnaydre, F. Schex- 
naydre , G. A. Sykes, J. Tauzin , U. Tauzin, A. Toups°, E. Toups, F. 
Toups°, O. Use"e, D. Vicario, John Walton. 



Paroled as Prisoners of War at Meridian, Miss., on the ^th Pay 

of May, 1865. 

Captain F. O. Trepagnier. IstLieuteuaut B. Haydel, 1st Lieutenant Chas. 
Diard, 2d Lieutenant L. J. McNeill, Jr. 2d Lieutenant Robert McGill. As- 
sistant Surgeon W W. Cross. Chaplain J. F Turgis, Ensign L. Triuquiery. 
Sergeants J. H. Orillion, Emile Bougere, F. A. Vierling, H. Nickglus, L. A. 
Livaudais. Corporals D. Planchard, B. P. Leefe, Louis Hymel. 

Privates E. Legendre, D. Fazeude, E. Fazende, G. A. Harrison, A. Knob- 
lock, E. B. Livaudais, E. Hotard, J. Morierthy, A. Roth, A. Humphreys, R. 
Hackney. E. N. Rothe, U. Jacol, J. O. Riuet, W. J. Johnso:i, A. Webre, R. 
Kammerer, E. Wiuterhalter, A. Lawrence, E. Boudro, E. Levert. A. Blanch- 
ard, T. McManus, D. Badon, C. Naguin, J. Bremner, A. Phelps, O. Brand, 
F. Patterson, A. Comey, T. J. Roask, A. Castanedo, C. Schexnaydre, V 
Derouseselle, .1. E. Skipper, G. Farr, U. Tanzin, F. H. Gnillot, T. Troxler, 
M. Garcia, A. P Voisin, A. A. Grandpre, J. J. Walker. 

I certify the foregoing to be a correct roll of the officers and enlisted men 
of the 30th La. Regiment of infantry, C. S. A., who were present and were 
paroled as prisoners of war at Meridian, Miss., on the 4th day of May, 1865, 
in pursuance of terms of agreement between Major General E. R. S. Cauby, 
U. S. A., and Lieutenant General R. Taylor, commanding department Ala- 
bama, Mississippi and East Louisiana, at Citronella, on the 4th day of May, 
1865. F O. TREPAGNIER, 

Captain Commanding 30th La. Vols. Inft. 

-Taken Prisoner. 



The Thirtieth Louisiana Reqiment. 25 



Military Movements of the Thirtieth Louisiana. 

The (20th) Sumter Regiment having evacuated New Orleans 
at the time of its capture in 18G2, was ordered to Camp Moore. 
During the evacuation many of the men were separated from 
the command, and when it arrived at Camp Moore the Regi- 
ment was incomplete aud had to be reorganized. 

Several detached companies joined the Regiment at that 
time : one company composed of the remnants of the Orleans 
Guard Battaliou, Capt. Louis Fortin, whose term of service 
(00 days) had expired ; the Algiers Guard, Capt. Xorbert Tre- 
pagnier, a*»d one company of Miaugohara's Battalion, Capt. 
A. Picolet ; one company from Lafourche, Capt. de LaBre- 
toune, and one company from Iberville. Capt. Bevan. 

The command thus organized was designated as the 30th 
Regiment Louisiana Volunteers. G. A. Breaux, Colonel ; Thos. 
Shields. Lieutenant Colonel; Chas. J Bell, Major; B. C- 
Cnshman, Adjutant. 

In 1SG3, the Regiment still being incomplete, was reduced to 
a Battalion of seven companies, under command of Thos. 
Shields, Lieutenant Colonel, and Charles Bell, Major, and was 
designated as the 30th Battalion Louisiana Volunteers. 

The 30th Louisiana took part in the battle of Baton Rouge, 
and after the engagement was ordered to Port Hudson, where 
it remained for nearly a year, defending that position when first 
bombarded by the enemy's fleet. 

In June, 1SG3, Maxeys Brigade, of which the 30th formed 
part, was ordere " to reinforce Gen. Joseph Johnson, near 
Jackson, Miss., and the command marched from Port Hudson 
to that point, and formed part of the army operating in the 
rear of Vicksburg. 

Retreated to Jackson, Miss., after the fall of Vicksburg and 
defended that position. Was ordered to Mobile and stationed 
some time at Fort Gaines, Ala. Took part in the campaign 
under Gen. Polk against Gen. Sherman, when the latter 
invaded Mississippi, in 1803. Was sent back to Mobile, and 
iv 



20 The Thirtieth Louisiana Regiment. 

shortly after was ordered to reinforce Gen. Bragg', at Mission- 
ary Ridge, but did not reach destination in time and was 
stopped at Daltou, Ga., the evening of the battle; was sta- 
tioned at that point about two months, forming part of Qnarles' 
Brigade, and was ordered back to Mobile, Ala. 

In the mouth of June, 1864, the battalion was ordered to re- 
inforce General Jos. E. Johnson, then disputing the advance of 
General Sherman, in Georgia. Joined the. Army of the West 
at New Hope Church, and was transferred to Gibsou's Loui- 
siana Brigade ; took part in the numerous engagements that 
followed, and lost very heavily, especially in the attack near 
Atlanta, on the enemy's left, July 28th, 1864, wheii three-fourths 
of the battalion were either killed or wounded. Among the 
killed were Lieutenant Colouel Shields and Major Bell. 

From that time the battalion was much reduced m numbers, 
and next took part in the campaign of General Hood, in Ten- 
nessee. Major Picolet being in command of the battalion — 
took part in the battles of Franklin and Nashville, losiug many 
men. It was captured at latter engagement, the position oc- 
cupied by the battalion being flanked by the enemy. 

During the retreat that followed, it formed part of the rear 
guard, and again lost several men by capture, including Major 
Picolet. 

The remnants of the battalion retreated to Tupilo, Mississip- 
pi, and remained from that time until the surrender, under 
command of Captain F. O. Trepaguier, of Company F (Orleans 
Guards), the senior officer present. 

From Tupilo the battalion was sent to Mobile, Alabama, and 
defended Spanish Fort during the seige of that position. It 
retreated toMeridiau, Mississippi, at the evacuation of Mobile, 
Alabama, and was surrendered by General B. Taylor, in May, 
1865. 



Orleans &uju|p Battery. 



This command, which left New Orleans on the 15th March, 
1802, proceeded to Grand Junction, Term., with a battery of 
eight guns (bronze G-pouuders and 12-pounder howitzers), the 
private property of the command, where it received its com- 
plement of horses and was equipped for the field. 

It took part in the operations of the Western Army ; was 
engaged at Farinington, Perryville, Murfreesboro, Mount 
Look-Out, aad Chicamauga, when, by request of Gen. Beaure- 
gard, the command was ordered to Charleston, S. C, where it 
did duty until the evacuation ol the city, in March, 1S">5. 

Ou the march to make a junction with Gen. Lee, the Battery 
took part in the battles of Averysboro and Bentouville. 

The following was the organization of the Battery at the 
date of its surrender under Gen. Joseph E. Johnson, at 
Greensboro, N. G, in April, 1805 : G. LeGardeur, Jr., Captain ; 
~S. O. Lauve, First Lieutenant; T. Trepagnier, Second Lieu- 
tenant; Juo. Glinn, Junior Second Lieutenant; Arthur Durel, 
Sergeant Major ; E. Coignard, Quartermaster Sergeant ; Chas. 
B. Coignard, Alphoiise Lauve, E. A. Gibbet, E. Deverges, 
Sergeants; Y Gaudin, A. Lalande, M. L. Fotier*, J. Lemarie 
J. B. Cassaunva, A. A. Bnch. L. Percy, A. Thiroux. 

The Battery numbered KW members. All of the commis- 
sions dated from July loth, 1803. t 



'Fortier was killed in a battle a week or so preceding tlie surrender. 

t Among other artillerymen who rose to distinction in the Army of the 
West was Major 13. F. Jonas, who served as a private soldier in Fenner's 
Battery until made Adjutant of Artillery in Gen. 8. 13. Lee's command, in 
Hood's army. He was also with Col. Beckham and Lieut. Col. Hoxton, and 
was entered on the rolls at Dick Taylor's surrender. He has since attained 
position at the bar and been promoted to high honors in the city and 
State government. 

Acting with the forementioned troops from Louisiana at Vicksburg was 
Col. Fred. Ogden's Battalion (the 7th), until after the surrender. Col. 
Ogden was then ordered to assist in organizing a body of cavalry for Gen. 
Polk s Division. This having been done, he was assigned to Wirt Adams' 
Brigade, with orders to report to Forrest. He was with the latter com- 
mand when it was surrendered at the close of the war. 



L't? General Oi 



Generol Orders Relating to the Surrender of Western Troops at 

Mobile. 



General Orders No. 3. 



Headquarters Battery Gladden. ? 



Mobile Bay, April 11th, 1865. 
Comrades : Mobile is about to be evacuated. It is no fault of ours. The 
enemy, with his large fleet, idle at this moment, has not dared to approach 
within range of our battery. Your officers have confidence in you, and iu 
our holy cause. We must be soldiers to the last. The memorable words of 
our great General in Chief, R. E. Lee, should guide us now, and always : 
" Take new resolutions from the fate which our enemies intend for us ; let 
every man devote his energies to the common defense. Our resources, wisely 
and rigorously employed, are ample, and with a brave army, sustained by 
a determined and united people, success, with God's assistance, cannot be 
doubtful. The advantages of the enemy will have little value if we do not 
permit them to impair our resolution. Let us oppose constancy to advers- 
ity, fortitude to suffering, and courage to danger, with the firm assurance 
that He who gave freedom to our fathers will bless the effort of their child- 
ren to preserve it." 

I know that there are no cowards or faint-hearted among you. It is easy 
to be gay and confident after victory ; none but the really brave and true 
are firm and obedient under misfortune. Prove yourselves noble men and 
gallant soldiers. Do not only imitate the example of the thousands who 
have sacrificed their all, and who still keep on devoting every thought and 
pulsation to the holy cause of freedom, but surpass them in devotion and 
courage. Remain, Southern soldiers, come what will. There is no reason 
to be dependent. It is believed that Gen. Lee has gained a great victory 
over the enemy. It is by his orders that we will concentrate under h-is 
banner, and fight out the great fight against Yankee despotism. On this 
occasion we will be the last to leave, and have been selected to form the 
rear guard, an honor of which we should be proud. We will soon be with 
Taylor and Forrest, who have never known defeat. 

RICHARD C. BOND, Maj. Commanding. 



General Orders No. 3. 

Headquarters Vicksburg, Miss., 
May 2d, 1865. 

To the officers and men of the First Louisiana Regulars (artillery) First 
Tennessee Artillery, Twenty-second Regiment Louisiana Volunteers, 
Twenty-third Regiment Louisiana Volunteers, Eighth Louisiana Bat- 
talion : 



General Orders. 29 



Before severing my official relation to you, and in the absence of either 
of the generals commanding the department, it becomes on my part a duty 
to acknowledge, in accordance with the expressed will of Congress, the 
distinction which the steady courage and cheerful endurance of danger of 
one and all acquired for you, during the severe attack and bombardment of 
the city in May, June and July, 1862. Occasion was taken at that time to 
eulogize your conduct, and it is proper to repeat now that the gallantry 
and devotion to duty then displayed were worthy of praise. 

As your then commanding general, I hereby authorize you to inscribe on 
your banners the well known name "Vicksburg." May your deeds con- 
tinue to brighten more and more the halo of renown which now surrounds 
this name. M. L. SMITH, Maj. Gen. Comdg. 



Headquarters Maury's Division, 
.Six Miles East of Meri 



Division, j 

ridiau, Miss., > 

May 7th, 18G5. } 



Soldiers : Onr last march is about ended. To-morrow we shall lay 
down the arms which for four years wo have borne to defend our 
lights, to win our liberties. We know, the world knows, and history will 
record that we have borne them with honor. We now surrender to the 
overwhelming power of the enemy, which has rendered further resistance 
by us hopeless and mischievous to our people and to our own cause. But 
we can never forget the noble comrades who have stood shoulder to shoul- 
der to this moment, the noble dead who have been martyred, the noble 
Southern women who have been wronged, and are unavenged, or the noble 
principles for which we have fought. 

Conscious that we have played our part like men, confident of the 
righteousness ot our cause, without regret for our action in the past, and 
without despair of the future, let us to-morrow, with the dignity of vete- 
rans who are the last to surrender, perform the duty which has been 
assigned to us. DABNEY H. MAUEY, 

Major General C. S. Army. 



Headquarters Gibson's Brigade, ) 

Near Meridian, Miss., May 8th, 18(55. 5 

Fellow Soldiers : For four years you have shared together the fortunes 
of war. In the bivouac, on the march, amidst the shock of battles, through- 
out all the eventful scenes of this revolution, you have been fully tried, 
and now retire with the consciousness of having performed your whole duty 
faithfully, of having achieved a character for discipline, for soldierly train- 
ing, for valor, and for intelligent and devoted patriotism, of which you 
may be justly proud. 



30 General Orders. 



There is nothing in your career as soldiers to look back upon with regret; 
our banners are festooned with the emblems of every knightly virtue. The 
past at least is secure . 

You have the right to face coming events with calmness, and not without 
hope. Never permit a fated mistrust of your country and countrymen to 
enter your minds. Bravest in time of war, show yourselves the most or- 
derly and generous while peace endures. 

Comrades ! forget not the good and true men who have fallen. No sculp- 
tured marble may porpetuate the recollection of their service, but their 
names shall be eushrined in the remembrance of their grateful countrymen, 
and you will bear them ever fresh and green in your hearts. 

Erase from memory every unkind thought towards those who still stand 
beside you. You separate, not as friends merely, but as brethren, whom 
mutual trials, common hopes and aspirations, and cqnal hardships and dis- 
asters have made kinsmen. You must rely one upon another. 

Rising from the command of a company and regiment in the brigade, I 

have known many of you from the commencement of the struggle, have 

been with you, and leave to each one of you at parting, the tribute of my 

admiration and affection, and the invocation that the God of our fathers 

may bless you. 

Farewell. 

R. L. GIBSON, Brigadier General. 



MOVEMENT OF THE ORLEANS LIGHT HORSE, 
AND THEIR FIRST COMMANDER. 



No account of the Louisiana Volunteers in the Confederate Army 
that omitted mention of the Orleans Light Horse and Captain Thomas 
L. Leeds would be correct. This troop was organized early in 1861 — 
J. 3IcD. Taylor, a well-known merchant of New Orleans, being chosen 
Captain ; Thomas L. Leeds, First Lieutenant ; W A. Cordon, Second 
Lieutenant ; George Foster, Third Lieutenant. For various reasons, 
several months elapsed without prospect of active service on the part of 
the troop ; but when, in the fall of that year, it was known that the 
Federal army was being largely increased, steps were taken to place th e 
Light Horse on a war footing. As it was beyond the power of Captain 
Taylor to devote the necessary time to the management of the command, 
he re< j nested the acceptance of his resignation. To fill this vacancy, 
each of the officers was advanced a grade ; and Mr. Leeds Greenleaf 
elected Third Lieutenant. From this moment the history of the Orleans 
Light Horse is cannected with the name of its new leader. 

It can hardly be deemed out of place, in this connection, that a few 
words should be said of Capt. Leeds — the first in rank in his company, 
and the first whom Death numbered on his list. Descended from Puritan 
stock of the " straightest sect," and inhering the rigid virtues of his 
ancestry, no man drew sword in the war with clearer views of the duty 
of a citizen to bis country. Accustomed from early years to define his 
position whenever necessary, and entertaining the most generous ideas 
of what was due to others, his character combined those better qualities 
which we are generally agreed to attribute to the higher classes 
of the South. Shortly after his return from a Northern col- 
lege, he assumed his share of the control of the most important 
foundry in the South, and helped his business with that steady energy 
which afterwards proved of such service to his oommand. By nature 
and by education he was fit to be a leader of men. Proficient in manly 
exercises, a good swordsman and horseman, and handsome withal, he 
was the beau ideal of a calvary soldier. 

When Captain Leeds assumed command of the troop, he devoted his 
time and exertions to improve its drill and discipline ; and in a few 
weeks it had acquired a most creditable proficiency. During the winter 
of 1S61-'G2, the United States Government prepared a great land and 
naval force to operate against New Orleans ; and there seemed to be 
reason to believe that mounted troops were called for in the vicinity of 



Army of the 



the city. In 3Iareb, 1872, General Be a n regard issued a call for vol- 
unteers from the extreme Southern States of the Confederacy, to rein- 
force his army, then being gathered at Corinth. Among the commands 
that determined to answer that call was the Light Horse; and, owing to 
the care and management of Captain Leeds and his officers, it was not 
difficult to swell the ranks to such a number as to justify a departure for 
the seat of war. No sooner had the members of the troop signified their 
readiness for active service, than it was evident of what material the 
commander was made. Owing to his personal influence, the necessary 
equipments were procured, and the steamboat General Quitman chartered] 
to carry the Light Horse to Memphis. Situated as Captain Leeds was 
— an active partner in a large establishment then bending all its energies 
to the preparation of material of war — his presenca was of the greatest 
value to the cause of the Confederacy, and his delicate health certainly 
did not justify active participation in the fatigues ot a campaign. But 
his ardent nature looked lightly upon any sacrifice of personal ease when 
the good of the country was at stake. His action, in this matter, was 
undoubtedly influenced by the most exalted motives. 

On the 29th of March the last man and horse were embarked, and a 
start made ; but owing to an accident which occurred that night, the 
boat was obliged to return for repairs, and it was not until the 30th that 
the Orleans Light Horse left tever to return. During the trip to Mem- 
phis, no exertions were spared by the Captain and his officers to fit the 
men for active service ; and drills on the roof of the boat served to pass 
the time. Whilst occupied in teaching his men the details of their new 
career, an accident to the Captain brought a recurrence of a former 
physical trouble, and reduced him to a condition of great danger and 
pain. On his arrival at Memphis, he consulted a surgeon, who advised 
quiet. But such counsel was of no avail ; and on Sunday, the 6th of 
April, the troop, with the Captain at his post, left on the cars for Corinth, 
which was reached the next morning at daylight. The sec md day's 
fighting at Shiloh was in progress; but it was incumbent upon the tioop 
to go into camp before attempting a move of any kind. 

The first duty assigned the Light Horse was to guard the prisoners 
taken the day before ; after that came an expedition towards the battle 
field, for the purpose of recovering stragglers, to furnish information of 
the condition of the roads leading to Corinth, and to enable the Com- 
manding General to ascertain the position of the enemy's outlying forces ] 

As soon as these first duties had been performed, Captain Leeds deter- 
mined to fix the status of his command — as, up to this time, he had not 



Arm D of thi West. 



been attached to any particular corps. After considerable exertion, he 
succeeded in procuring an order detailing the troop to serve as escort to 
General Leonidas Polk. This end attained, the Captain, in spite of his 
illness, busied himself with the condition of his men, and endeavored to 
make it as perfect as constant drill and strict discipline could accomplish. 
But his spirit was stronger than his body. At first he was able to mount 
his horse and conduct the drills, but by degrees his complaint overcame 
him, aod he was forced to confine himself to his camp and then to his 
tent. For a little while his condition now seemed to improve ; but the 
nature of the malady was too deep-seated. His rapidly failing strength 
warned his friends that it was imperative his services should be, for a 
time, lost. A consultation of surgeons resulted in his being ordered to 
New Orleans. The decision, however, came too late. On the journey 
South it became evident to Lieutenant Greenleaf, his kinsman, who ac- 
companied him, that the end was near. He stopped at Jackson ; and 
there on the 24th of April, 1SG2, died Captain Thomas L. Leeds, as 
much a victim of the war as if he had been killed in battle. No purer, 
truer man laid down his life a sacrifice, for his country and his honor, in 
all the Southern army. 

After the death of Captain Leeds the command devolved upon Lieut. 
W A. Gordon, now a prominent member of the bar of this city. Ser- 
geant H. Thornbull was elected Jr. 2d Lieutenant to the vacancy caused 
by the promotion of Lieuts. Foster and Greenleaf. When Lieutenant 
Foster resigned from the troop and was assigned to duty in the Depart- 
ment of Mississippi, Sergeant Lallande became Junior Second Lieuten- 
ant ; aud, on the resignation of Lieutenant Thornhill, Sergeant J. C. 
Patrick was made Junior Second Lieutenant. After the Kentucky cam- 
paign, Sergeant P. M. Kenner was elected Junior Second Lieutenant ; 
Captain Gordon having resigned, and was succeeded by Lieutenant 
Greenleaf, who retained command of the troop until the final surrender 
of General Johnstons army at Durham Station, in North Carolina; at 
which time the Lieutenants were — First Lieutenant, P M. Kenner ; Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, E. M. Morse ; Jui ior Second Lieutenant, Ar. Hopkins 
Lieutenants Lallande and Patrick having, in the meanwhile, been as- 
signed to other duty. 

From the time when the Light Horse first entered into active service 
as the escort to Lieutenant-General Polk at Corinth, to the termination 
of the war, they participated in all the great actions of the Western 
Armv- At Perryville, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, 
Ilesaca, Kennesaw, New Hope Church, Atlanta, Franklin, Nashville 



34 Army of the West. 



and Bentonville, besides the countless minor affairs and movements of 
the army, they bad a part. To General Polk and his successor, Lieut. - 
General A. P. Stewart, they were the constant attendants. The duties 
devolving upon the Light Horse consisted not only of the regular duties 
of an escort troop, but of arduous and dangerous services in the field. 
As occasion required, they were compelled to perform scout service ; and, 
on many occasions, their duties led them in rear of the enemy's lines. 
The loss of the troop, in proportion to the losses experienced by similar 
commands throughout the service, was heavy ; and the last man of the 
Confederate Army killed on this side of the Mississippi, was John H. 
McKnight, an original member of the Orleans Light Horse. 

MUSTEK ROLL. 

Captain, T. L. Leeds. 

First Lieutenant, W A. Gordon. 

Second Lieutenant, George Foster. 

Second Junior Lietenant, Leeds Greenleaf. 

Surgeon, W. C. Nichols. 

Sergeants — J. F Pollock, Q. M. Sergeant; E. K. Converse, Orderly 
Sergeant; C. D. Lallande, 2d Sergeant; Fred. Freret, 3d Sergeant; 
H. Thornhill, 4th Sergeant. 

Corporals — J. N. Jackson > 1st Corporal ; Jules Robelot, 2d Corporal ; 
Ar. Hopkins, 3d Corporal ; Ed. Hobart, 4th Corporal. 

Acting Commissary Sergeant — W A. Bell. 

Piivates — James Adams, C Armstrong, E. Boisblanc, C. T. Beau- 
regard, H. F Bonfanti, F. K. Byrne, Hardy Bryan, L. A. Buard, W- 
H. Brenham, M. G. Campbell, H. N. Crumhorn, P, J. Christian, H. S. 
Carey, A. J. Claiborne, J. Clough, R. H. Davis, J. W Dowsing, W 
W A. Freret, F. B. Fleitas, T. W. Foley, St. Leon Fazende, L. H. 
Gardner, A. H. Gunnison, R. S. Griffith, C. Gallwey, J. O. Hardin, 
C. A. Hildreth, Martin Hayne, F. Harrison, C. M. Hite, J. M. Kennedy, 
P. M. Kenner, F. Landreaux, L. Lange, J. H. McKnight, W. C. Mitch- 
ell, C. C. Mitchell, T. P. May, F. P. Montz, E. M. Morse, Opedenwey- 
er, B. F. Peters, J. C. Patrick, jr., J. W Parsons, A. W Roundtree, E. 
T. Robinson, Bernard Riley, J. W Simmons, W N. Shaw, James J. 
Stewart, H. S; Sprigg, Chs. Shalley, F- Seiler, F. E. Trepagnier, Rob't 
TJrquhart, jr., A Viavant, T. H. Williams, J. C. Walker. 
Blacksmith, Con. Murphy. 
Trumpeter, A. H. Phar. 
Saddler, G. Eberley. 
Farrier, E. Smith. 



Army of the West. 35 



THE TWENTY-SECOND LOUISIANA. 



The 22d Louisiana (sometimes called the 21st), after reorganizing at 
Gamp Moore, was sent to Vicksbnrg ; and its history, until the fall of 
that city and the surrender of the Confederate troops as prisoners of 
war, was principally the same as that of every other regiment at that 
point. It took part in the movement to Snyder's Bluff, on the Yazoo, as 
well as in the hotly contested battle of Baker's Creek. 

After the surrender, the 22d, together with the 23d and fragments of 
four or five other Louisiana regiments, were gathered together at what 
had been an old camp near Enterprise, Miss. The first commander of 
the 22d had been Colonel Higgins. At the reorganization, it stood — 
I. W l'atton, Colonel ; E. S. Landry, Lieutenant-Colonel (afterwards 
pot in command of the 28th)* ; and with George Purvis, Captain of the 
Scotch Guards (and afterwards with Wash. Marks), as Major.t The 
latter afterwards became Lieutenant Colonel. 

After leaving Enterprise, the regiment went to Mobile, and was 
marched into the breastworks in the rear of the latter city. Afterwards 
they were placed at Spanish Fort. Upon the fall of the fortifications 
at that point, the regiment was marched, via Cuba Station, to Meridian, 
where it was paroled at the surrender.^ 

A large number of prominent citizens connected with this command 
still survive. One of the best known of the companies was the Perse- 
verance Guards, composed, almost exclusively, of firemen from No. 13.§ 

"John Plattsmier was Lieutenant-Colonel, at one time, of the regiment, and 
surrendered with it at Meridian. 

t Major Purvis, whose abilities as a builder and contractor were fully recog- 
nized by the military authorities, as well as his military services were, during 
the siege of Vicksburg, by the 22d, was afterwards placed as managing man 
for furnishing substance and commissary stores for the Sub-Department of 
Mississippi. What his duties amounted to may be judged of when it is stated 
that he daily — or, rather, nightly, as he commenced work at midnight — scalded 
and butchered a thousand hogs, and baked up a corresponding amount of bread. 

% The names of the companies whic i composed this command, and their 
organization, will be found [Adjutant-General's report] at page 254 of this 
work. For other reference, see heading, " Army of the West." 

§ The Fire Companies that went into service, with various regiments, were 
Perseverance Company A (Company B remaining behind for home duty- 
Captain Tenbrink commanding) ; Violet Guards, composed, principally, of 
No. 12's men ; the American Rifles, formed, principally, from No. 5 and Ameri- 
can Hook and Ladder ; Washington Light Infantry, formed from No. 20. 



36 Army oj the West. 



Its first Captain was John Rareshide (since dead), who was succeeded 
by David H. Todd (brother-in-law of President Lincoln), its last com- 
mander. Sergeant Daniel Owens was of this command ; and John 
Fitzpatrick (clerk of the Superior Criminal Court ; Lieutenants P. H, 
Savage, John Curry, Michael Smith, C. G. Hersey ; also Mike Brennan. 
Ordnance Sergeant, and Henry Taylor, Orderly Sergeant. Until the 
fall of the city, Perseverance Guards were stationed at the various forts 
that guarded the coast. 

MEMORABLE DEATHS. 



Captains Fortin and Vienne. 

The similarity of fate which these two gallant soldiers, Capt. Fortin 
and Capt. Vienne (his successor) met, may be ranked among the singu- 
lar coincidences of the war. But that the facts are well authenticated, 
they would appear on a par with the story of guns loaded precisely in 
the nick of time by shots fired into them by the enemy. The circum- 
stances referred to were as follows : 

Captain Louis Fortin, the commander of the Orleans Guards, had 
escaped unharmed the dangers which beset the Western Army, until it 
had long been at Atlanta ; and even then escaped the fierce fire which 
killed their heroic Colonel, Thomas Shields, and nearly all of their 
commissioned officers, and which numbered among its victims a very 
large proportion ot the command. But the shears of destiny which cut 
short the thread of life of so many on the 28th, were only suspended in 
his case until the following 14th. Two days preceding his death, Capt. 
Fortin, sympathizing with his men in their mortification at the misman- 
agement which had allowed them and the 30th to be almost destroyed, 

made the following address : 

Atlanta, Georgia, August 12, 1864. 
Fellow-soldiers in suffering: — It is now two years and a-halt since you left 
your homes. Since then I have been constantly with you — sharing your good 
and bad days, your rejoicings and troubles. When the time should approach 
in which your cause ought to triumph ; when the dream which I have so long 
caressed, of sending you back to your families should be realized, I see my 
dearest hopes depart. I have seen you fall, mutilated and sacrificed, in an 
unnecessary attack. To you who are no more, happier days await you in a 
better world — you have dearly bought them. To you, poor, wounded com- 
rades, who were abandoned and left behind in the battle-field, heaven send 
you a prompt return to our midst. Your captain will await you with wide- 
spread arms. For you who still remain, shall be all my cares, all my soliti- 
tnde and friendship. Louis Fortin, Capt. Comn'dg Orleans Guards. 

None of these generous wishes were to be fulfilled. The 14th came ; 



Army oj tJie West. 37 



and of all the days of the siege, it was quietest along the line. It was 
indeed so quiet (for an armistice had been agreed on) that the Federals 
fired only one shot ; this shot, however, was aimed by the Giim Archer 
himself — and Fortin fell mortally wounded.* 

The circumstances attending the death of this brave officer were 
carious enough ; but the effect was heightened by what happened to his 
successor. 

On the 2.5th of the same month, Lieutenant A. J. Vienne, who now 
became Captain, reached Atlanta from Montgomery, where he bad been 
confined after receiving a serious wound. His arrival or promotion 
meant death for him. Shortly after entering camp, he received his 
death wound within a few paces of the trenches, or near the spot where 
Fortin had been shot. On this day, as had been the case on the 2-*5tb, 
there had been a total suspension of hostilities. The only cannon ball 
from the enemy fired during the day, struck Vienne in the head and 
scattered his brains. 

The remains of Captains Fortin and Vienne were conveyed from 
Atlanta, through the care of Father Turgis, the Chaplain of the regi- 
ment, and interred in the St. Louis Cemetery, in their respective 
family tombs, where they still rest but a iew feet apart. 

The body of Captain Becnel, of the Thirtieth Louisiana, killed 

'Captain Fortin was born on the - 26th of November, 1829, in the parish of 
St. James, in this State, and was the son of Charles Fortin, a sugar planter. 
In 1^43, Louis Fortin entered Jefferson College, in the parish of St. James, the 
then leading institution of oar State, where so many of our Creoles were ed- 
ucated. On his withdrawal from college, after receiving a brilliant education, 
he made a traveling tour in the United States, visiting the principal cities 
On his return, he devoted his time to the study of Medicine, which he would 
have continued in Paris had not the war broken out. Fortin was refined and 
elegant in his manners and bearing, and had always been accustomed to the 
ease enjoyed then by almost every Creole family. All of this, however, did 
not prevent him from sacrificing family ties and future hopes. He abandoned 
his studies to take part for years in the weary marches and battles which ter- 
minated in his death. He started from this city as a private on the 18th of 
March 1SG2 ; and through hib bravery and evenness of character, soon gained 
the esteem of his officers and comrades. The promotion of Fortin to the cap- 
taincy of Company F, which took place after the battle of Shiloh, was a just 
recognition of the services he rendered in the different positions he filled, and 
■was a just reward to commanding traits of character shown in the hour of 
peril. His devotion was great to his company, and his attachment to his com- 
rades so strong as to induce him to refuse higher positions tendered him. 



3S Army of tlie West. 



before Atlanta, was also brought back by Father Turgis, and his re- 
mains sent to his family in the parish of St. John the Baptist. 

Lietjt. Col. Ohas. D. Dreux. 

He left this city on the 11th of April, 1861, with about one hundred 
and five of the finest young soldiers that ever marched to confront an 
enemy. His was the first volunteer company that left Louisiana. Its 
departure from the city drew to the lake end of the old Pontchartrain a 
large crowd of the first ladies and gentlemen of the city ; and as the 
steamer bore away with this heroic freight, sorrow moistened eyes that 
looked for the last time on many forms that graced her decks. Snowy 
handkerchiefs, wet with tears, waved a last farewell to the Orleans 
Cadets. But amid the gljom that settled over the young soldiers, one 
face peered eagerly into the future ; there was one form beckoned for- 
ward by an unseen hand. This was Charles D. Dreux. No evil star 
hovered on the horizon ; no cloud threw its shadow upon his hopes. 

At Pensacola he soon saw that the situation afforded little scope for 
military enterprise. Frowning Pickens stood far out on the other shore ; 
Pensacola bay swept between the opposing forces; and war there was 
reduced to artillery duels between heavy siege pieces, at a distance of at 
least two miles. The active theatre of war was Virginia, and Dreux 
yearned to go there. All obstacles were surmounted by the vigor of his 
efforts and influence, and at length the order was obtained. In Virginia 
he commanded a battalion of the flower of the youth of Louisiana, con- 
sisting of the Crescent Rifles, Orleans Cadets, Louisiana Guards, G-rivot 
Guards and Shreveport Grays. His fine presence, admirable self-pos- 
session, dauntless bearing, together with his high military qualities, won 
for him the love and affection of his men and attracted the attention of 
his superior officers. He was assigned to service under Gen. Magruder. 

On the 5th of July, 1861, Lieut. Colonel Dreux, with about one 
hundred and fifty picked men, left camp at Young's Mill and made a 
reconnoitering movement toward Newport News, where the enemy were 
reported throwing up works and making preparations for an advance. 
When about seven miles out from camp, his command encountered a 
considerable force of the enemy, and at the first fire he was killed. He 
fell in the prime of youth, while all the starry graces of young manhood 
were glittering about him. When he received his mortal wound, he 
dropped to the ground so noiselessly and slowly, that the soldier on the 
right whom he touched did not know he was dead. One account repre- 
sents him as leaning against a tree, with arms akimbo, at the time that 



Army of tlie West. 



the Federal scouts, a few paces in front, suddenly revealed an ambush by 
their fire. After his death, his body was placed on horseback, supported 
by one of his late command ; and then it was hardly known that the 
officer upon whom so many hopes had been placed was no longer among 
iait aqpg. His body now reposes in the St. Louis Cemetery, adorned 
by a simple monument. 

Adventures of a one armed Scout. 

Cicero M. Allen enlisted in Company A, Crescent Rifles, on the 15th 
of April, 1861, for Pensacola. From this point they were ordered to 
Virginia, and stationed at Young's Mill, on the Peninsula. Nothing 
important occurred here, except the skirmish near Newport News, and 
much hard marching in sand ankle deep, night and day ; and with no 
rest for the wicked, or anybody else. In the skirmish at Newport News 
Dreux was among the first killed. Allen and his twin brother, together 
with Bailey P. Vinson and McVickor, participated in this fight, and 
carried Dreux's body from the field. A small wagon was then obtained, 
in which was placed the body of Col. Dreux and those of the other 
members of the Battalion who had been killed (Private Hackett of the 
Shreveport Gray?, and others whose names are not known), and William 
Beaufort of the Crescent Rifles, wounded. 

In February, 1862, Allen was promoted First Lieutenant in Colonel 
Edmonston's Battalion ; but threw up his commission to join a company 
of Louisiana Cavalry, raised in Carroll parish — the Briaifield Rebels, of 
Phifer's Battalion — just a6 they, with other Confederates, were evacua- 
ting Nashville. He did duty with this company up to the time of his 
last capture, and participated in most of the cavalry fights that occurred. 

At Britton's Lane, Tenn., the Confederates, under Gen. Frank Arm- 
strong, had a hard fight with the Federal Cavalry Allen was wounded 
and bis horse killed in the charge, and he himself made prisoner. He 
was carried to the Federal Hospital, and had the wound in his arm, of 
which he never afterwards recovered the use, dressed. This having been 
done, Allen walked out of the building. The surgeon, then busily en- 
gaged with his patients, had rode to the hospital on an elegant gray 
horse, which he conveniently hitched outside. Allen, catching sight of 
this, leaped into the saddle and rode rapidly off. The shades of night 
soon after coming on, he safely made his way through the enemy's lines. 

At Farmington and Shiloh he was actively engaged, and in the latter 
engagement he carried the battle flag of his regiment until ordered by 
General Hindman to replace his twin brother, who had been detached, 



40 Army of the West. 



on the evening of the battle, to act as aide- de camp to General R. G. 
Shaver, 3ommanding Hindman's old Brigade of Hardee's Division, and 
who had been severely wounded. Here Allen displayed his soldierly 
qualities, and the brothers were complimented for good conduct. After 
this battle small fights occurred so constantly that they were almost of 
daily occurrence. 

At Ponchatonla, La., where the Briarfields, with two companies from 
the first Mississippi Cavalry, Col. Pinson, had been ordered from North 
Mississippi, with the view of picketing and watching the enemy, who 
were threatening to advance on Port Hudson, Allen was elected 2nd 
Junior Lieutenant. His first affair was with a small tin-clad Federal 
gunboat, the Lafitte, which had been prowling around the Amite river 
for the purpose of reconnoitering. With a small force of his company 
and delachments from other camps, he attacked this boat, and made 
matters so uncomfortable that the Lafitte, in her efforts to get away, run 
on a stump, and was abandoned and blown up. 

It having been discovered that she had a splendid globe-sighted rifled 
gun on board when she went down, several officers, among them Allen, 
managed to get possession of a small schooner, and recovered the gun. 
This was accomplished by one of the men diving down and placing a 
slip-knot around the piece. Allen was now left, with a detail of two 
men, to bring the schooner and gun to where the piece could be shipped 
to Port Hudson. While passing through Lake Maurepas, he was inter- 
cepted by a yawl boat filled with nine Federals. Allen quickly run 
his schooner into a small bayou near by ; and, jumping ashore, prepared 
an ambush. The Federals meanwhile came up, confident of an easy 
prize. As they did so, they received a well directed fire from Allen's 
small force, which effectually closed the career of one Sergeant Kline. 
The balance hastily tumbled from fhe boat into the water, from which 
they emerged to enter the woods. There they were speedily attacked ; 
and, after retreating through the marsh for nearly a mile, the white fla^ 
was hung out. Allen, fearing to disclose his real force to the enemy, 
gave the command to " Cease firing ;" then, calling upon several imag- 
inary companies to "Halt," boldly marched forward and received the 
surrender of the whole party. This consisted of two lieutenants and 
five privates. Single handed, and after divesting the prisoners of their 
arms and moving them to a convenient distance from the stack of guns 
he ordered his two men up, and marched his prisoners on board of the 
schooner and then to camp. Gen. Frank Gardner, who was then com- 



Army of the West. 41 



raanding at Port Hudson, seat an order complimenting Lieut. Allen on 
his gallantry. 

While the Company was doing duty at Ponchatoula, Allen took eight 
men, crossed Lake Maurepas in a yawl, and leaving the boat in one of 
the numerous bayous (near Pruniere), waded with his men waist-deep 
through the swamp marsh He here crossed the railroad to Lake Ponch- 
artrain, and there discovered two Federal schooners lying at anchor. 
He now found a little dug-out, boarded the two schooners, made pris- 
oners of the crews, and got away with his prizes to Madisonville. The 
one on which Allen remained wns safely brought to shore ; and a grand 
blow out with the large quantity of fluids and commissary stores on 
board, testified to tbe success of the expedition. The second schooner, 
owing to the ignorance of the four men in charge about the manage- 
ment of the centre-board, drifted to far to the leeward, and was recap- 
tured by the Federals. 

On another occasion, while scouting with his command, he discovered 
a picket of Federal Cavalry (1st Texas Regiment), which he quickly 
charged. After killing three men and wounding another, he captured 
the balance. He had many such affairs, and invariably handled his 
men so as to scarcely ever have one hurt. 

The Briarfields did sjme fine service during the siege of Port Hudson, 
and were notably prominent in an attack on a Federal wagon train, 
which Colonels Powers and Logan captured. The advance guard in 
this affair was commanded by Allen's twin brother, who, though only a 
private, had been mistaken for the Lieutenant by Col. P., who ordered 
bim to take a detachment and fight the enemy when met. The brother, 
thinking there was a chance for a joke, aud seeing his opportunity to get 
a little surreptitious glory, rode rapidly off, and was soon engaged with 
the enemv, Lieut Allen, however, came up in time to pitch in on the 
flank of the Federals and do excellent fighting with his detachment. 
The skirmish resulted in the capture of one hundred wagons, four mule 
teams, forty old prisoners, with twenty of the enemy killed and wounded. 
When the affair was over, and Lieut. Allen discovered the ruse adopted 
bv his brother to get command of (he advance guard, his rage knew no 
bounds. An excited interview occurred between him and his brother, 
which was finally settled amicably by an agreement that the latter 
should get a transfer to some other regiment. 

At daylight one morning the Colonel sent an order to Allen to take 
a detail of men and pursue and capture some seven deserters. This 



42 Army of the West. 



Allen did. After marching over forty miles in one day, the Mississippi 
river was reached, only to find that the deserters had taken refuge on 
the gunboat Rattler. While, resting from the long ride, and squatted on 
the side of the road, much disappointed at his poor success in recaptur- 
ing the missiDg men, an old lady came riding by in her carriage. She 
speedily informed them that the crew of the Rattler were daily in the 
habit of landing in Rodney and holding high revel in the street, boast- 
ing, at the same time, of their ability to thrash any number of butter- 
milk cavalry, and do it with cornstalks. Allen thereupon camped in 
the woods near Rodney. A watch was stationed in the graveyard just 
above town ; and during the entire night the sentry ; » " All's well," as 
the boat's bell struck the hour, was heard by the picket concealed 
behind a time-worn tombstone. Sunday morning, at ten o'clock, a con- 
siderable stir was visible on board the gunboat. Soon three boats shot 
out from her side, filled with gaily dressed officers and marines. These 
soon after landed ; and it now became evident that cornstalks would 
have to come into play. Allen now mounted his men and ordered bis- 
few followers forward, and rushed into the town at a gallop. The pop- 
ping of pistols soon demonstrated that the work had begud. The Fed- 
eral Captain and his Lieutenant were evidently men of pluck j and 
quickly getting their men into the church, attempted to barricade the 
doors. But this move was foiled by the rapidity with which Allen dis- 
mounted his men, and, pistol in hand, led them into the building 
As he forced his way in, a marine met him, and their pistols went off 
simultaneously. The shot of the marine cut through Allen's hat, and a 
piece of percussion cap struck him across the nose, causing it to bleed 
profusely. But, on the other hand, the marine was shot through the 
body and fell in the aisle of the church. Meantime, the Confederates 
had entered through another door, and the close proximity of the muz. 
zles of their carbines decided the marines in surrendering. The number 
of prisoners taken were fifteen marines, and the Captain and First 
Lieutenant — the enemy having three killed. This little affair happened 
while church service was being performed and a congregation assembled 
for worship. It need hardly be stated that a terrible commotion existed 
for a brief period, particularly among the fairer portion of the worship- 
pers. Allen withdrew in safety with his prisoners, notwithstanding the 
battery promptly opened fire upon the town. 

After a series of adventures and much hard fighting, Lieut. Allen at 
last fell into the hands of the enemy, while on a scout in the Federal 



Army of the West. 43 



lines, and was taken on board the steamer Iberville. While surrounded 
by his guards, Allen leaped from the deck of the steamer ; and, after 
desperate struggles in the water, being greatly retarded by his broken 
arm, which was then unhealed, and notwithstanding the volley fired at 
him, made his way to the bank, and thence to camp. 

On the hurried retreat from Colliersville, Tenn., by the Confederates, 
the Briarfields were ordered to the rear, to hold the Federals in check 
until the balance of the command could effect a crossing at a difficult 
ford on the Coldwater river. Here, with his small command, Allen 
made a most obstinate defence ; until the Federals, discovering the 
smallness of his force, charged in largely superior numbers. They act- 
ually rode over Allen, he having been thrown from his horse j and again 
he fell into their hands. He was then placed on the cars, en route 
ior the old Capitol Prison. The night was pitch dark, and the train 
dashing along at the rate of thirty miles an hour. This, however, did not 
prevent Allen, when near the city of Baltimore, from snatching the 
guard's overcoat and leaping from the cars. He soon met with some 
noble hearted Southern ladies, who aided him in crossing the lines. 

Once again was he captured before the final close of the war, and 
once again did he escape. He reached the Confederate lines to find the 
struggle ended. Hoping it would be continued on the Trans-Mississippi 
side, he made his way to Alexandria, to find there also that the war was 
nearly over. The Confederacy he loved so well was in its death throes 
The South had played and lost, and the curtain fell ; the great tragedy 
of the Southern struggle was ended. 

Sadly retracing his steps, Allen reached New Orleans, promptly en- 
tering the business walks of life. He endeavored to build up his shat- 
tered fortunes; and, meeting with success, be embarked, in conjunction 
with Capt. J. Frank Hicks, in cotton planting, near Lake Providence, 
where he died. His remains are now interred in Greenwood Cemetery. 
Col. Valert Sulakowski. 

The sternest and (according to many) best disciplinarian in the Con- 
federate army, was Col. Valery Sulakowski, a Polander by birth, who 
went to Virginia in command of the First Polish Regiment, or Four, 
teenth Louisiana. His character embodied the idea of abstract military 
rule as much so as Victor Hugo's heroes in " Ninety-Three " do the 
irreconcilable combative forces of the French Revolution. As an 
officer on duty, he was the incarnation of military law — despotic, cruel 
and absolutely merciless. On the other hand, no regiment, in its wants, 



44 Army of the West. 



was better looked after, or obtained more regularly its requisitions. He 
secured order among the wildest body of soldiers that took part in the 
Virginia campaigns. For recklessness, the Zouaves, Tigers, and 
Guerrillas were all constant subjects of conversation around camp fires ; 
but as will soon be shown, the establishment of discipline was child's 
play with the others compared with what it was in the Polish regiment. 

At the fame time, it is but just to state, it proved itself splendid 
fighting material on many a hard fought field, and no men knew better 
how to die gallantly in their tracks. It went into the Seven Days' 
Fight with nine hundred men ; and in one fight at Frazer's Farm (known 
to the combatants as ihe " SlaughterHouse "), it lost thirty-three men 
out ol a company of forty-two — nine of them being shot dead on the 
spot ; or, in other words, " only nine men came out without bullets in 
their hides. The regiment was tetotally ruined for months, from the 
number of killed and wounded ; and there was not left, after the fight, 
a decent company." 

The Fourteenth, after organizing at Camp Pulaski, started to Vir- 
ginia in August, 1861. Capt. Wm. Swan was for some months connected 
with it, and Judge Oooley, since killed in a duel, was one of its first 
captains. Major Wm. H. Toler followed its standard until disabled. 

The Polish regiment was composed of men of all nationalities — most- 
ly of foreign birth. The Irish weie largely represented. There were, 
however, French, Germans, and men from every State, and, among 
Americans, the steamboat element predominated. Having different 
languages and usages, and with no previous experience of discipline, it 
was a work of great difficulty to bend the necks of a thousand robust, 
passionate men to the life of a camp. However, no serious incident oc- 
curred until the regiment had been embarked on a train of cars to Vir- 
ginia, and had half way reached what was afterwards to be the bury- 
ing ground of most of their number. 

At the intermediate point, (Grand Junction, Tenn.,) a detention oc- 
curred, and the men, weaiied with confinement in crowded cars, were 
marched into a temporary camp. The first order, however, given by 
the commanding officer was that every grocery and coffee-house should 
be closed, and that guards be stationed at each to prevent the soldiers 
from obtaining liquor. Major Toler, as officer of the day, executed the 
order. The trouble, however, was that the men, while on the cars, had 
had no coffee, whisky beirjg issued instead, and those who did not drink 
gave their share to the others. This prohibitive order gave great 



Army of the West. 45 



offence. It was soon found impossible to execute it, as the men would 
penetrate through rear entrances, over ioof tops, and would get in by 
the back ways. They soon obtained a superabundance of liquor, and the 
officers on the spot could not make their authority heeded. 

Another account given of the affair was that two barrels of bad whisky 
had been smuggled on board of the cars before reaching Grand Junc- 
tion. The enicute, aside from the effects of the liquor which the soldiers 
obtained, was the Tesult of the dissatisfaction which prevailed in every 
regiment before their organizations had been satisfactorily completed. 

This regiment, at the time, bad not received its full complement of 
guns, had no ammunition, and but few bayonets. The arms were at 
first in the hands of the guards, stationed at one drinking saloon, who 
in the first place undertook to arrest the rioters. This was at the 
command of Captain Hyatt, (since dead,) a very brave officer, and af- 
terwards three times wounded at Gaines' Mill — once while being carried 
offtbe field in a litter.* 

The row having commenced, a soldier named Joe Johnson, ran a 
bayonet through oue of the rioters. The guards were now overpowered 
and the guns taken away. Meanwhile, in the streets, four bundled yards 
distant from camp, a Lieutenant fired a pistol at the rioters, and this was 
followed by two or three shots from other officers. The fury of 
the men who were there gathered exceeded all bounds. The officers 
who had fired were driven into the hotel of the town, followed by a 
company who wore Zouave caps. The doors of the hotel were now 
barred on the inside, but the enraged soldiers, not to be baffled of their 
prey, set fire to the building in several places, although the hotel was 
filled with two or three hundred women and children, and other specta- 
tors. This fire was extinguished by the steady men who had been kept 
out of the row. Meanwhile the fight was still going on in camp, where 
it amounted to a general rough and tumble promiscuous fight among the 
men. 

Major Toler, who was present on the occasion, says it was the most 

*Myatt was desperately wounded each time, and one shot broke the bones 
of his arm so badly at the elbow, that the surgeon deemed it prudent to have 
it amputated. Myatt was so afraid that it would be done that he slept with 
his revolver under his pillow, and threatened the life of any one who came 
about him with chloroform. His arm, however, was saved by a resection of 
the elbow — that is, by cutting out the bones about the joint— the first case 
that occurred. He went back with his lame arm to the army and remained to 
the last. 



46 Army of the West. 



desperate situation he was ever placed in ; that three times his life was 
saved, from blows aimed at him, by attached friends among the mutin- 
eers themselves. All restraint and order had ceased to exist, when 
Sulakoski appeared on the scene, at the hotel, with a revolver in each 
hand, and rnade his voice, which was of extraordinary power, heard 
above the uproar. He was a man of commanding presence, six feet 
high, and his features, always stern, were now distorted and livid with 
passion, and absolutely devilish in their expression. His lips had be- 
come blue with ra»e, and the rattlesnake glance of his eye so terrible 
that the men who caught it stopped and listened, as he shouted, 
" Go to your quarters." These words, sometimes pronounced with a 
frightful imprecation, with revolver upraised, were followed by an al- 
most instantaneous discharge, where there was any hesitation or reply 
given back. Peter Moran, still living, was shot down, but jumped up, 
spit out a tooth or a bullet, and swore that he was " not dead yet." An 
excellent Sergeant, who had been assisting to restore order, was shot 
dead, through failure to heed the command. His wife came to hand 
just in time to see him die. Col. Sulakoski afterward showed her great 
kindness, and assisted her with monev to get home. 

In short, there were seven men killed, powder-burned; and nineteen 
wounds inflicted, before both the turbulent and orderly classes discov- 
ered that it meant equal death to all not to yield instant obedience. 

Sulakowski afterwards bitterly reproached some of his officers with 
neglect of duty ; the Franco Guards, though composed of fine material, 
were distributed among the other companies ; and the Catahoula Guer- 
rillas, taken into the regiment. Sulakowski's course afterwards abound- 
ed wiih incidents of a similar character. His soldiers, who did not love 
him, regard him as one of the most provident and efficient commanders 
they ever bad, spite of his despotic character. This personal trait, indeed, 
they soon saw redounded to their advantage, when their regiment would 
come in competition with others in the Confederate army, about camp- 
ing grounds, supplies or similar subjects of contention. It was his im- 
patience of any will but his own, which virtually ended his military 
career. Other men were promoted over him, and it was doubtful wheth- 
er other Colonels to any brigade, to which he might have been ap- 
pointed, would have served uuder him. 

The regiment was sent to the Peninsula, and Sulakowski constructed 
some of the most remarkable fortifications there. The 14th had the 



Army of the West. 47 



finest winter quarters, for they were all built by military rule, there were 
in Virginia. When the men were not working they were drilling. 

Sulakoski was succeeded by Dr. K. W Jones, who fought the com- 
mand through the Seven Days' Fight. He, in turn, was succeeded by 
Col. Zebulon York, afterwards Brigadier General. Lieut. Col. David 
Zable was the last commanding officer. After the Seven Days' Fight, 
the 14th was merged into the Louisiana Brigades, and their marches 
and further adventures will be found in the acoount of the Louisiana 
Brigades in Virginia. As for Sulakoski, he threw up his commission, 
accompanied by a bitter address to his regiment, after a year's service. 
Though afterwards in command on the Crulf coast in Texas, he accom- 
plished no result corresponding to his natural force of character. With 
more moderation and a better balanced judgment, he would, had he lived, 
have arrived at high military distinction. His last appearance before 
the public of this city was on the occasion of the visit of the Duke 
Alexis to New Orleans, whom Sulakowski bitterly denounced in a placard, 
and whom the fierce Polander would probably have assaulted in the 
streets, but for the remonstrances of his friends and the surveilance of 
the police. Colonel Sulakowski died in this city a year ago. 

Amongr the officers of the 14th still living, whose names can now be 
called to mind, w ere Captains Zimmerman and J. W T. Leech, Lieut. 
John Simpson, and Adjutant W P. Clark. 



THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI. 



FIRST PAPER. 



Though Virginia was the most frequent battle ground of the 
Confederate struggle, aud the arena for brilliant achievement 
from all portions of the South, it still was not upon her soil 
that the events which most affected the action of the drama 
were performed. Lee's victories were, judged by the final 
result, in reality merely details or delays. At New Orleans, 
Vicksburg and Atlanta, Secessia was receiving the fatal 
stabs which made the scene at Appomattox only a foregoing 
act of the tragedy. 

The portion of the struggle which occured in Louisiana, the 
sacrifice of New Orleans through the inattention and indiffer- 
ence of Davis and Beujamin — the arrival of Butler — the 
hanging of Mumford— Grant's wonderful caual for changing 
the bed of the Mississippi— the famous Red River expedition — 
the battles of Mansfield aud Pleasant Hill, were all incidents 
too much impressed upon the minds of the people to need 
more than a casual allusion. It was one of the mournful inci- 
dents in the State's history, that the prominent actors in this 
quarter were Lovell, who had no means of doiug anything if 
he had had the ability ; Pemberton worse than useless ; Smith 
amiable but purposeless, and Magruder whose otherwise bril- 
liant reputation for generalship, was somewhat tarnished by 
the repulse of the Confederates at Malvern Hill. Taylor had 
gained an advantage over the enemy under Geu. Jackson by 
disobeying orders, and was equally fortunate at Mansfield by 
a similar course. 

The only officer who gained great popularity and the confi- 
dence of the people was Henry W. Allen, crippled iu both 
legs at the battle of Baton Rouge, and afterwards made Gov- 
ernor of the State. Though a man with a good deal of rhetor- 



The Trans- Mississippi. 



ical nonsense, exploded medieval sentiments, which appeared 
absurd in this age, he yet had the great manly qualities of 
undaunted courage, incorruptible honesty and unceasing 
activity in laboring for the people. He had the same admira- 
tion for the feudal heroes (and more enthusiasm), as Napoleon 
or Mine. Eoland for those of antiquity ; in every other respect 
he was thoroughly American in character, and was probably 
the most useful governor Louisiana has ever had. He was 
indeed the guardian angel of the poverty-stricken people of 
this State, and by his honesty and energy in using her credit 
for the purchase and distribution of supplies was the means 
of arresting untold misery. 

A.nd apropos of the great final suffering, one of the most 
curious features of the war in Louisiana, was the enormous loss 
of property and the wonderful exhibition made of the produc- 
tiveness of the soil, not to speak of the destruction of the 
immense quantity of products on the levee at the capture of 
the city. When it became known that the Federal fleet was 
ascending the Mississippi above New Orleans, a simultaneous 
column of smoke ascended from almost every cotton planta- 
tion along that river ; and on many of the pyres thus kindled, 
each planter had sacrificed a half million dollars. In the 
cultivation of sugar as much as two and a half millions had 
been invested by one planter alone (who had commenced life 
without means), and that this interest suffered may be guessed 
from the following statement of another of his class : 

" I commenced making sugar fifteen years ago. The crop in 
one or two seasons, went up to 400 hogsheads. In '57 I made 
3,000 hogsheads. In '62 my largest crop was in the field. At that 
time tue Union troops took possession. I lost my crop, over 
300 negroes, whose cost was $500,000, and all of my cattle, carts 
mules, harness aud horses. Butler returned them to me, but 
120 of my negroes, from exposure aud dissipation, had to be 
sent to my hospital, and the stock was broken down or lost 
Tue black frost set in, my loss was over $600,000 and I did' 
not make enough, nor the planters generally through the State, 
to piiy expenses."' 



The Trans-Mississippi. 



Utter want and misery came at last for all. At Vicksburg, 
people of wealth, when they burrowed in caves to escape shot 
and shell and cut habitations in the hill-sides, similar to those 
of Petrsea, carried thither their carpets and pianos ; but with 
thousands of delicate women, the day came for wandering 
around the country as helpless refugees, or of staying at home 
and receiving the visits of the demons known as Swamp Angels. 
Of what families suffered outside of the military seizures and 
destruction of property by war, the following will serve as an 
instance : 

At Island No. 40 a gang of fifteen thieves came over and 
carried off everything that was portable. They robbed Mr. E. 
S. Saunders of §1,000 of property and Dr. Bateman of a simi- 
lar amount. " Are you Confederate or Federal soldiers ? " was 
asked. u We are neither; we are money boys." One of the 
villains proposed to fire into the parlor windows. Dr. Bate- 
man was awakened at night by a pistol presented at his head. 
He boldly denounced the gang and threatened a retaliation 
and punishment, which eventually was carried out. The thieves 
were soon after attacked and driven to the woods, or under 
cover of half submerged thickets, or else killed. 

But this article proposes rather to give some of the advent- 
ures of the Regiments and prominent actors therein who went 
from this city. Of these we know of none who made a greater 
figure in Texas than our well known townsman, Maj. Bloom- 
field. 

Maj. Benjamin Bloomfield was in the Washington Ar- 
tillery at the commencement of the war, but was taken from 
that corps and assigned to duty by Magruder as a Captain of 
Artillery. Before, however, he had reached the front, Magru- 
der placed him upon his staff, and he remained with the latter 
as his " Familiar " in all of his subsequent campaigns. What 
Magruder thought of him will be seen from the following re- 
port of that General : 

" I cannot express too strongly my estimate of the services 
rendered by my Chief Quartermaster, Major Bloomfield. Soon 
after he took charge, he introduced order, promptness and 



The Trans-Mississippi. 



economy iu the management of his department. The scarcity 
of supplies and materials was so great as to make it almost im- 
possible to procure them. The genius, energy and extraordinary 
industry of Major Bloomfield, however, overcame all obstacles 
and enabled the army of the Peninsula to march and fight with 
the regularity of a machine. * * Maj. Bloomfield was 
sent by General Lee to Bichmond on important business (the 
communication to Mr. Davis of full information as to Gen. 
Lee's plans) and returned in time to render me good service."* 

The services here referred to were in accompanying Magru- 
der on the battlefield during the Seven Days' Fight — Major 
Bloomfield being the only officer, besides Col. Chilton, present 
— and in conveying confidential messages between Magruder, 
Lee and other generals. 

When Gen. Magruder came South to take command of the 
Trans-Mississippi Department, after the last named fight, he 
sent Bloomfield with artillery, stores and an immense military 
train by the overland route, together with a considerable mili. 
tary retinue to meet him (Magruder) in Texas. This journey of 
2000 miles was much of it made on foot, and as all sorts of 
supplies had to be gathered up on the way, at Vicksburg, 
Alexandria and other points, for the defence of the new de- 
partment, the journey was not completed until Christmas Eve 
following. 

In Texas Major Bloomfield was Magruder's intimate friend 
and most confidential adviser, and though there was a small 
military row whenever the two men came together (for which 
Magruder had a certain fondness with nearly all of his officers) 
he never allowed Bloomfield to go from his presence. It was 

*When Johnson came to the Peninsula orders were given by him to an 
engineer to have two or three bridges built over Black River for the retreat 
of bis troops and impedimenta, as occasion might require. About a week 
after be was not a little disgusted at finding that nothing had been done 
beyond making requisitions for a certain quantity of spikes, nails, &,c, and 
Magruder recommended bhn to try Bloomfield, which was accordingly 
done. The same night the woods along the banks of the river resounded 
with the axes of a regiment of woodcutters, working by the light of huge 
fires, and although the smoke from these was an immediate mark for the 
shot of the enemy, the impromptu bridges were completed by daylight, ready 
tor the retreat if necessary. 



The Tra ns- Mississ ipp I. 



as quartermaster that Blooinfield published in Confeder- 
ate days the " Quartermasters' Guide '' and the " Paymasters' 
Guide," the only books of the sort used until the Confederate 
Government took the matter in hand, and it would have been 
well if the opening instructions had been always remembered 
by the sub-quartermasters : " The duties of a quartermaster," 
says the " Guide," are to supply the wants of his Division, Bri- 
gade or Regiment and to treat every soldier with whom he may 
have business as ' some one's absent darling,' whose comfort and 
health are dependant on his exertions." 

Bloomfleld had control of all of the railroads in Texas, and 
it was by the care he had taken at the time of Banks' Red 
River advance, in organizing depots of supplies for the dispers- 
ed regiments, that the Texas troops were concentrated and 
enabled to make such connections as to reach Mansfield on 
the day when that battle came off, or rather on the day when 
these troops forced the enemy to battle. In fact, so close was 
the connection that Magruder had scarcely finished swearing 
at Bloomfleld, for not knowing positively whether they actually 
had come up in time, when the news reached his headquarters 
that everything had been worked according to programme, and 
that Banks had left behind his wagon traiu without his expect- 
ed load of cotton. 

One of Bloomfield's most meritorious services was in getting 
in blockade goods for the supply of the department, which of 
course meant the obtaining of the necessary quantity of cotton 
from the people of Texas. However, the latter never failed to 
respond, and either through her own ports, or the neighboring 
territory of Mexico, the needful supplies were not often lacking. 

The Ceescent Regiment left New Orleans in March '62 and 
thirty days after took part in the battle of Shiloh, losing 30 
killed and 14 wounded. After leaving Corinth, it was dis- 
banded and the regiment merged into the 18th. One of the 
causes of this was that a very large number of the young men 
who went out in this Regiment were accomplished accountants 
and were immediately detailed to the number of 300 to clerical 



The Trans-Mississippi. 



duties. In September, Captains H. B. Stevens and W 0. C. 
Claiborne, Jr., went on to Richmond and showed to the War 
Department the injustice of the proceeding, and obtained an 
order for a re-organization of the Regiment. 

The Regiment was now transferred from Adams' Brigade 
to the Trans-Mississippi, and subsequently took part in the 
engagements at Labadieville, Camp Bisland, in which there 
wefe 15 men killed, and heavy skirmishing all of one day. At 
Avery's Island, a section of Corney's, the St. Mary's battery 
and companies A and H were put to guard that point, under 
Oapt. Stevens. 

After its ranks had been largely recruited, it took partin*the 
batttle of Mansfield, where nearly all of the troops who made 
the front attack were literally mown down— where the three 
field officers, Col. Beard, Lt. Col. Clack and Major Canfield 
were killed, and all of the Captains present, excepting Claiborne, 
were killed or wounded. Part of the regiment meanwhile had 
again been captured by the 18th ; and went into battle under 
its colors. In this fight the 18th suffered with equal severity. 
Col. Armand, the only field officer, was killed and nearly all of 
the line officers were killed or wounded. In Stevens' Company 
of 18 men, 7 were shot dead and 5 were wounded. Capt. Ste- 
vens himself carried off four bullet marks and his orderly ser- 
geant sixteen. The brave Gen. Mouton, the Commander of 
the Brigade, here lost his life with two or three of his staff offi- 



cers. 



On the following day the Crescent Regiment was equallv 
badly used up and met afterwards with severe handling at 
Mansura, near Simsport, when Taylor followed close upon the 
retreating columns of Banks. It took part in the affair at 
Berwick's Bay, and remained in that neighborhood afterwards 
until the close of the war. 

The old Crescent office, of which Col. J. O. Nixon was the 
generous and princely proprietor and last editor, gave to the 
journalistic world the names of Gen. Nicaragua Walker Jud 
Semple, Jack Wagner, T. D. Van Horn and King (afte'rwardl 
the founder of the Times), Wm. R. Whitaker and a good many 



The Trans-Mississippi. 



others. In the days when this paper flourished on St. Charles 
street, in the old building where curious observers can still 
faintly trace the words " Orescent Office " on the brick wall, 
Maddox was at the helm and Lewis Graham was foreman. 
Judge G. H. Braughn was the roller boy, improving his time 
in solid reading, running to fires with engines and finally 
becoming an infatuated amateur of the stage. He responded 
to Beauregard's call for volunteers and went out to the war 
as Lieutenant in the Orescent Begiment ; but this was a long 
time after when he had already made his mark as the principal 
accountant in a large business house, studied law, and figured 
prominently in politics besides. 

Once in Secessia he shared the hardships, triumphs and 
battles of the regiment — rose to be Captain of his Company, 
and filled with ability various posts for which his administra- 
tive talents led him to be selected ; such for instance as the 
offices of Judge Advocate, Provost Marshal in St. Martin, or 
commander of the post at Xachitoches. Towards the close of 
the war he was put to organizing a Eeserve Corps and with 
this broke up the contraband trade that had previously been 
carried on by the lakes and bayous west of the Mississippi. 

Braughn's luckiest exploit was the capture of the heart and 
hand of a wealthy and beautiful lady of that country — the 
daughter of Hon. Edward Simon, lawyer and planter of St. 
Mary, who in his best days had sat upon the Supreme Bench 
of the State. 

Capt. Braughn's good fortune followed him after the war. 
He devoted his time closely to law and immediately gained a 
large practice ; he took an active part in all of the Clubs and 
organizations which interested the town, and became in most 
of them their leading spirit, especially in the entertainments 
given for charitable purposes, in which he showed histrionic 
talents of the highest order. Other honors followed him ; he 
was elected Senator and served his time in the Legislature, and 
in 1875 was appointed Judge of the Superior Criminal Court. 
During his occupancy his decisions and charges were as care- 
fully written out, in the opinion of the bar, as those of any of 



The Trans- Miss iss ipp i . 



our Judges who have yet held the scales, lie failed to net in 
accord with the dominant party, was removed, and has since 
devoted himself to law. 

One of the best hearted and bravest soldiers who went out 
from this city during the war and who lived to get back again 
was Lt. Col. Hyatt, of the Consolidated Crescent Eegiment. 
This was composed of the Eesponse troops, Confederate Guards 
and other Battalions, whose organization as they went out is 
given on page 151. Lt. Col. A. W Hyatt was twice wounded in 
the leg, once at Shiloh and once at Mansfield, and served faith- 
fully, though the head of a family left behind in New Orleans, 
and though a man of strong domestic attachments, and with- 
out ever obtaining a furlough, until the dreary close of the 
war. During that wearisome period he kept a journal of the 
movemeuts of his command, and of personal incidents which 
gives an excellent idea of what soldiering amounted to in this 
State. We make a few extracts : 

April 3d, 1862 — The Eesponse troops leave Corinth. 

April 6th and 7th — Arrive at Shiloh. Engage in battle of the same 
day and of the following. Eeturn to New Orleans wounded a month after 
going out. Compelled before my wound is healed to report back, in conse- 
quence of the capture of the Crescent City. 

May 1st — Confederate Eesponse Battalion transferred to 1st Florida 
Battalion. 

July 14th to August 28th. — Transferred to 25th Louisiana. Eeclaimed by 
Major Clack (August 19th) and leave Chattanooga for Meridian via Mobile. 
Three happy days in the last place. Of all iiifernal, nasty, stinking, God- 
forsaken places Meridian is the worst. 

August 3d to September 11th. — Pass through Jackson, Tululu (by wag- 
ons) and Monroe for Columbia. 

Sept. 19th — Grounded on a steamboat at Catahoula Shoals and take to a 
flat boat. 

Sept. 19th. — Start for Alexandria with two wagons for sick and baggage, 
and then onto Gordon's Landing on Eed Eiver. Down with raging fever 
and all day exposed on the top of one of the wagons for ten hours to teri- 
ble shaking and a burning sun. 

Sept. to Oct. 4th. — Down the Atchafalaya into the Teche, through Frank- 
lin, New Iberia, Thibodaux to camp near Donaldsonville. The march from 
Chattanooga has thus lasted nearly three months. 

Oct. 10th. — The men — Co. A, now 33d Louisiana — are in n most deplorable 
state of destitution. The night is cold, the wind extremely high and two- 
thirds of the command without blankets, shoes or tents. For the last week 
it has rained every night, aud the exposure is causing great sickness. 
Lieut. J. M. Bonner sick with bilious fever. 

Oct. 14th. — Attack of chills and fever. Feel as if pressed between the 
cylinders of a sugar mill. 

Oct. 25th, 26th. — Enemy passing up the river, and fight constantly ex- 
pected. Cold intense and food scarce. At one time had to march and 
leave behind what we had half cooked. 



The Trans-Mississippi. 



Oct. 27th. — The ball opened by batteries of both sides. We advance 
almost into the middle of a superior body of the enemy and lose one-half of 
the 18th and Crescent Regiments in killed wounded and prisoners. After 
various manoeuvres, which last twenty-two hours, arrive at Thibodaux 
the following day. Col. McPheeters killed — a good officer and gallaut 
soldier. 

Oct. 31.— The whole army will be sick if not soon sheltered. Had no 
shade for five days from the sun though shade trees were all the time in 
sight. 

Nov. 6th. — Tried to keep up on the march to Iberia but sent to the hospi- 
tal with fever. The post surgeon refuses to give the convalescents anything 
to eat, until he learns the fate of some missing spoons. 

Nov. 9th. — Back to regiment. Col. Clack tenders his resignation as com- 
mander of the 33d. 

Nov. 12th, 13th. — Firing from enemy's gunboats, which is replied to. 

Nov. 24th. — The Yellow Jackets (Fornet commanding) separated from the 
Confederate Guard Response and Col. Clack reinstated. 

Dec. 23d. — Picket at Dantrives Sugar House near Grand Lake. 

Jan 3d, 1863. — Rain all day. The ground of the tents too muddy and 
wet to lie down in. 

Jan 7th. — Word brought to Gen. Mouton of the passage of the obstruc- 
tions by the enemy, and all cotton is fired and sunk. As the report was 
false, there was considerable feeling among the owners about the loss of the 
cotton. 

Jan. 21. — Major Clack arrested Capt. Hugh W Montgomery for failing to 
arrest a sergeant who had been carried off in a wagon. The sergeant 
had the leave of his Captain, but no surgeon's certificate, and the man was 
too sick to wait, the driver refusing to bring him back. 

March 1st. — Lieut. Bonner put in command of Avery's Island where we 
now are. March to New Iberia and thence to Charanton. Bivouac at 
midnight on fence rails. 

April 2d.— A tremendous mystery. Capt. M. Caufield was discovered 
majestically sleeping on a matrass bed with a lace fringe pillow. 
Nobody saw the soft things come in at night and the lucky rascal remained 
snugly muffled up on purpose to keep from telling which of the sympathyz- 
ing fair ones had sent it in. 

6th. — The ladies have made our time pass like a holiday or pic-nic. 
Back. to Avery's Island. 

10th. — The Battalion has three companies, a band, the only one in the 
Department, and is splendidly drilled, with intelligent and gentlemanly 
officers. 

27th.— Party at Mrs. Thompson's. One of the brass buttoned guests got 
drunk and made an ass of himself. The women have spoiled us. One of 
them sent me a rocking chair. 

13th. — March to New Iberia and go to Charenton in a boat. A general 
break down and succession of accidents on the way, such as running 
aground, breaking down the boat chimneys, and so on. March all night 
through heavy rain, arriving at Franklin at day light. There the enemy 
attack us in the fortifications three times and are repulsed — just below 
Camp Bisland on the Teche. 

14th. — Battle of Franklin. Battalion deployed as skirmishers, with 
Gray's 28th La. on our left, Col. Raley's Texas mounted infantry on the 
right. We are ordered to charge and the prettiest fighting I ever saw was 
done here. The Battalion highly complimented by Gens. Gray aud Taylor. 
I captured four prisoners. The troops ordered to fall back to Generett's 
after a march of 26 miles in fifteen hours, with a battle on top of it The 
feet of the men all swolen and nothing to eat. 

15-24th. — The fall back continued, full tilt to Alexandria. Camped last 
night in a cow pen, much to the disgust of the men who would have 
preferred a wood 400 yards further on, which would have kept off the dew 



10 The Trans- Mississippi. 



29th. — Called on Gov. Moore, who was hospitable enough to give us a 
good drink of whiskey, and supper. 

May 4th, 1863.— Coekafare's Place on Clear Creek, 20 miles from Alex- 
andria. 

6th.— Reach Paul's at dark. News of a digraceful occurrence reached us 
to-day : It was of the shooting and wounding of an officer after he had sur- 
rendered. The excuse given was that the prisoner was upon the opposite 
side of the bayou, and his captor did not have time to wait. Don't know 
on which side the shooting was done. bu^, the act was cowardly and base, 
and meets the scorn of every soldier. 

8th. — Alexandria surrendered. March to Cane River — the old bed of the 
Mississippi. Artillery and baggage crossed during the night. A regular 
race from the, enemy. Feet sore, dust intolerable and not allowed to ride a 
horse which belongs to me. Completely broken down, and secretly envious 
of my colored cook who rides my horse for me. When we halt, we squat 
ourselves down, no matter where — in the sand, in the mud, anywhere — and 
our only hope is that the halt will last fifteen minutes. At night you fall 
down too tired to be careful of selections, and go to sleep with one blanket, 
without taking off clothes, shoes or cap. The men, who would crack their 
jokes on the way to the Old Nick, nevertheless retain their spirits. 

9th. — Cross Cane River and take a swim. 

10th. — Cross Cane at Duplex. Pass through Natchitoches, which is 
quite a town, with its galleries crowded with pretty women, and camp, 
having now retreated 280 miles. 

20th. — Rightabout! Camp at Mme. Plauch6's. The enemy has returned 
to Washington, La., with 8,000 bales. 

Our Major is a pretty smart man. Lt. Bonner, tired of packing his own 
blankets, placed them in the carry-all. The Major ordered the driver to 
put them out. He has no principle about dividing fodder for the horses, 
each of which ought to have nearly two bundles. And yet when he draws 
for himself and officers, he orders the hostler to give three bundles to his 
own (the Major's) mare, one to the Adjutant's horse, and one to Preaux, 
The Adjutant swears he be d — d if this thing shall be stood. 

23d. — At Jos. Texada's plantation, 15 miles from Alexandria. 

24th.— Camp as provost guard at the Alexandria C. H. Coffee sells for 
$ 4.50 per pound, whiskey)! 35 per gallon, boo'ts $ 100. 

July 10th. — Suicide of Lieut. Jar,. DeLahanty by jumping in the river. 
Sold his effects for $ 214, and turned the money over. Enemy's gunboats 
capture four or rive boats in Black River. Our conscripts are worthless, 
the majority of them desert. 

Aug. 19th. — Camp at Dupre's, 21 miles from Opelousas, at which (21st) 
we purchase some real Havana Cigars and French Brandy. 

August 22.— After a severe march from Aleaxndria reach our destination, 
which is Vermillion Bridge. The Crescent and 18th are on either side of us. 

August 23d, 27th. — Move 22 miles towards New Iberia. Our Major lost 
his way in the Prairie and made us march iu a circle for three miles. Once 
we interrupted a light between two bulls, one of whom charged the regi- 
ment and put a larjje part of it to flight. We are sent in this direction to 
quell mutiny in Selby's Texas Brigade. A box of blacking is worth ,fil 00. 
Given up smoking been use of the scarcity of tobaeco. Great hospitality 
imionv; the ladies of this place. 

August 31st. — March to Newtown, 22 miles, in 6-J hours. Order read for 
the consolidation of regiments. 

Sept. 2d. — Arrive at Camp Hunter. 

Sept. 9th.— Camp Pratt, (10th) Camp Taylor, 17 miles distant. Suffering 
with fever Got all of my wile's letters out and read them through! 
These did me more <;-o(id than all <>f the medicines, but since then Sergt. 
Garner has seen a Lieutenant from New Orleans who brings word that mv 
family are in destitute circumstances. My position was never so tryino- as 
now. 



The ^ Trans-Missis* ipp i . 1 1 



10th. — Letters from home that all are in good couclitiou. Send back A? 14 
and letters by Mrs. Stafford. 

l?th. — March to Carrion Crow Bayou and am allowed, as a sick man, to 
sleep under the baggage wagou during a heavy rain. 

19th. — Ville Platte. Left Washington this morning. 

•■20th. — The old military road. 

"21st. — Retrograde, or rather advance 6 miles beyond Ville Platte (22). 
March to Mande ville. Mouton's Brigade present for duty, numbers 300. 
The men are dissatisfied at consolidation and at the idea of being taken to 
Texas. 

26th. — Morgan's Ferry. Marched yesterday 18 miles — road dusty and 
water scarce. 

•29th. — Yesterday evening we were all sitting around a big fire under the 
trees in a drizzling rain when the long roll was beat. The Battalion fell 
in, orossed the Atchafalaya, and took position on the left of Spait's Bri- 
gade. After marching a mile down it was found impossible to advance on 
account of the now heavy fall of rain, and had to halt in the road for the 
night. The only thing to be done was to pull down some fence rails, as the 
ground was covered with water, and find what comfort we could in wrap- 
ping ourselves in wet blankets. 

30th. — Move towards Mrs. Sterling's plantafion. Gen. Green and 
Semmes' Battery taking the straight road and Spait's Brigade and our Bat- 
talion diverging to make a flank attack. At one o'clock we were in their 
rear, and found them camped in Mrs. Sterling's Sugar House and the negro 
quarters. Making now a vigorous attack we drove them from cabin to 
cabin and finally forced them to take refuge behind the levee. Here 
they poured in a fire sufficiently destructive to make us much less impet- 
uous than we had been at the commenceineut. The gallant Major Boon 
however coining up at this moment on the Federal flank gave a finishing 
touch to the fight by a general charge. The affair was so badly managed on 
our part that our loss was 100 in killed and wounded, where it ought not 
to have been a tenth of the number. Bonner was struck in the hip and 
badly wounded in the arm ; Sergts. Smith and Hudwell were wounded. 
We had 1500 men who were not engaged, as they did not come up in time. 
The enemy fought bravely and lost 40 killed and over 4(10 prisoners. 

The march daring the day was over slippery roads, with rain still falling 
and the movement was almost at a double quick. There was no plunder 
or swag to capture, and the men are generally of the opinion that such sort 
of expeditious do not pay. 

It was still raining when we returned, and the roads were so slippery 
that one could not walk ten steps without falling down. I fell down a 
dozen times myself, and there were none who were not covered with mud. 
No place to sleep, nothing to eat and the rain descending in torrents. It's 
a nice sort of man that can stand this sort of thing and not loose his tem- 
per. Kelso is completely stove up — there's nobody to help put up a tent 
or make a fire, and the fact is our mess is in a regular fix. 

Oct. Sd-'-'th. — Bell Cherry Springs. March on the Simmsport road 13 miles 
5th, Camp at Moreauville. oth, Camp on Bayou Kongo, .-'th. Big cane ; 
Camp in a perfect swamp with Walker's Division. There will be at least 
50 cases of fever to-morrow We marched 300 miles last mouth, and none 
of us can see what this eternal movement is for. This is what is called 
strategy by some. We have evidently, a military genius in this Depart- 
ment. Old Kirby has a little too much on his hands, taking care of three 
States (even with the assistance of his immense start) and at the same 
time watching over a bran new wife and going to pic-uics and blackberry 
and crawfish parties. Gen. Taylor is a very quiet, unassuming little 
fellow, but noisy on retreats, with a tendency to cuss mules and wagons 
which stall in the road. 

9th. — Engagement yesterday between the 2nd La. cavalry and the enemy 
at Vermillion Bridge. Capt. Squires desperately wounded. Camp at 
Evergreen, after 12 miles march. 



1_! The Trans-Mississippi. 



llth-2(ith.— We take the Huff Pine River Road, and pass Holmesville, to 
Mandeville. 

2lst. — Horses galloping, mules trotting, tents struck and everything' in 
commotion. There's to be a fight or a foot-race. 

22nd — Leave camp in a devil of a hurry. Col. Lain skirmished with the 
enemy and is supposed to have been captured. 

25th. — Holmesville. Enemy skirmish with our pickets. 

Nov. 14th. — Simmsport. Consolidated with the 18th La. 

15th. — Our Brigade crosses the Atchafalaya on a raft planked over. 18th, 
Camp on Black Lake. Our batteries engage the gunboats. 

21st. — Semmes' battery fired 30 shots into the Black Hawk and burnt her 
to the water's edge. 

Dec. 12th. — March through two days rain to Simmsport. Roads fearfully 
muddy — the mules are worn out and every now and then, over goes a 
wagon. 

13th. — A regular hailstorm. 18th, Pass Marksville and Pineville, oppo- 
site Alexandria, en route for Monroe 

25th. — Camp in Jackson parish, and have a sort of Christmas affair. The 
boys of the different regiments, go around visiting each other, and Cols. Grey, 
Armant, Beard, Maj. Canfield and Capt. Claiborne make us speeches. 

29th. — Have come to Monroe, where we meet Col. Zacharie and other 
friends. We have a ball at night, and find at its close, my hat and over- 
coat stolen. Weather bitter cold, and all of our tents left behind. One 
blanket on frozen ground is too ridiculously thin ! 

[The Federal campaign of '64 iu the Trans-Mississippi, may be generally 
stated to have been the concentration of 45,000 men at Shreveport, in three 
bodies, coming by different routes. The first of these landed at the mouth 
of Red River binder General Smith, captured Fort DeRussey and Alexan- 
dria, and caused Taylor to fall back to near Shreveport. Banks mean- 
while advanced up the Atchafalaya, joining Smith, while Steele was at 
Camden, 100 miles above, moving southward. The battle of Mansfield was 
brought on, to obviate the danger of the general junction of Federal troops, 
and because at the particular time of attack the various Federal divisions 
were not in supporting distauce of each other. It was a complete route of 
the cemy at Mansfield ; at Pleasant Hill the result was more doubtful; 
the Confederates fell back twenty miles after the fight.] 

Jan. 1st, 1864. At Monroe. The ponds frozen and the boys sliding on 
ice. Arrived here from camp on Ouachita River. The ground too cold to 
lie down. Pitiable at night to see them nodding around camp-fires with 
only one blanket. This is soldiering, this is. 

9th, — Camp 7 miles from Bastrop, and 13 from Monroe, march the coldest 
thirteen miles we have yet traveled. 

11th. — After passing through Bastrop, camp at Knox Ferry on Bayou 
Bartholomew. Nothing seen but ice. 

12th-31st. — A half a dozen changes of camp. Read "Ivanhoe" during a 
march of nine miles, and did not feel too tired to forget to sympathize with 
Rebecca, whom Ivanhoe, if he had been a decent man, would have married. 
Brigade crosses the Ouachita moving towards Alexandria. 

Fell. !th. — March to Vernon and have a ball, and Vernon knows how to 
give a lively ball, too. 

5th-l^tli. — Through Lewisville, Winnfield and Pineville on the road to 
Alexandria. Dinner at John Kelso's with actually oyster soup, pickled 
salmon, real coffee and wine ; which all got in somehow by blockade. 

March Mil. — Enemy capture Harrisonburg with four gunboats and two 
transports containing a brigade of infantry, Polignac and the Texans de- 
fended it. 

March 7th. — John Paul shot for desertion. Ball given at the Ice House 
in Alexandria, on opposite side of the river. A considerable stir in town 
about rumors of the enemy. 

March 14th. — Big excitement. Fort DeRussey captured by the enemy's 



The Trans- Mississippi. 13 



cavalry. We fall back and all the steamboats are loaded with government 
stores. We cross the river. 

I5th. Leave for Grand Ecore. A Yankee gun boat is firing at the Frolic, 
who has had to let go a steamboat she had in tow after setting her on fire. 
The people seemed to have cooled down a little, at least those who got on 
our boat. 

21st. — The deuce to play now in Natchitoches, and everything has to be 
moved. Terrible excitement — everyone on the skeedaddle. 

23d. — March 23 miles to camp near Beesley's, through Eed Eiver mud. 

24th. — Soaking rain. .Camp at Churchville. 

29th. — After camping near Old Eiver and picketing at Stevens' Saw Mill, 
pass through Bellwoodville. 

30th. — Fort Jessup. 

April 1st. — Face to the right about and my company pickets the road. 
No fires, and pass a miserable night in the cold. 

2d. — Skirmish by Col. Bush's 4th Louisiaaa Cavalry near Pleasant Hill, 
which place we reach. 

4th. — Eained all day. Have had no tents during the march. Nothing 
but bulk beef, corn bread, dirt and sore feet. Camp five miles from Mans- 
field. Wounded two years ago to a day. 

8th. — The line of the battle of Mansfield has just been formed ; 100 
cavalry charge our line ; our regiment sends them back. My company had 
the honor of opening on the enemy, who came within 20 feet of us. Minnie 
balls like hail. The fire of the enemy was so terrible that almost every 
man in the direct attack of Mouton's Brigade was struck with a bullet. 
All of the troops in front would have been shot down but for the timely 
turning of the enemy's flank by the troops sent by Taylor to get around 
them. 

Mouton was killed at the head of his brigade. Armand at the head of 
his Creoles received three wounds, the last one killing him dead while 
waving his sword. The men of Mouton's Brigade charged at a double 
quick for twenty-five minutes. Out of 2,'200 men it lost 762, principally in 
a ravine where the Federals had been driven and where the Brigade was 
torn to pieces by grape and canister at close range. 

Gen. Taylor sat with his leg crossed on his saddle, smoking a cigar. It 
was generally agreed among the mounted officers that they would fight on 
horseback. The fire was so hot that some of them had to lead their troops 
on foot. 

April 9th. — Was wounded yesterday in one of the most terrible charges 
of the war. Shot through and through the thigh of my left leg. Col. Ar- 
mand charged a battery over a field a quarter of a mile in width, with my 
company. We lost 29 killed and wounded out of 42. Nunez, the last officer 
left, was badly wounded in both legs and back. At Pleasant Hill the enemy 
are again worsted to day, and are now in full retreat towards Natchitoches, 
burning their wagons and trains. Chas. Hardenburg, who was also 
wounded at Mansfield, in the same room with me at Dr.jGibbs. Gen. Green 
is killed in an attack on the enemy's gunboats, and we couJd have better 
lost any other man in the Department. 

25th. — Suffering from fever and secondary hemorrhage of wound. Col. 
Clack died yesterday. 

May 9th. — Kirby Smith defeats Steel in Arkansas and captures his guns 
and stores. Enemy still below at Alexandria surrounded by our forces. 

15. — Poor Felix Nunez ! The Doctors are cutting off one of his legs above 
the knee, and he cannot survive. He was wounded in both his legs and in 
his back besides. Few could undergo his sufferings with more fortitude. 

19th. — He is burried next to the grave of Lieut. Horton. Write a letter 
to his wife. 

June 5th. — Now at Camp Eggeling, Avoyelles parish. Came here with 
Judge Braughn, via Shreveport, Alexandria and Doud's Ferry. 

8th. — Move to Mansura. Two gunboats and a battery come up the river 



14 The Trans-Mississippi. 



and engage our command. Eesult, one of our pieces was captured, and the 
other bursted. 

14th. — After camping at Cowville and Fort DeRussey, came to Marksvme. 
Made Lieutenant-Colonel here of the Confederate Guards' Response 
Battalion. 

•20th. — The Crescent Regiment leaves for Shreveport. Our pleasant 
associations with the 18th also cease. 

28th.— Assigned to duty as President of a Court Martial. Leave for 
McNutts' Hill with Captains Stevens, Ross and Damaron. We put up at the 
Ice House at $20 a day each. Government owes me $700, but cannot get 
a dollar. Capt. T. W. Abney is Judge Advocate. 

Aug. 5th. — Camped at Pineville August 1st, and then came to Trinity — 
a town which has four rivers within its limits. There was not a grain of 
corn from Alexandria to Lake Catahoula ; my horse lived on the grass 
which is excellent. Only one or two farms on the road. 

30th. — A project for crossing the Mississippi in Franklin parish has been 
abandoned. We are at Turkey Creek in this parish, and are starting for 
Missouri, via Monroe. Swapped my horse for a dun-colored one of 
Bowie's, having a black mane and tail, white feet and white spot in fore- 
head, and marks of a sore back. Gave him $600 to boot. 

Sept. 12. — Arrive at Monroe. Fairchild and John Ray are calculating 
to start a paper at this place. Spend a pleasant day at Capt. J. M. 
Bonner's place. 

Sept. 22nd. — Court Martial dissolved. The Consolidated Crescent Regi- 
ment moving from Alexandria toward Monticello, Ark., where the rest of 
the troops now are. 

Oct. 2nd. — The Regiment at Monroe is ordered back. 

6th. — Col. Bosworth sick. Am in command of the Crescent Regiment. 

18th. — Leaving Monroe the Regiment marched past Sulphur Springs 
Phioles, Farran's, Columbia, Black Bayou, Centreville, Trout Creek, Clear 
Creek to Alexandria. Crossed the Ouachita at Columbia and Little River 
at Le Croix Ferry — the latter on a pontoon, the wagons forded it a mile 
higher up. 

Nov. 11th. — Duboc executed for desertion — 171 men detailed through the 
Department. 

20th. — Wrote letter 23 to my wife. Regiment camped near Alexandria at 
Camp Buokner. 

They remained there with but little additional incident until the close 
of the war. 



MUSTER ROLL- 



CONSOLIDATED CRESCENT REGIMENT. 



A. \V Bosworth, Colonel, commanding 2nd Louisiana Brigade ; A. AY 
Hyatt, Lieut-Col; J. J. Yarborongh, Major; Wm. H. AY all, Adjutant; K. T. 
Gibbs, Surg'n ; Jas. A. Cruikshank, Ass't- Surg'n ; S. P DuBois, A. Q. M. ; 
M. Foley, Ensign. 

Company A. — J. M. Bonner, Captain; J. AY Hardie, 1st Lieut; H. C. 
Mooney, 1st Lieut. ; S. Allston, 2d Lieut. ; J. J. Horan, 2d Lieut. 

Company B. — AY B. Spencer, Captain ; A. H. Thigpen, Captain ; W K. 
Jackson, 1st Lieut.; J. E. Zaehary, 1st. Lieut. ; A. J. Fortsou, "2d Lieut. 

Company C. — Wm. C. C. Claiborne, Captain; L. H. LeGay, 1st Lieut ; 
C. G. Soutbmayd, 1st Lieut., A. A. A. G. 2d Louisiana Brigade ; J. J. Aubur- 
tin, 1st Lieut. 

Company D.--AY J. Self, Captain ; E. D. Beard, 1st Lieut. ; W. M. Prothro, 
2d Lieut. 

Company E. — E. F. Moore, Captain ; F. H. Thompson, 1st Lieut. ; C. O. 
AYebb, "id Lieut. ; AA T J. Campbell, 2d Lieut. 

Company F. — H. E. H. Buck, Captain; G. H. Sutherlin, 2d Lieut. ; T. J. 
Foster, 2d Lieut. 

Company G.— C. Hardenburg, Captain ; X. C. Forstall, 1st Lieut. ; A. 
Muir, 2d Lieut. 

Company I. — AVm. J, Calvit, Captain ; John M. Barrett, 1st Lieut. ; M. 
Neal, 1st Lieut. R. Hart, 2d Lieut. 

Company K.- Jno. Houston, Captain ; J. B. Johnson, Captain ; M. D. 
Lindsay, 1st Lieut. ; AA T . L. Robertson, 2d Lieut. 

Company L. — J. M. Fain, Captain ; AY- H. Rogers, 1st Lieut. ; L. A. 
Sauton. 2d Lieut. 

Company X. — D. Collie, Captain ; J. T. Carey, 2d Lieut. ; D. Peters, 2d 
Lieut. 

Company O. — H. B. Stevens. Captain ; G. AA r Tyson, 1st Lieut. ; J. B. 
Rosser, 2d Lieut. ; H. N. Phillips, 2d Lieut. 

Company P. — L. D. DeBlauc, Captain ; L. P Fournett, 1st Lieut. ; L. 
Fontelieu, 2d Lieut. ; A. Maraest, 2d Lieut. 



16 The Trans-Mississippi. 



IUSTER ROLL CO. A, CONFEDERATE GUARDS RESPONSE, 



REPORTED APRIL 30TH, 1802. 



F. H. Clack, Captain, elected Major, March, 1862. Geo. P. MacMurdo, 
commissioned Captain, March 9th, 1862. A. W. Hyatt, 1st Lieutenant, 
wounded April 7th, 1862, and at Mansfield. J. M. Bouner, 2d Lieutenant. 
J. "SV Hardee, Jr., 2d Lieutenant, wounded April 1st, 1862. J. F. Mollere, 
1st Sergeant. J. S Tharp, 2d Sergeant, detached as brigade commissary. 
A. P. Bennett, 3rd Sergeant, detached to printing oflioe. J. B. Lyman. E. 
E. Sinclare, 4th Sergeant. Thos. Mclntyre, 5th Sergeant. J. C. Cooper, 
wounded and left on battlefield, April 7th, 1862. L. M. Brisbin, musician. 
Jno. Schneider. W H. Adams. J. T. Adams. L. D. Allen, Chas. C. 
Bryan, wounded April 6th, 1862. J as. joogart, wounded April 6th, 1862. 
John Beard, discharged June 17th, 1862. J. B. Burgess, wagoner. W- W. 
Brisbin, detailed at printing office at Corinth. D. P. Bly, discharged 
June 14, 1862. J. L. Berry, batallion baker. F. A. Bennett. P. D. Collins, 
H. G-. Clarke, discharged June 4th, 1862. J. H. Cohoun, wounded April 6th, 
1862. Michael Cailey. F. R. Cottom, wounded. Jules Coste. M. Dugan. 
Wm, Dunn. P. P. Dowler. J. Dobson, wounded April 6th, 1862. C. W. 
Daniels. Geo. H. Dugger, wounded May 6th, 1862. D. R. Elliott. Thos. 
Enright. C. W. Feeney, wounded April 6th, 1862. John Finney, Jno. E. 
Florence. M. L. Gilder. Wm. Golinin. Fred Goodwyn. John J. Horan, 
wounded April 6th, 1862. M. Hayes. E. P. Houstin, discharged May 27th, 
1862. DanHutchius. A.Hopkins. D. A. Holmes, wouuded and left on the 
fieldof battle April 7th, 1862. P. Kingsbury Jno. Killahn. J. W. 
Keene, detached to sappers and miners. J. M. Kokernot, detached as 
Beauregard's orderly April. 1862. H. Lein. W. R. Mathus. wounded 
April 6th, 1862. P H. McDermott, wounded April 6th, 1862. J.' J. Mc Far- 
land, discharged June, 1862. D. R. Monroe. Henry Miller. Ben R. Miller. 
Wm. Mathes, W C. Monroe, detached May, 1862. Jas. Mudfoid. C L. 
Martin, wounded April 7th, 1862, and reported dead. Wm. Malloy. J. R. 
McCormick. Hugh Mullin. Jas. McCreary, wounded April 6th, 1862, and 
died 18th. Thos. McDonald. Fred Morell. Jno. McFarlane. G. Nish. 
Thos. North, wounded April 6th 1862. Frank Patton. H.W.Porter. S. A. 
Page, discharged May, 1862. J. S. Rivers, 4th Corporal, discharged 
May, 1862. R. E. Rivers, 2d Corporal, discharged May, 1862. Jno. Roach, 
3d Corporal. R. Rizeau. H. J. S. Roberts, detached. M. Sheridan. 
Jacob Sample. Thos. St. Clair. C. H. Stroudback. Geo. Stelhe. Geo. 
Thomas. John H. Weaver. Jno. Watson. Wm. Watson, discharged May 1862. 
N. J. Wilson. J. S. Walker. O. H. Williams. Phil. Winfree, discharged 
May, 1862. G. W. Verlander. A. J. Vandergrief, discharged June, 1862. 
Wm. Bogart, wounded April 6th. A. Binny, discharged 1862. John 
Clabby, discharged 1862. John Donnelon, discharged 1862. Wm. Gaylord, 
discharged 1862. Geo. Haller, wouuded, discharged 186J. C. L. Holmes, 
discharged 1862. Jno. H. Harris, wounded and discharged 1862. W. O. Hyatt, 
discharged 1862. R. Lemon, wounded and discharged 1862. Geo. Parks 
discharged 1862. W. H. Smith, discharged 1862. R, Sands, discharged 
1862. R. Pollard, Sergeant-Major. H. W Chandler. J. P Butler. Pat. 
Coffee, killed April 6th, 1862. 

[In the fight, at Farmington ou the 22d of May, 1862, private Jas. W 
Price, of the Crescent Blues, descent Regiment, now a well known manu- 
facturer of this city, was crippled in one of his arms for life aud discharge 
Price, thereupon, joined the Washington Artillery and with the remain 
ing hand did as good duty at priming his gun as any man in the army. J 



■n. 



THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI. 



SECOND PAPER. 



Onacertaiu day in September 18G3,Gen. Kirby Smith's head- 
quarters had gathered around it the usual crowd of staff officers, 
schemers ami projectors, as well as a small number of origi- 
nators who had some practical plans to offer. Among others 
was a eaptaiu tweuty-two years of age, seeking his first inter- 
view, and whose chances of obtaiuing a favorable hearing, 
judgiug from his youthful appearance, were the most unflatter- 
ing of any one present, lie was, however, contented to re- 
main awaiting his turn among the last, and ultimately succeed- 
ed in obtaiuing the coveted hearing. His plans are submitted ; 
the hoped for results are minutely detailed, and the practical 
workings of the proposed system accurately specified. The 
advantages of the uew system appear so obvious and Ins 
ideas are so evidently those of a man familiar with workshops 
and the business concerns of life, that before he has proceeded 
far he is interrupted by the General, who jumps up and 
slaps him on the back, with the exclamation, " Why sir," 
"you are the man for whom I have been looking for a 
year. Call upon my Quartermaster ; if your proposals seem 
as sensible to him as they do to me, after close examination, 
you shall organize your bureau, get all you want, and be made 
a Major besides." 

The second interview proved equally satisfactory as the first; 
the Captain was made a Major, and remained iu charge of the 
transportation bureau until the close of the war. 

The Confederate officer thus iutroduced is E. A. Bubke, the 
present Administrator of Improvements in New Orleans, and 
at present regarded as one of the most sagacious leaders of the 
Conservative party. His organizing capacity has been his 
success — his readiness in handling large moneyed interests. 



18 The Trans-Mississippi. 



The right man to provision or clothe an army, make the proper 
distribution of trains of wagons and transportations, or proper- 
ly dispose of the products of a large scope of country, or of a 
dozen commercial centres, is not always easy to be obtained. 
At least such was Napoleon's idea, who may be said to have 
given the word " organize" its modern meaning. 

Maj. Burke was born in September, 1841, in Louisville, Ky. 
He came of the same Irish stock in South Carolina (the State 
into which his family first immigrated) as that which produced 
Jackson, Calhoun and many other names which have become 
famous in American history. His ancestors were for three gener- 
ations Irish officers in the British army. The last one of the 
three (the grandfather) became attainted in the Irish rebellion, 
and was glad enough to sacrifice a large landed estate in Gal- 
way and Limerick to the preservation of his head. However, 
he found some amends in inducing a lady, with whom he had 
long been in love, to share his flight to the nearest seaport. 
There a ship was obtained and the parties united in marriage 
just before the setting sail of the vessel. However, these ances- 
tral recollections or traditions amount to but little in a Bepub- 
licau country, and the Major, aside from the satisfaction he 
feels in coming of good Irish stock, prides himself more upon 
having earned his living in a red flannel shirt as a common 
laborer when necessity demanded it, or upou his having a 
constitution capable of enduring any fatigue, natural activity 
and energy, than upon any past family greatness. 

Major Burke's father successfully established himself as an 
architect aud builder in Louisville, and many of the finest build- 
ings in that city were designed aud constructed by him. He was 
able during his prosperous days to give his son all of the ad- 
vantages of education. This halcyon period, luckily for the 
son, did not always last. 

During vacations young Burke had been, to ke«p him out of 
mischief, put in a telegraph office, and the idle acquirement he. 
now found would enable him to continue his studies and give 
him his first chance in life. When his small earnings became 
exhausted, not wishing to be a burthen on his family, he took 



The Trans-Mississippi. 1 ( J 



a situation, at a wayside station, as telegraph operator and ex- 
press agent. At fourteen he was in charge of a construction 
train, superintending thirty laborers, and thenceforward his 
advancement to situations of trust and responsibility was rapid. 
He had opportunities given him of mastering the carrier sys- 
tem of the United States, the working of railroad companies 
and their management, and he profited by them ; he 
familiarized himself with laborers and mechanics and learned' 
to understand their wants and ideas. While in charge of a 
wrecking train (disposing of cars and freight which had been 
ditched) or as a freight conductor, calculating the power of 
his engines, the amount of freight which could be moved from 
one centre to another, or while keeping all of his faculties on the 
strain to see that each car load was properly distributed at the 
various stations, he was learning the same sort of lessons that 
the educated soldier or sailor learns, or in other words acquir- 
ing the most useful discipline and experience which is taught 
in life. When at fifteen Maj. Burke had learned by his quick- 
ness and ability to take charge of a lightning passenger train, 
he had acquired more than if he had at that age graduated at 
college, or poured for years over musty Latin and Greek text 
books. 

During this period when he would be sent off to different 
points, or when opportunities were offered him of visiting his 
family and relations who were now established in New Or- 
leans, he became infatuated with this State, like everyone 
who has ever once visited it, and formed such friendly ties as ulti- 
mately induced him to come here and reside. 

Meanwhile he had been promoted to the place of division 
superintendent. He left this to take a still more lucrative 
situation on the then proposed road from New Orleaus to 
Texas. This was at the time when the city was dreaming of 
broad gauges, rapid connections, and as the road was never 
completed his hopes were of course fallacious. He met how- 
ever with better success on the Texas Central, and was on the 
track of prosperity when the war broke out. Then like every 
one else he hastened to take his place in the ranks to put on 



1>0 The Tranx-Mititiiissippi. 



the uuiform of a private Confederate soldier (in the 1st Texas 
cavalry). 

It is not necessary to follow minutely in his campaigns 
through Arkansas, Missouri, Louisiana and Texas. A soldiers 
first and last battles are alone remembered by even himself. 

By merit lie won his way upward as corporal, sergeant and 
lieutenant, until the battle of Galveston where the success of 
■the engagement depended mainly upon constant communica- 
tion and prompt co-operation between Confederate land and 
naval forces. The duty of securing this result was assigned to 
Burke and was successfully performed. For his services in that 
campaign he was complimented in general orders and pro- 
moted to a Captaincy. 

The Major meanwhile was seeing every description of the 
miscellaneous and sometimes iucongruous duties which Texas 
cavalry were then called upon to perform ; such, for instance, 
as the service on board of Confederate gunboats, where caval- 
men with their spurs on were made impromptu marines, and 
woukl be called on to explode a steamer, or capture such a 
vessel as the Harriet Lane by boarding ; a thing actually done 
by Commodore Smith, who led the way for his cavalrymen 
with a cutlass between his teeth, in spite of the hammock net- 
tings which had been triced up about the Harriet Lane's deck. 
Another curious feature of the Texas service was the re-cap- 
ture of one of their lost batteries by mounted Texans, with no 
other weapon than the lasso, which every ranchero and Texas 
cattle farmer know how to swing. So quickly and adroitly 
was this performed that the guns were out of sight before 
the astonished Federals knew what had been done. 

Another curious feat was a charge made through the shallow 
water about Galveston Island, where the men waded knee- 
deep with scaling ladders in their hand, and had to mount the 
wharves and make good their landing against opposers who 
occupied a firm footing. 

After the capture of the Federal fleet, he was assigned to the 
work of collecting t,he captured stores and was placed in 
charge of Federal prisoners. One of these, an engineer named 



Ike Tnuis-M'miMfipiri. ^1 



Stone, who visited the city since the war, on the Wilderness, 
called on the Major and thanked him for kindness shown him 
aud other compulsory guests. His imprisonment had result- 
ed in the following little romance : 

After the battle of Galveston a flag of truce boat under the 
charge of Governor Lubbock, went to the Westfield, then 
the Federal Commodore's ship, and Stone was allowed to go 
on board with the Confederate party While there he employ- 
ed his time in writing letters home, aud was so occupied when 
the truce boat, forgetting all about him, returned to the shore. 
Stone being a man of high sense of honor, insisted on return- 
ing and ultimately reached land in a small scull boat which 
had been furnished for that purpose. This act of honor saved 
his life, as was soon shown by the result. For it had been 
previously arranged to blow up the steamer then aground. 
The slow match having been set, the officers and men of the 
Westfield entered a long boat and pulled away to some dis- 
tance, to witness in safety her destruction. But the slow 
match was unusually long in reaching the powder maga- 
zine, and the Federals returned to place another. Just as 
they had re-entered the Westfield, the explosion took 
place, and Commodore Benshaw and other officers and men 
shared the fate of the doomed vessel. 

As for Stone himself he won the love, while in Burke's charge, 
of a lady in Houston, and the again lucky engineer succeeding 
in carrying her off, when he was exchanged, as his bride. 

For his services about Galveston Maj. Burke was highly 
complimented by Gen. Magruder in general orders, promoted 
to a captaincy, as stated before, and assigned to duty with 
Baukhead's brigade. This he was now ordered to fit out 
in first class style for an advance into Missouri, through 
Indian Nation, Magruder at the same time remarking that he 
had boosted him to the first limb : " You must climb higher, if 
you, can by your own effort." 

The hint about zeal in his new work proved altogether un- 
necessary. Burke obtained the proper authorization aud lost 
no time in making a raid on Bloomfield's quartermaster stores 



The Tra n$- Miss ins ipp i . 



at San Antonio, of which he captured one-half, and relieved 
Oapt. Wharton at Houston to the same extent, picking up 
meanwhile as he went a magnificent ambulance and field train, 
where anything on wheels was to be found. In short he suc- 
ceeded in getting away with army funds, caps, jackets, shoes 
and dead loads of army stores. Sometime after the brigade had 
left for the Indian Territory and Magruder had forgotten all 
about the order, news was brought of a Federal advance. This 
led Magruder to call out his Texas reserves, and he one day 
spent his time in pacing up and down at headquarters, and at 
the same time making the proper dispositions for his army. 
Magruder' s orders to his subordinate officers all of a sudden 
received a rude jar from a casual inquiry, which was made by 
one of his staff officers, as to the way he intended to feed and 
clothe his new troops. This interruption he immediately scout- 
ed by referriug with great satisfaction to his accumulation of 
stores at San Antonio and Houston. " But there are scarcely 
any stores left, General. Your new quartermaster of the Indi- 
an Nation Brigade has carried, at least half of them, off." Ma- 
gruder spent some time in discrediting the whole statement ; 
but as the fact dawned dimly upon his astonished senses, he 
cursed out Bloomfield, ordered Burke to be immediately 
arrested, and made the air blue with his maledictions upon 
quartermasters in general. 

While the order of arrest was being made out and Magruder 
was storming around like an enraged lion, he all of a sudden 
stopped short as if at some sudden recollection, and said to his 
adjutant " Tear up that order, Burke only obeyed instructions 
about fitting out that Brigade ; the only trouble after all is 
that he fitted it out too d — d well. Let him go — he'll do." 

It was following this period that Maj. Burke becoming 
wearied with the mouotomous life of a Brigade Quartermaster, 
obtained a thirty days furlough, and determined to try his 
chances, for a bolder throw in the battle of life, by an interview 
with Gen. Kirby Smith. His daring suggestions at this audi- 
ence were nothing less than the reorganization of the whole 
field transportation service of the Trans-Mississippi, the found- 



The Trans-Mississippi. 23 



iug of permanent workshops and foundries, the substitution of 
good wagons for those which had been hastily gathered up 
immediately around Gen. Smith's army from the plantations, 
and the employment of detailed colored mechanics and trained 
labores from the army. His system of making the whole de- 
partment a vast Confederate workshop, and of caring for con- 
demned stock was reported to Richmond and became the basis 
of the organization of the Field Transportation Department of 
the Confederacy. The Confederate Commissioners sent out to 
suggest improvements and reorganization through the South, 
so reported it back — that the plan approved at Richmond had 
already been long since anticipated in the Trans-Mississsippi. 
Such indeed was its success that the Eastern side of the river 
was soon drawing its supplies from the Western ; and at the 
time of the surrender over GOO wagons and 4000 sets of harness 
were being made up every month in the woreshops organized 
by Major. Burke. 

Shortly after the colapse of the Confederacy and the final 
surrender of General Smith, Major Burke, who was on his 
staff as Chief of the Bureau of Transportation, deter- 
mined to accompany his old leader to Mexico, partly actuated 
that way by friendship, but principally because a general ap- 
prehension was at the time felt of a rigorous policy on the part 
of the Federal Government towards their late opponents. 
Upon reflection however he decided to remain in the South 
and share the common lot of his fellow soldiers. He thereupon 
borrowed a small sum in gold for travelling expenses, succeed- 
ed in making his way to Houston and subsequently to Galves- 
ton.* 



*In the latter city he considered himself fortunate in obtaining a situation 
at §75 a month. But his talents and his reputation for business energy 
came to his aid ; he was advanced to the charge of the cotton shipping of 
the house of T. H. McMahan <fe Gilbert, the largest commercial firm in Gal- 
veston, and much of the success obtained by this firm immediately after 
the war was due to his administrative ability. 

Subsequently Maj. Burke, after establishing himself in business on his 
own account, accumulated no inconsiderable fortune in a short time. But 
with American fatality, pushing his ventures too far, he found himself so 
deeply embarrassed that there was nothing before him but to assign his 
property, for the benefit of his creditor's, and start for a new field. He had 



24 The Trans-Mississippi. 



Burke was finally appointed to a situation on the Jackson 
Road, which in a short time made him the responsible business 
man of this great artery of New Orleans trade. In this work 
his skill was so evident as at once to secure for him the confi- 
dence of the public and general managers of the company 

His prominence in business matters was soon equaled by 
that which he acquired in matters relating to the public wel- 
fare. The protecting of the accumulated wealth of the city by 
promoting all new improvements suggested in the Fire Depart- 
ment occupied his attention and he made earnest efforts to 

only an insignificant store of money, and this was all spent (partly iu 
assisting comrades as unlucky as himself) the first week after his arrival 
in New Orleans. 

The dark days were heavy upon him now ; like many an other gallant 
officer and soldier, and the old possessors before the war of great riches, the 
whilom Major had to wander around the streets seeking for employment, and 
not unfrequeutly anxious about his next meal or lodging-house. One day 
after being for many hours without food, aud still unwilling to be a 
burthen upon his friends, he chanced upou the marble-yard of Newton Rich- 
ards, and after thinking long and half despairingly of the chances one has to 
regain his former level, when adversity sets heavily iu and we commence 
going down hill, his attention was attracted by the satisfaction the man 
seemed to find in his work ; a feeling of envy was awakened that the 
marble-clipper should have a field for the display of his abilities. With 
somewhat the same sentiment among the tomb-stones that Hamlet express- 
ed to the grave diggers, the Major entered into conversation, and began to 
think— instead of getting off a soliloquy upon death — of what would be the 
chance of a nejv artificial stone then introduced by Poursine. An idea 
half formed, that the use of the artificial and natural stone could be 
advantageously combined, induced him to ask for employment of 
his new acquaintance. " You want to have a situation in a marble-yard ? 
So you shall," said the marble man looking rather contemptuously at 
Burks's careful dress ; " So you shall," (here he encouragingly laughed in 
Burke's face,) " if you feel like pitching in with a mallet and chisel. 
There's a vacant slab there over by that colored brother. If you beat him 
at chipping off, I'll raise your wages at the end of the week, a half a dollar 
a day more.". 

The Major how T ever coolly took off his coat and went to work, though 
with somewhat of a sore spirit and very soon after with still sorer hands. 
He earned his week's wages, however, honestly enough, and invested part of 
his earnings in a red flannel shirt. His wages were raised by the extra 
half dollar previously promised, and be had made so much progress as a 
stone mason that he was set to work building the stone fence which is still 
to be seen on Esplanade street iu front of Capt. Sinnott's residence, an d 
■which the Major probably looks at very hard when he passes in that direc- 
tion. He remained in this kind of labor long enough to catch the attention 
of the leading men interested iu the business, and at last succeeded in organ- 
izing it into a combined Natural and Artificial Stone Company. However 
the paralysis of business, which for some years has made a new building 
almost as rare here as in Venice had set, in and though a good salary had been 
promised him as superintendent, he soon resigned it to disembarrass his 
friends of needless expense. Besides other parties were now offering him 
the railroad employment for which lie had long been wishing. 



The Trans- Mississippi. 25 



combine the advantages of the paid and volunteer systems, 
as well as to perpetuate the Charitable Association, designed 
for the protection of the orphans and widows of firemen. 

In the Advisory and Central Committees in the struggle 
of the last few years to get the State back to a better govern- 
ment, he has always enjoyed the confidence of the old citizens 
and been kept actively employed. In the campaign of '72 he 
was nominated by the Democratic and Liberal parties for the 
office of Administrator of Improvements, but owing to unfor- 
tunate divisions, the Republican candidate succeeded to the 
office, and Burke's present promotion to this important Bureau 
was not obtained until the following election in 1874.* But iu 
both political races he was on the Committees appointed to 
conduct the campaign and devoted to them his most unremit- 
ting attention. Few, not practically familiar with the conduct 
of public affairs know what uuremitting watchfulness is nec- 
cessary for such labor, and how much the success of any cause 
is dependent on the political sagacity of the men selected for 
such duty One or two instances immediately pertinent to the 
matter in hand will suffice. 

A curious feature of the campaign of '72, was the fact that 
the Governor and Lieutenant Governor (Wannoth and Pinch- 
back) had, though elected on the same ticket, quarreled and 
each was striving to maintain or gain control of the political 
machinery of the State. Should by any accident the Governor 
be away from the State for a single moment, and the Lieut- 
Governor remain behind, then Pinchback would have been 
vested with full executive authority. 

Such being the case, a conspiracy was formed by Chandler, 
then Chairman of the National Central Committee, with the 
Customhouse officials at New Orleans, based upon the fact 
that both the Governor and Lieutenant-Governor were absent 
from the State — w r ere both watching each other with suspicious 
eyes in New York. The precise plan was that Pinchback 

*It was in every way creditable to Mm, that in a contest of great severity 
he received within 1300 votes of his distinguished competitor, Gen. Beau- 
regard, of a total Conservative vote of 23,000. 

D 



26 The Trans- Mississippi. 



should at once travel back over the intermediate 1400 miles 
and arrive in Louisiana first. He was then to promulgate a 
new election law, call for the impeachment of Warmoth (then 
acting with the Conservatives), and in other words formally 
turn over so much power to his party that it could not have 
been driven from office by any result of the election. This 
scheme almost succeeded.* 

In the election which followed, the Customhouse officials 
with the assistance of the military and the Administration at 
Washington, returned their candidates as elected, without 
regard to the actual elections returns, which they never 
succeeded in obtaining. But a desperate effort however, had 
been made to secure these by the Administration party, and 
Mechanics' Hall in which the three or four wagon loads of 
returns had been deposited, had been carefully guarded with 
soldiery. Maj. Burke however, with a select party of friends 
succeeded in entering, secreting the returns in bootlegs and 
about their clothing and in removing the last one of the returns 
to the Major's room before the loss was suspected. These were 



*Warmoth, while expecting an interview with his Deputy Governor 
was astonished to discover that he had set out for Louisiana some hours 
previous by the shortest line train. Meanwhile the Conservative State 
Central Committee saw their danger and were at a loss how to prevent it. 
After anxious deliberation the matter was placed in the hands of Major 
Burke, and he authorized to use all fair party stratagems to delay the cul- 
mination of the conspiracy. 

It was now a game in which the Lieut. Governor had twenty-four hours 
start on one side and Maj. Burke on the other, a knowledge of the telegraph 
and railroad systems as profound as that of Morphy over the laws of chess. 
Warmoth was apprised and put in telegraphic report, and special relays 
of trains prepared at a half dozen points for his coming. Meanwhile every 
railroad route was guarded. A dozen different emergencies were provided 
against, by the happening of «kick Pinchback would be delayed in his 
journey, or any blunder on his part have been taken advantage of. Mean- 
while Maj. Burke remained at the telegraph station, hour after hour, with 
his fingers on the telegraph keys. It was like a mesmeric exhibition, 
where the operator was putting one patient, or city after another uuder 
his spell and bidding them look on every train and seat until Pinchback's 
precise presence was known. Finally the exact car was discovered and when 
Pinchback nearcd Canton, a dispatch was sent which in no case was to be 
delivered to any one but the dusky Lieutenant Governor in person. This 
direction was carried out — the dispatch was delivered to the party for 
whom it was intended, but before he could return to the car the train had 
gone. He had got left. YVarmolh meanwhile made the quickest trip 
South ever yet achieved, and succeeded in easily reaching the State in ad- 
vance of Pinchback. 



The Trans-Mississippi. 27 



preserved, turned over to the Mitchell Keturning Board, and 
were finally transmitted to Washington City for the Louisiana 
case.* 

In the subsequent compaign, it was largely due to his 
finesse that the white population weve not deprived of the 
right of carrying arms. The police, anticipating the arrival of 
a considerable quantity of these in the city, had made prepara- 
tions to have them taken from the train and the particular 
cars which contained them, when they should arrive. This 
danger was however anticipated, and next day the police 
discovered that by a singular coincidence the cars containing 
these arms had been so injured as to require the transfer of 
cargo to other cars whose numbers they did not have. The 
guns safely reached their owners. 

In the uprising of the people that ensued on the 14th, these 
were used with such precision, as for a time prevented the 
police from becoming dangerous to the political liberties of the 
citizens.! 

*One of the current jokes of the day was that Marsh Stoddard, the seat 
of whose pantaloons may he roughly compared in size to a bake-oven, was 
assigned to the task of carrying off the returns from the Third Ward (the 
largest in the city) and such important country parishes as Caddo, St. 
LaDdry and Claiborne, while Jim Houston, the smallest of the co-laborers, 
was assigned such apocryphal returns as those from the recently created 
parishes of Vermillion, Webster, or Grant, whose list of voters, as the joke 
was, altogether hardly filled an ordinary fob pocket. 

tOne more instance of his sagacity will suffice : It had been anticipated 
that the Federal troops would arrive in New Orleans and act as a support 
to the party in power in carrying out their measures, however unpopular 
they might become ; and so close was the calculation made by the leaders on 
both sides, that the troops were on their way to New Orleans and would 
have arrived in time to have prevented any popular uprising. There was 
thereupon some proposal made of burning a bridge over which the military 
train would pass, which Burke opposed as the guardian of the road's property 
He pointed out so many' less destructive ways of detaining the train, that 
it did not greatly surprise him to hear that the workmen on the road had 
shortly after commenced raising (a work previously contemplated) the 
road bed. The troops were promptly set to work at replacing the rails, 
when they arrived at the first obstruction ; but this finished, so many other 
replacements were found neccessary. that there was no chance for them to 
get the train to the city. Neither Burke nor the head workman (who knew 
nothing of what was going on, understands now whence came the order. 

The most arduous public work in the campaign of '74 was the re- 
vision by Major E. A. Burke, as a leading member of the State Cen- 
tral Committee of the Registration lists and the organization of a hoard 
which succeeded in detecting 5,200 fraudulent registrations. This gigantic 



The Trans -Miss iss lj)p i . 



Maj. Burke in the election which followed, was triumphantly 
elected to the position of Administrator of Improvements 
which he has since held. 



THIRD PAPER. 



Hon. Louis A. Wiltz, when the war commenced, was in 
his eighteenth year. He joined one of the companies of the 
Orleans Artillery, and had the honor of a Captaincy of a 
Third District Company conferred upon him. Wiltz at first 
consulted only his modesty and lack of years, and refused to 
accept the proffered responsibility. He was, however, over- 
ruled by the other officers of the new company. 

He was assigned to the Chalmette Regiment, commanded by 
Col. J. Szymanski, and stationed at Quarantine. Wiltz's father 
was also a captain in the same regiment, but his health suc- 
cumbed before the prevalent diseases of this malarious post, 
and his father was sent home. Louis received dispatches of a 
mournful character from the city, and was placed in the cruel 
position of deciding between his duty as a soldier and that of 
a son. He remained until remonstrated with by his brother 
officers, and then went to pay his last visit to his father. The 
old man gave him his final blessing, and noticing his embar- 
rassment, told his son not to linger, but to leave a younger 



work was alone made possible by a close examination and visit to every 
bouse iii the city ; by obtaining maps and plans of the same, and by prompt 
in<|iiiry alter registry as to the correctness of any given place of residence. 
The - value of such services to the cause of good government may lie 
guessed at but not now explained. .Suffice it to say that the tricksters 
were only beaten by a vote of mojority, :!fill(l. 



The Traas-Mississi2)pi. 29 



brother, aud get back to his command. It was a sundering of 
the strongest of earthly ties; but the sacrifice was made. The 
same day, the last which left his father on this earth, found 
him working his way down the river in a skiff, purchased for 
the occasion. 

Meanwhile the Federal fleet had entered the Passes, the 
regiment of Szymanski was the first captured of the Louisiana 
troops, and Forts Jackson and St. Philip were immediately 
bombarded. When Wiltz aud bis friend had proceeded twenty 
miles below the river they met the Federal fleet coming up. 
This news was of vital importance ; there was no time to lose. 
They immediately landed, and promptly conveyed the intelli- 
gence to Fort Chalmette of the uear approach of the enemy. 

In the resistance which then ensued, Captain Wiltz lent his 
best aid to the last effort of the Confederate army to retain 
the city. 

Wiltz reached 2New Orleans to find his father dead and 
about being buried. The day after, he left the Crescent City, 
to return no more until after the surrender of the last Confed- 
erate forces. 

His adventures now carried him into the cavalry of the Trans- 
Mississippi Department, aud found him in command of a body 
of scouts from different regiments. He succeeded, in this way, 
in acquiring a knowledge of the movements of the enemy and 
in making many prisoners. It also gave him an opportunity" 
of showing the natural humanity of his disposition by the 
uniform kindness which he showed to those who fell into his 
hands, at Mansfield aud other similar battles. He even, on one 
occasion", went so far as to give away his blanket for the bene- 
fit of a badly wounded prisoner, who expended his gratitude 
for the favor he received in curses, though finally in thanks. 

In Banks' advance upon Shreveport, Wiltz was picked out 
by his colonel to cross Cane river, at Monette Ferry, and bring 
precise information of the whereabouts of the enemy T . This he 
was proceeding to do, when, all of a sudden, while advancing 



30 The Trans-Mississippi. 



in the dark, the party found themselves surrounded by a 
Yankee regiment. There was a sudden shout to "surrender," 
and a volley which laid two of his men low (who were only 
twenty yards in advance of the Yankee cavalry), warned them 
that there was no time to lose. All were captured except 
Wiltz, who, by desperate riding, managed to escape the bullets 
which were fired at him, and in putting the river between him- 
self and his pursuers. Subsequently he captured several 
prisoners by himself, and once, while commanding the advance 
pickets on the Teche, he succeeded, with a company of Texans, 
by stratagem, in capturing from a Federal regiment two hun- 
dred head of cattle, besides many prisoners. One of his last 
feats was in holding his ground with twelve men, in Patterson, 
against three companies, in defence of the life of a citizen, 
which at that time was threatened. 

After the war (in 1867) when twenty -four years of age, he 
was elected a member of the House of Representatives, from 
the Ninth District, and served his term. 

Here he labored hard to defeat Conway's school bill, which 
would have imposed a million dollars of extra taxes upon the 
people, and did succeed in neutralizing its w r orst tax features. 

In one of the closing struggles of the season, when the domi- 
nant party showed a determination to force the election bill 
through, Wiltz and the generous Clarence Pratt (afterwards 
killed in a duel) by their labors and energy kept his friends 
together, and prevented the necessary suspension of the rules. 
The Republicans contended that the bill had twice passed its 
readings during the day. The assertion was combatted so reso- 
lutely, and passions were excited to such a pitch that the attempt 
had, for that session as least, to be abandoned. A persistauce 
would have led to bloodshed. His course in uniformly oppo- 
sing all of the infamous giants and monopolies which were 
forced through the Legislature by Radical majorities and 
weak-kneed Democrats, was such as to secure his election, in 
spite of his extreme youth, to the Board of Aldermen, and, 
subsequently, an unanimous call to the Presidency of that 



The Trans-Mississippi. 31 



Board. The same year witnessed his unanimous nomination 
for Mayor, though the election was afterwards postponed by 
the action of the Legislature. Though again nominated and 
elected in 187<>, Mayor Wiltz was arbitrarily counted out, 
and the election set aside. Iu 1872 he was returned and took 
his seat, and iu spite of stormy clamors and tremendous pres- 
sure, succeeded in discharging his duties under the most try- 
ing municipal administration the city had yet witnessed. 

He was a candidate for nomination for a second term, and 
was generally known to be the choice of a large part of the 
white citizens of New Orleans. The vote by which he was 
first nominated, was, in consequence of some blundering in 
calling the correct count annulled, when, by some adroit 
rival movement, a new ballot resulted in his defeat. He 
had a right to insist upon the first ballot, and was urged to do 
so by hundreds of jnstly indignant friends. Again, for the 
sake of harmony in the party, he magnanimously declined to 
claim the nomination — so announced his resolve to the. public, 
urged all his friends to support the whole ticket, and until the 
close of the polls on election day, spared neither pains, time 
nor influence in swelling a reforming majority. 

Mr. Wiltz is now Director of half a dozen Insurance and 
Eailroad Companies, President of a Fire Company, manager of 
the branch depository of the State National Bank, and holds a 
seat as a member of the State Legislature. 

On that memorable d;«y in Louisiana history, the 4th of 
January, when the U. S. soldiers, with loaded muskets and 
fixed bayonets, entered the Legislature and caused mem- 
bers to be taken from their seats, Mr. Wiltz, who had been 
elected speaker, thus protested against this invasion of the 
people's rights: " Our brother members have been seized and 
torn from us — troops march up the hall, and the chair of the 
Speaker of the House of Representatives is now surrounded. 
I call upon the Representatives of the State of Louisiana to 
retire. 1 ' 



32 The Trans-Mmhsippi. 



The Speaker, who had conducted himself with nerve and 
self-possession, left, followed by the Conservative members, 
and the military remained in possession of the building'. 

The exertions of Mayor Wiltz in philanthropise enterprises 
are well remembered, and especially his solicitation and distri- 
bution of charity to fifty thousand sufferers from the overflow. 
The public believed that their contributions would be honestly 
disposed of, and to justify this confidence he called to his aid 
true and good men like himself, with whom he organized plans 
of relief that were eminently successful. Through their com- 
bined exertions the effects of the most destructive flood ever 
known in the South were averted. 

The political course of the Mayor, even after events had 
proved its wisdom, was made the subject of comments that 
were unfair, censorious and unjust. Coming from members of 
his own party and reiterated with unfriendly persistence, these 
unfair censures were keenly felt by those who knew how little 
they were deserved. At their request he carefully prepared 
a full vindication of his course. This was exhibited to many 
of those who had repeated the complaints made against him, 
They and all others who read it pronounced the defence com- 
plete and the wisest and ablest members of the party approved 
his course as that of a sagacious magistrate, a srood citizen, 
a patriot and a thorough Democrat. The defence was intend- 
ed for the public, but he declined giving it for publication, as 
it necessarily contained statements which would have disturb- 
ed to some extent the harmony of the party. What was con- 
ceded then by the sagacious few has become the prevailing 
sentiment of the masses of the Democratic party, and in spite 
of the rigid ordeal through which he has passed, he has 
seen the purity of his course and the honesty of his mo- 
tives vindicated in the minds of all who know him. 

Though not elected to the office of Speaker under the final 
Compromise of parties, Mr. Wiltz was nominated in a caucus 
by the strict men of the Democratic party, and still continues 
to command their entire support and sympathy. 




Capt. LOUIS A. WILTZ. 



The Trans-Mississippi. 



FOURTH PAPER 



The subject ot the Trans-Mississippi Department should uot 
be dismissed without a word about Bed Eiver and the Crescent 
Artillery, who, upon the Confederate side, did nearly all of the 
fighting which has ever yet occurred upon that crooked stream. 
This Artillery Company was upon the "Louisiana" until she was 
blown up at Fort St. Phillip, aud the command taken prison- 
ers. The officers having been carried to Fort Warren, aud ex- 
changed at Richmond, were oixlered to Vicksburg, aud finally 
placed at Fort De Eussey, on Eed Eiver, where they encoun- 
tered the Federal gunboat "The Queen of the West," which, 
after a sharp fight, was captured. The "Queen" was immediate- 
ly ordered to be repaired by General Taylor, and placed under 
command of Captain James McCloskey The "Webb" was put 
under command of Captain Charles Pierce, with Thomas H. 
Handy, our well-known merchant, in command of troops aud 
artillery. These boats were then ordered to go to the Mis- 
sissippi Eiver and fight the " Indianola." They left the fort 
on February 22d. They met the u Indianola " on the night of 
the 24th at Joe Davis' plantation, and they fought and cap- 
tured her after a fight of 45 minutes. 

In a report ot this fight, General Jos. L. Brent (now of the 
Ashland plantation) mentioned for meritorious conduct Lieut. 
Handy, and gave a point to his praise by furthermore adding 
that " for honorable service, I make you prize-master of this 
boat," 

The Crescent Artillery, on the 4th of May, having beeu 
placed on the '■ Grand Duke " and " Cotton," fought the " Al- 
batross" on Eed Eiver, at Fort De Eussey- The " Albatross," 
however, was lucky enough to make her escape. At the final 
surrender of Fort De Eussey, when hemmed in by General 
Smith, the command were taken prisoners along with the other 
gallant defenders of that post. 

Among other well-known river men who were on the " Grand 
Duke" and " Cotton," as officers and pilr Is, were Bush Splan, 

E 



The Trans-Miss iss ipp i . 



Dick Britto:: (the steamboat agent), and Captain Jim White 
(now master of the " Katie ''). When the u Webb '" ran past 
the city of Xew Orleans, after the surrender (a very exciting 
event at the time), she was commanded by Captain Read (now 
engaged with the Mexican border expedition at the mouth of 
the Eio Grande), with Charles Pierce (still on the river), as her 
pilot. 



■«4-H©^-*»- 



SUB-DIVISION OF NORTH LOUISIANA. 



On the 9th May, 1862. Col. Frank A. Bartlett received informa- 
tion from Capt Corbin, who commanded the pickets at Caledonia, 
(near the Arkansas line on Bay-on Macon, and six miles from 
Bunch's Bend on the Mississippi river) that the enemy had sur- 
prised his guard and crossed Bayou Macon in force at Williams' 
plantation. Collecting every available man who could be spared 
from guarding the railroad crossing at Delhi* and the Court 
House at Floyd, Col. Bartlett, at once marched to meet the 

"Capt. J. W Blanks, one of our best known and most popular steamboat- 
men. was a Lieutenant in a Caldwell Company, served for three years 
in this and other portosns of the State, but did not have the fortune to get 
into any of the larger battles ; or in other words, he resembled the old lady 
who played whist all her life and never had the luck to have in her hand a 
trump. He was marching around from pillow to post and doing good ser- 
vice, during all of the war, and every day thinking that a fight would come 
al last ; and as badly scared a good many times as if he had been in out-. 
Once while commanding a little boat called the Homer, he narrowly 
escaped being gobbled by the Yankee gunboats, together with Gen. Price 
and staff who were on board. Capt. Fred Blanks, now the President ot 
the Ouachita Packet Company, was out with a Company which went from 
Carroll. 



The Trans-Mississippi . 35 



enemy His force when united to Corbins, . numbered only 85 
men, while that of the enemy was two regiments of cavalry 
numbering in the aggregate, about 500 men. The encounter 
occurred on the evening of the 10th May, at a point a little 
distant from Lane's Ferry The Federals were ambushed 
successfully and driven back in confusion, leaving thirteen 
dead and twenty -six prisoners. The next morning the Federals 
retired to the Mississippi river, considering their escape from 
so overwhelming a force as miraculous. The Confederate 
commander, knowing the enemy had divided their troops, by 
the spirit of his attacks, and the superior marksmanship of his 
men, had convinced them that they were confronted by at 
least a division of Taylor's army. From that day he acted 
upon the offensive, and some detachment of the force under his 
command inflicted loss and annoyance upon the enemy on the 
Mississippi river, capturing prisoner's, supplies and war 
material. 

Being reinforced about the 1st of June by a regiment of 
Texas infantry — the 13th — under the gallant Col. Crawford, he 
made a raid upon the town of Lake Providence. 

He first improvised a bridge of logs at Caledonia and crossed 
the Bayou Macon upon it on the 10th. Marching rapidly east, 
he surprised and captured the Federal picket at Bunch's Bend 
and from thence pushed on without a moment's delay towards 
Lake Providence. Almost every hundred yards of this march 
was disputed by bodies of the" enemy's cavalry, but nothing 
could Withstand the charge of Lieut. John McNeil's scmadron 
of Caper's Battalion. Each stand that the enemy made, ended 
in a route, and at Baxter's Bayou, where they had cut down 
and set fire to the bridge, our boys carried it by storm. 
although it was in a blaze and sunk, at its middle, below the 
surface of the water. 

At Tensas river, when almost in sight of the coveted prize, 
for which they had started out, the bridge was entirely 
destroyed. It was obviously, time to return, which the expedi- 
tion did, bringing off a large amount of stores and a number 



33 The Tmns-Mississipi' 



of prisoners, nine splended army wagons ami 36 mules, besides, 
destroy iug much of the enemy's property. Bartlett's loss was 
3 killed aud 7 wounded. 

Six or eight months after the Sub-District of Xorth Louisi- 
ana was broken up its final quarters being in Miuden. 

Among the brilliant actions which deserve to be recorded in 
the history of the Sub-District of Louisiana, was the successful 
defence of Fort Beauregard, by Col. G. W Logan, which 
occurred on the Sth, 9th, 10th and 11th of May, 1803. 
Altthough but partially supplied with guns and ordinance 
Col. Logan drove back some four or five of the enemy's gun- 
boats, which for four days bombarded him incesseutly. He 
did not waste a single shot, but when his 21 pounder gave 
tongue, there was blood spilled on board of the gnu hosts, as the 
numerous graves at Brushley bayou indicated after they 
retired. Major Eugene Souiat of Col. Logan's Regiment was 
distinguished on this occasion for his coolness and courage, and 
greatly assisted his commander by his councils. 

During the closing month of war, Carriere and Capt. Martin 
Gilloire, who had made an organized resistance to the conscrip- 
tion act for two years with great determination, were killed iu 
the Teche country. They served as scouts or spies for the 
Federal army, with a band of fifty men, and at the time of 
their death encountered a party of Confederates who attempted 
to arrest them for still continuing to live and act asjayhawkers. 
It was while resisting this arrest that the two men were killed. 

On May 6th, occurred the surrender of Dick Taylor, of the 
Department of Alabama, Mississippi aud East Louisiana at 
Meridian. His force was estimated at 7000 men, though a 
number, greatly larger presented themselves for parole. These 
latter, when their names failed to appear upon the surrender 
roll, were marked '• deserter's " aud were seized by Confederate 
soldiejs, ridden on a rail, and had their heads shaved in peni- 
tentiary style. 



RECORD OF THE EIGHTEENTH LOUISIANA 

REGIMENT 



The 18th Louisiana Regiment, which was temporarily organized at 
Camp Moore with eight companies, completed its full organization in 
December, 1861, at Camp Benjamin, ou G-entilly road, near New Orleans, 
by the addition of Company I, Captain Joseph Collins, and Company 
K, Captain Lastrapes. Company I, the third company of the Orleans 
Cadets (the first having gone out with Captain Chas. D. Dreux ; the 
second being in the 5th Louisiana, also in Virginia) had been in service 
in the State since the 19th of June, and took rank as the first or right 
company; and Company K was newly formed from the parish of St. 
Landry. Being brigaded with the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Nineteenth, 
and Twentieth, under command of Brig.-Gen. Daniel E. Ruggles, the 
regiment left New Orleans about the I7th of February, 1862, for 
Corinth, Miss., organized as follows : 

Colonel, Alfred Moulton. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Alfred Roman. 

Major, Louis Bush. 

Company A — Captain Druilhet, St. James Rifles. 

Company B — Captain Hugh L. Garland, of St. Landry. 

Company C — Captain Wood, Nachitoches Rebels. 

Company D — Captain Hayes, of St. Mary. 

Company E — Captain Mire, Chasseurs of St. James. 

Company F — Captain Wm. Mouton, of Lafayette. 

Company C — Captain J. K. Gourdain, Lafourche Creoles. 

Company H — Captain Henry Huntington, of Orleans. 

Company I — Captain Joseph Collins, Orlean3 Cadets. 

Company K — Captain Lastrapes, of St. Landry. 

At Corinth, the regiment was ordered to the Tennessee River ; and at 
Pittsburg Landing drove off two of the enemy's gunboats, the Tyler 
and Lexington, unsupported by any artillery. In this first engagement 
the loss of the regiment was nine killed and twenty-two wounded ; 
while that of the gunboats was seventy killed. The regiment bivou- 
acked that night in and around the little log shurch which afterwards 
gave its name to the battle of " Shiloh." 

It took part in the battle of Shiloh, in Pond's Brigade, Ruggles' 



38 The Trans-Mississippi. 



Division ; and lost, in killed and wounded, two hundred and eighteen, 
or almost half the number of men in line — Colonel Mouton himself 
being wounded in the face. Remained in Corinth, taking part in all 
the engagements of the siege, until the evacution. It was then ordered 
to Tupelo. 

Colonel Mouton having been appointed Brigadier-General after the 
battle of Shiloh, Lieut.-Colonel Roman having been appointed on the 
staff of General Beauregard, and Major Bash having returned to Louis- 
iana to organize a regiment of cavalry, and the reorganization of the 
twelve-months' troops having taken place, the regiment began its second 
year's service, with the following named officers : 

Colonel, Leopold L. Armant of St. James. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Joseph Collins, of Orleans. 

Major, "William Mouton, of Lafayette. 

Company A — Captain William Sanchez. 

Company B — Captain 

Company C — Captain Cloutier. 

Company D — Captain Ben. S Story. 

Company E — Captain Ales. S. Poche. 

Company F — Captain A. Pope Bailey. 

Company G — Captain J K. Gourdain. 

Company H — Captain Paul B. Leeds. 

Company I — Captain John T. Lavery. 

Company K — Captain James Hayes. 

It was ordered to Pollard, Ala., where it remained, with the 19th 
Louisiana and 29th Alabama, under command of Colonel Tatnall, of 
the latter regimerjt, until about the 1st of October, 1862 ; when it was 
ordered to the Trans-Mississippi Department, reporting to Brig.-General 
Mouton at New Iberia. Soon afterwards it marched to Berwick's Bay ; 
and, on the 26th of October, at Labadieville, about fourteen miles from 
Thibodaux, the 18th Regiment, the Crescent. Regiment, and Ralston's 
Battery,* under command of Colonel Armant, with less than five huud- 

*A much larger quantity of the artillery used in the Confederate Army, 
than is generally supposed, was made in New Orleans, in hastily constructed 
works. Edmund M. Ivens, a manufacturer of this city, claims to have made 
sixty pieces, with gun carriages, battery wagons awd everything attached to 
them, except the horses. The metal for the guns was obtained by recasting 
the bells from the enureses, plantations and other sources. Dr. Palmer's 
church contributed one, and more than a hundred were obtained from all 
sources. These guns were hurried forward as soon as made, and some of them 
did service in the battle of Belmont a few days after their manufacture. 



The Trans-Mississippi. 39 



red men and four pieces, 'fought the brigade of General Weitzel, which 
had come out of New Orleans. Colonel Armant succeeded in holding 
the enemy in check for several hours ; he only fell back when his canis- 
ter and case shot had given out. The last shot fired by the last piece 
in action was a round shot, while the enemy were only a few yards dis- 
tant. Our loss in this affair was heavy, several having been taken 
prisoners; among others were Captain Ban Story, of the Eighteenth, 
and Captain Ralston, of the artillery. Colonel McPheeters, of the 
Crescent, was killed ; Lieut.- Col. Collins, of the Eighteenth, wounded. 
The enemy's loss was greater than the numbers opposed to him. Re- 
turning to the Bayou Teche, the regiment was largely recruited from the 
Camp of Instruction, near New Iberia. 

It took part in the affair of the 14th of January, 1863, when the 
enemy came up the Teche above Pattersonville. 

In April, 1863, Banks having advanced from Berwick's Bay, by land, 
with a large force (estimated at 18,000), and sent 12,000 in transports 
up Grand Lake to take our troops in the rear, the Eighteenth, holding, 
with the Crescent Regiment and Faries' (Pelican) Battery, the extreme 
left of the line, fought him for two days from behind hastily thrown up 
breastworks, until compelled to fall back, to prevent being cut off by 
the troops who had gone up the lake in transports and landed at Mrs. 
Porter's place, near Franklin. 

At this battle — known as " Bisland," from the name of the owner of 
the place upon which our lines were made — the entire Confederate force 
consisted of about 5,000 of all arms : and the estimated loss of the 
enemy was over 4,000 in killed and wounded. Retreating as far as 
Nachitoches, the regiment returned, and was present at the recapture of 
Brashear City, with all Banks' commissary, quartermasters' and ordnance 
stores, and heavy baggage, which had been left to facilitate the pursuit 
of our little army. 

In August, the regiment camped in the vicinity of Vermillionville, the 
brigade consisting of the 18th Louisiana (Mouton's) Colonel Armant; 
*28th Louisiana, Colonel Henry Gray ; Crescent Regiment, Colonel A. 
W Bosworth ; Yellow Jacket Battalion, Lieutenant Colonel Fournet ; 

*Major Wilbur Blackuian was Adjt. -General of this command, and acquired 
enough military glory to be several times elected to the House and Senate of 
this State. He was a prominent candidate for the office of Governor in 1872, 
though, a young man. Since that time he has devoted himself to the practice 
of law in Alexandria. 



40 The Trans-Mississippi. 



Beard's Battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel Beard ;• Clack's Battalion, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Clack. 

In September, the brigade, with Waller's Battalion (Texas Cavalry), 
crossed the Atchafalaya at Morgan's Ferry, and captured about 40J 
prisoners at Bayou Fordocbe, the enemy retreating to the cover of his 
gunboats at Morganza. 

In October, the 18th Regiment was consolidated with the Yellow 
Jacket Battalion, and was afterwards known as the Consolidated 
Eighteenth Regiment, and was officered by Col. L. L. Armant, Lieut. - 
Colonel Joseph Collins, and Major Paul B. Leeds (afterwards of the 
staff of General E. Kirby Smith). During the winter, the brigade, 
under the command of Colonel Henry Gray, marched to the Arkansas 
line on Bayou Bartholomew, returning, in February, 1864, to Pineville, 
opposite Alexandria, on Red River. 

On the 8th of April, the army having fallen back to Mansfield be- 
fore Banks' advancing force, halted and gave him battle. Mouton's 
Division, consisting of his brigade and Polignac's Texas brigade, on 
the left of the line, made the decisive charge of the day. Mouton's 
brigade was composed of the 18th Louisiana, 28th Louisiana and Crescent 
Consolidated Regiment, Col. Beard. The loss of the Regiment, in this 
battle, was 96 killed and wounded. General Mouton, its first Colonel, 
was killed, and also its Colonel, Leopold L. Armant, who fell while 
gallantly leading the charge ; Colonel Beard, of the Crescent, Lieutenant 
Colonels Walker, of the twenty-eighth, and Clack, of the Crescent, 
and Major Caufield, of the Crescent, were killed, and the brigade was 
left in command of Lieutentant Colonel Joseph Collins, of the Eigh- 
teenth, who had his horse shot from under him — Captain Wm. C. C. 
Claiborne, commanding the Crescent Regiment. These two regiments 
continued the pursuit of the enemy, and held the left of the line against 
the fresh army corps brought up. Marched next day to Pleasant Hill, 
about twenty miles, and got into that fight about sundown. 

The following description of Banks' advance arid defeat, is extracted 
from Mrs. Dorsey's " Recollections of Henry Watkins Allen :" 

" In the month of March, 1864, General Banks made his famous raid 
up the valley of the Red River. General Taylor, stationed at Alexan- 
dria, had been advised in February, by secret information sent him from 
New Orleans, of the probable Federal plan of attack, by one division 
under A. J. Smith, from Vicksburg, and General Banks from New 
Orleans, who was to march up through the Teche country. Taylor im- 
mediately notified General Kirby Smith of his suspicions of this attack, 



The Trans-Mississippi. 41 



and Smith began to concentrate his troops to meet the attack, if so made. 

" Smith's department was very large, and so desolated in Arkansas 
and Louisiana, that in order to subsist the troops, it was necessary to 
scatter them ; so the forces were scattered over Louisiana and Texas. 
Shreveport and its vicinity was the central point in this widely-scattered 
circle of troops. Upon the reception of Taylor's information, Smith 
began to draw in his forces. * 

" General A. J. Smith came np the Red River, Banks advanced uP 
the Teche. It was estimated by us that Banks had a force cf forty 
thousand men, and a co-operating navy of sixty gunboats and trans- 
ports, ' and a legion of camp-followers and speculators,' in his train. 
The Federals captured Fort DeRussy, an inferior earthwork below Al- 
exandria, and then marched unchecked up the whole valley of the Red 
River, until they reached Mansfield, a small town between Shreveport 
and Natchitoches. Taylor had fallen back before the Federals, skir- 
mishing every day, until he found himself here almost at the doors of 
Shreveport, within a day's march of the Texas border. 

"Taylor resolved to make a stand, and sent a despatch to Smith, at 
Shreveport, to that effect. Taylor had 9000 men at Mansfield. He 
selected his ground as well as he could, about a quarter of a mile from 
Mansfield. The country here is billy, and heavily wooded. 

"The line of battle was single. Mouton commanded his own brigade, 
with Polignac's in the centre. Majors, with his cavalry dismounted, 
formed the left wing. De Bray, with mounted cavalry, was posted 
on the extreme right. Churchill and Parsons, with Missouri and Ar- 
kansas troops, acted as reserves, stationed three miles in the rear. The 
public road, by which the Federals were advancing, ran over a very 
steep hill. They had posted one of their best batteries (Nims'), — the 
same battery that Allen had rushed upon, captured and lost, after be- 
ing wounded at the battle of Baton Rouge, — upon the top of this high 
hill. Taylor rode along this line, and when he passed Polignac, he 
called out, "Little Frenchman, I am going to fight Banks here, if he 
has a million of men ! " Taylor now ordered Mouton to advance until 
he engaged the enemy. Mouton led the charge of infantry. By agree- 
ment, all the Confederate officers retained their horses, which was one 
reason why so many of them were killed in this famous charge. Mou- 
ton charged down a hill, over a fence, through a ravine, then up a hill 
right in the teeth of the guns. The charge lasted twenty-five minutes. 
The men were moved forward at double-quick, exposed to a terrible 



42 TJie Trans-Mississippi. 



fire all the time, especially whilst in the ravine, between the woods and 
the hill, upon which the Federal batteries were stationed. The expo- 
sure to grape and canister was dreadful ; many Confederates fell here. 
The men were nearly breathless when they struggled up the ravine. 
Mouton commanded them to throw themselves prostrate a moment, to 
recover breath. Then they sprang up, and rushed on to the attack. 
The officers fell fast. Armand, at the head, of his Creoles, had his horse 
killed, and received a shot in the arm. Starting to his feet, after dis- 
engaging himself from his dying steed, he ran on by the side of his men, 
waving his sword in the other unwounded hand. Again a shot struck 
him — he fell — a wound through both thighs. He raised himself again, 
on his wounded arm, and, half-reclining, with the life-blood pouring in 
torrents, he still waved his sword, and cheered on his Louisianians. 
They responded with a cry of vengeance. Another shot struck Armand 
in the breast, — the gleaming sword dropped from the cold hand. Ar- 
mand lay dead. The Eighteenth Louisiana rushed on. Polignac led 
his troops gallantly. Mouton was always in the front. The guns were 
taken after a desperate struggle. The Federals broke and fled. Mouton 
pursued : he passed a group of thirty-five Federal soldiers ; they threw 
down their arms in token of surrender. Mouton turned, lifting his hand 
to stay the firing of the Confederates upon this group of prisoners: as 
he did so, five of the Federals stooped down, picked up their guns, 
aimed them at the generous Confederate : in a moment, five balls pierced 
the noble, magnanimous breast ; Mouton dropped from his saddle dead, 
without a word or a sigh. The Confederates who witnessed this cowardly 
deed, gave a yell of vengeful indignation, and before their officers could 
check them, the thirty five Federals lay dead around Mouton. The 
chase of the Federals was continued a mile and a half by this division, 
then the reserves under Walker and Churchill took up the hunt, and 
drove back the enemy to Pleasant Hill. Half way between Pleasant 
Hill and Mansfield, there was a creek of pure water, for which there 
was a heavy fight. It ended in the Confederates retaining possession of 
the water, on whose margin they bivouacked that night, — Major Gener- 
al N. P Banks' assertion to the contrary notwithstanding. Mouton 
had (2,200) twenty-two hundred men in this charge ; he lost seven 
hundred and sixty-two. Five officers were killed, amongst them Tay- 
lor, of the Seventeenth Texas, a much-beloved officer. It was the mus- 
ket-fire from the enemy on the left of the ravine, and the grape and 
canister in it, that killed most of Mouton's men. Mouton said to Pol- 
ignac, previous to the attack, " Let us charge them right in the face, 
and throw them into the vallov.' 



The Trans-Mississippi. 43 



" The Battle of Mansfield was fought on the 8th of April. It was a 
day of fasting and prayer, specially ordered by General Smith, and 
spent by most of ns, ignorant of the contest that was transpiring, on 
our knees before our altars. Taylor now pressed his success. He had 
captured an immense wagon-train — two hundred and ninety-five wagons, 
filled with most valuable stores ; had taken Nim's Battery of six guns, 
which Allen had such cause to remember; had also captured twenty 
two guns on the road. The 'Grand Army' fled in wild confusion. At 
Pleasant Hill the Federals were re-enforced. Taylor engaged them 
again, with "Walker and Churchill's Divisions. The fight was heavy ; 
and night fell ou 'a drawn battle;' but the Federals retreated under 
cover of darkness, and Taylor camped on the battle-ground. That 
night General E. Kirby Smith joined him." 

Colonel Gray, having been promoted, assumed command of the 
brigade as Brigadier-General. It was then composed of the Eigh- 
teenth, Colonel Collins, Twenty-eighth, Colonel Thomas Pool, and 
Crescent Regiment, Captain Claiborne commanding. It continued op- 
erations around Alexandria while the enemy was shut up therein, 
building a dam on the falls, to let his fleet out ; following him to 
his crossing on the Atchafalaya, at Simnisport, and giving him 
the last fight at Yellow Bayou. In this affair, the Eighteenth was 
on the extreme right, (Captain Wm, Sanchez, commanding,) and 
with the Thirty-second Texas, Colonel Wood, turned the enemy's left. 
While on the extreme left, between the road and the bayou, a gallant 
little company, Captain William's engineer troops, composed of old 
soldiers of the Eighteenth, Crescent and Twenty-eighth, with a vigor- 
ous fire, checked his advance up the road. 

In the Fall it marched to Camden, Arkansas : back to Minden, La., 
and in February camped on Bayou Cotile, near Alexandria. During 
the stay at Camden Brigadier General Henry Gray was elected to the 
Confederate Congress, and Colonel Joseph Collins, who had been rec- 
ommended for promotion, assumed command of the Brigade, until the 
return of Col. A. W Boswoith's Crescent Regiment. 

A new organization of Brigades was about to be effected. Collins 
Brigade to consist of the Eighteenth, Twenty-eighth and Eighth Loui- 
siana Dismounted Cavalry, Colonel Ben W Clark, of West Baton 
Rouge, when the news of Lee's surrender closed the history of the war, 
and the Consolidated Eighteenth Louisiana Regiment surrendered at 
Nachitoches, on the 9th of June, 1865, being probably the last organ- 
ized troops of the Confederacy who laid down their arms. 



44 The Trans-Mississippi. 



Colonel Joseph Collins was twice wounded, at Shiloh and Texana. 
Major J. Kleber Gourdain, who was wounded at Shiloh, was killed at 
New Orleaus on the 14th of September, 1874. Captain Win. Sanchez, 
who went out as Sergeant-Major of the regiment, commanded it in the 
last engagement, as its senior Captain. 

Among the other officers, who surrendered, "were Captains Alexander 
Poche, Ben. S. Story, H. N. Jenkins, (with thirteen of the original 
members of his company, the Orleans Cadets,) C. M. Shepherd, of St. 
James, L. Becnel, of St. John the Baptiste, A, Castille, of St. Martin ; 
Lieutenants Octave Jacob, Septime Webre (who left his right arm at 
Mansfield,) V S. Bourque, of St. Landry, (who lost a leg in a gunboat 
skirmish on Red River, near the mouth of Cane River, with a detach- 
ment of the regiment then supporting Cornay's Battery,) the St. Mary 
Cannoneers, (in which the gallant Cornay himself was killed) ; Alfred 
St. Martin, (who succeeded Sanchez as Sergeant-Major until appointed 
a lieutenant — a soldier who had never been off duty for a single day during 
the war) ; Sheldon W Clark, Charles L. Cobb and Charles E. Cautzon, 
of the Orleans Cadets, Thomas Bellow, of St. James, L. C. Villere, of 
Orleans. 

Among the officers killed at Shiloh were Captains Henry Huntington, 
Wood, of Natchitoches, and Lastrapes, of St. Landry. Lieutenant John 
M. Young, of the Orleans Cadets, was wounded and taken prisoner ; 
Lieutenant Gautreaux, of Lafourche, was wounded and died at home of 
his wounds. Lieutenant Dudley Avery was severely wounded. 

Captain John T. Lavery, of the Orleans Cadets, was wounded at 
Mansfield and died a few days after. 



WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 



RECORD OF NEWLY ELECTED FIELD, STAFF AND 
COMPANY OFFICERS. 



The following is the record of officers aud veterans of the bat- 
talion of Washington Artillery, reorganized for visiting the 
Centennial Exposition in 1876 : 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

Col. J. B. Walton, Colonel of the Washington Regiment in 
Mexico, (see p. 10, part 1.) — Left the city as Major of the Bat- 
talion in 1861. Promoted Colonel and Chief of Artillery of the 
Army of the Potomac. Assigned as Chief of Artillery of 
Lougstreet's corps. Appointed by the Secretary of War in 
1864 as Inspector General of Field Artillery. Recommended 
twice by Generals Beauregard and Lougstreet for promotion 
as Brigadier General of Artillery. Colonel Walton is now 
engaged in the auctioneer and appraisers business in this city. 
(See reports in body of this work.) 

Major W J. Behan*— Left with the Battalion in 1861 as 2d 
Sergeant of the 1th Company. Was promoted 2d Lieutenant 
of his Company in 1862. Served through the war and surren- 
dered at Appomattox Court House. Major Behan had the 

* Col. W J. Behan was born in this city and is of Irish extraction. His 
father was an architect and builder here for many years, and added 
enough to the architecture of the city to make some of his old friends 
remember him for a long time to come, without putting up tombstone 
monuments. Besides what is stated above, the son never lost a day's 
service from any cause whatever, and had the honor of participating 
in every march, skirmish and battle of his battery, and every campaign of 
the grand old Army of Northern Virginia. During all of that time he dis- 
tinguished himself for his attention, vigilance and watchfulness over his 
command, and for the care he manifested for their comfort and welfare — a 
no small recommendation, when it is remembered the amount of suffering 
that private soldiers (who could then do little more for themselves than a 
flock of sheep) had to undergo, where their officers were remiss or careless 



iv Washington Artillery. 



honor of placing the last gnu in position at Appomattox, beiug 
one, of a battery captured the morning of the surrender from 
the Fifth New York Artillery by Johnson's Maryland cavalry, 
Major Be ban joining in the charge. The two guns having been 
turned over to Major Behan, he placed one in position, and was 
just in the act of firing it, when an Aid from General Lee rode 



in looking after their supplies. Lieutenant Apps was in this company, 
and merited the compliment due to a faithful and at the same time a 
thoroughly prudent, cautious officer. Behan fought with his battery with 
signal success from Bull Euu to Appomattox, and assisted greatly in making 
the Fourth Company batteries respected by every corps with whom they 
served. He showed as quick an eye for military position as he has since 
for opportunities in the mercantile world, aud was reputed to be one of the 
best officers for sighting a gun there was in the Virginia army. An evi- 
dence of this was that at Maryland Heights he sighted the very gun 
wihch killed General Bayard, of the Federal cavalry. 

In the affair referred to above at Appomattox, Colonel Behan was in the 
act of firing, when one of General Lee's staff rode up and ominously 
shouted: " Don't fire those guns ; we have surrendered." 

Behan returned home, the youngest officer of the Battalion, and showed 
himself at the close of the war as daring and active as a business man as 
he had been as a soldier, chartering ships laden with the produce of the 
country for the Antilles, or Spanish Main, and, generally learning a great 
deal about the management of monopolies in countries, where, if the mer- 
chant does not take the first price offered, he never after is honored by re- 
ceiving a renewal of more than one-half of the original offer. However' 
experience came at last— foresight and quickness told their story, aud he one 
day discovered that he had the Midas-gift which converts everything 
into gold, or its greenback representative, and that his friends and old 
comrades looked to him as to a leader. 

Thus, though just entering his thirties, he has established himself 
among our most sagacious merchants, and is looked upon as a rising man 
of the day. So much so that when the people in '74, wearied beyond endurance 
by past election frauds and those about to be perpetrated, armed aud organ- 
ized to prevent it, Behan was put in command of a regiment of the citizen 
militia. When, on the 14th of September, it came to the wager of a battle 
he led the regiment which decided the fortune of the day. 

The reputation which he has since obtained as a clear-headed actor of 
great industry and determination, and his readiness to lavish his owu 
means, instead of drawing on others, has attracted towards him our labor- 
ing and industrial population, and ardent men of all classes, and made him 
the popular favorite of the day. 



Washington Ariilhrij. v 

up and announced the surrender. Major Behan is a member of 
the firm of Behau, Thorn & Co. 

Adjutant W M. Owen — Left as Adjutant; promoted Major 
of Artillery in 1863, and assigned to Preston's Division, West 
Virginia, as Chief of Artillery ; reassigned as Major to Wash- 
ington Artillery in 1864; promoted Lieutenant Colonel of Ar- 
tillery, and assigned to the command of 13th Virginia Bat- 
talion of Artillery at Petersburg ; surrendered his Battalion at 
Appomattox. Wounded at Petersburg. Now agent of Messrs. 
Bliss, Bennet & Co., of New York. 

(Quartermaster John X. Payne — Lett as private of the 1st 
Company, and promoted to Sergeant. Subsequently assigned 
to the command of Byrne's battery, attached to Morgan's 
cavalry in 1S6L Was wounded at Saltville, and surrendered 
at Appomattox. Xow of the firm of Messrs. Payne, Brooks & 
Co., wholesale grocers, New Orleans. 

Commissary John Holmes — Left as private in the 3d Com- 
pany. Was shot in the leg and disabled, at Sharpsburg, from 
further duty Is now the proprietor of Pork Inspection Ware- 
house, of New Orleans. 

Ordnance Officer W B. Krumbhaar — Served as private in 
Slocomb's 5th Company, afterwards promoted Captain of 
Artillery in the Trans-Mississippi Department, under Oeneral 
Holmes. Xow of the tirm of W B. Krumbhaar .x Co., and 
owners of the Penn Cotton Press, New Orleans. 

Surgeon Thomas G. Aby — Left as private and promoted Ser- 
geant of 1st Company. Continued his study of medicine in 
camp, and passed examination before the Medical Examining 
Board, and appointed Assistant Surgeon to the Battalion. 
Now practicing his profession at Monroe, Ouachita parish. 

Sergeant-Major E. I. Kursheedt — Left as private of 1st Com- 
pany Appointed Corporal, and promoted to Sergeant-Major 
on the promotion of C. L. C. Dupuy ; promoted as Adjutant, 
vice Owen, promoted. Wounded at Sharpsburg and Freder- 
icksburg. Now of the firm of Kursheedt & Bienvenu, Camp 
street. New Orleans. 



vi Washington Artillery. 



COMPANY OFFICERS. 

Captain M. B. Miller,* Company A— Left the city in 1861 as 
Captain of the 3d Company, and was specially mentioned in 
General Lee's report for gallant conduct with his battery at 
Sharpsburg. Promoted Major of Artillery in 1864. Served 
during the whole war. Led off 15 of his command (by cut- 
ting the traces of his battery horses and mounting his men) 
over the mountains, at Lee's surrender, to Johnston's army. 
Now engaged in the sugar business in New Orleans. 

Capt. Eug. May, Company B — Left as private in the 5th Com- 
pany, and served with gallantry during the whole war, surren- 
dering at Meridian, Miss., with the 5th Company, Washington 
Artillery battery. Now with the firm of Messrs. Wheelock, 
Finlay & Co., New Orleans. 

Captain John B. Richardson,! Company C — Left the city as 

* " Old Buck," as he is familiarly known among his command, had the 
good fortune, though noted for being a hard, stern officer, to retain his 
popularity through the war. His voice (which he had cultivated while en- 
gaged in the sugar business on the levee, in shouting to and cursing at 
roustabouts), was about the loudest and harshest there was in the army, 
and a little more so on big battle days, when all of a soldier's natural com- 
liativeness came to the surface. In very hot places, he would give his 
commands in his old levee style of getting out freight, and would talk of 
" rolling out" the guns as if he was the mate of a steamboat, ordering for- 
ward so many hogsheads of sugar. Major Buck came back home pretty 
well grizzled about the jaws, from eating sheet- irou crackers,, and is at his 
old business of sugar weighing on the levee. He extends to his friends a 
hospitable hand fas large as a Honeysuckle ham), and is looked on by his 
comrades as one of the bravest and best men in the command. 

t Three excellent officers, whose soldierly conduct suggests an additional 
passing note, were Captain Richardson, Lieutenaut DeRussey and Lieuten- 
ant Biittain. Neither of these had any pretensions to brilliancy or were 
distinguished for more than ordinary accomplishments. They were all 
three, however, possessed of those sober, steady qualities which commanded 
the respect of their men, and which gave them the same weight in the 
Virginia campaigns as they do iu the battle of life elsewhere. Generally 
the characters of the men were ranked according to their approach to a 

high standard of morality or Christianity, aud all the more so as the war 
drnggcd along, and the volunteers, while tortured by every misery, wore 
compelled to show their ^onerousness or selfishness, and all of the bad and 
liu an qualities which lurked in their nature 



Washington Artillery. vii 



Junior 1st Lieutenant of the 1st Company Transferred as 
Captain of the 2d Company, June, 1862. Had his horse shot 
under him at the first battle of Manassas, and surrendered at 
Appomattox Court House. Now cashier of the firm of C. A. 
Whitney & Co. 

Junior 1st Lieutenant Frank McElroy,* Company A — Left the 
city as 1st Sergeant 3d Company. Promoted 1st Lieutenant in 
1S02, and commanded the two pieces of the Washington Artil- 
lery which made so gallant a defense at Fort Gregg, Peters- 
burg. Now connected with the mechanical department of the 
Bee. 

Senior Lieutenant Andrew Hero, Jr., J Company A — Left the 
city as 2d Sergeant of the 3d Company Promoted 2d Lieuten- 
ant, May, 1S62. Promoted Captain of the 3d Company, 18G4. 
Wounded at Sharpsburg and Petersburg. Now a Notary Pub- 
lic in this citv. 



* Frank McElroy was the lively and jovial man of the Battalion, and 
probably never suffered a day from mental depression during the war. He 
had an excellent voice, and there were but few towns in General Lee's line 
of march which were not made familiar, through him, of old New Orleans 
fireman choruses. (For full account of his services at Fort Gregg, see 
p. 216.) 

t Senior Lieutenant Andrew Hero, of Company A., joined the Artillery 
previous to the war. when a boy, and distinguished himself by his quick, 
ness, usefulnessjand fondness for everything relating to the Battalion — to 
such an extent that his comrades elected their youngest and smallest mem- 
ber to the rank of Corporal ; partly as a joke from his boyish appearance, 
and partly from his thorough knowledge of the details of the organization. 
He proved himself the most active and vigilant Corporal the Battalion 
ever had — a good deal on the rat-terrier order ; thoroughly lynx-eyed, and as 
sharp as a brier. When the Battalion went out he had reached the rank 
of 2d Sergeant of the 3d Company, and his smartness and working talent, 
as an accountant, soon made him almost indispensable in a position o*f a 
much higher grade. He was made Lieutenant in May, 1802, and, on the 
promotion of Captain Miller to his majority, he succeeded to the command 
of the 3d Company. 

At Sharpsburg, the 3d Company, to which he was attached, was ordered 
into a broken gap, or crevasse, in General Lee's line, where the enemy's fire 
was so withering that it seemed that no living thing could stand before it. 



viii Washhajtun Artillery. 

2d Lieutenant George E. Apps, Company A — Left the city 
as 3d Sergeant 4th Company, and afterwards promoted to 2d 
Lieutenant. Horse shot under him at Gettysburg ; surren- 
dered at Appomattox. Now of the firm of Messrs. Apps & 
Korndoffer, cotton brokers, New Orleans. 

Lieutenant William Palfrey, Compauy B — Left as private in 
the 4th Company. Promoted in 1863 Lieutenant of Confed- 
erate States Artillery. Served through the siege of Vicksburg. 
Now cashier of New Orleans National Bank. 

Lieutenant W T. Hardie, Company B — Left as private of 1st 
Company. Wounded at the first battle of Fredericksburg; 
promoted Sergeant ; captured while on escort duty with Presi- 
dent Jefferson Davis en route South. He is now of the firm of 
John T. Hardie & Co. 

Senior 1st Lieutenant C. H. C. Brown, Company C — Left as 
Sergeant of 1st Company ; promoted 2d Lieutenant May, 1861 ; 
was severely wounded, left on the field and captured at Get- 
Five batteries had preceded the 3d Company of the Washington Artillery 
in attempting to get a foothold, but the oannoniers had been killed or 
driven off. To prevent a repetition of this disaster, the last named battery 
drove to the fatal crest at a full galop — as fast as lash and spur could carry 
the lumbering and bounding guns and ammunition carriages. Without 
halting, and at imminent risk of capsizing with the cannoniers upon theni- 
the pieces were wheeled into position, and in less than two minutes after, 
had opened a lire. This stopped, at this point , the breach in the Confed- 
erate line ; but in five minutes after, the enemy's marksmen had shot 
down eight of the gunners and seventeen horses of the 3d Company. The 
men were indeed picked off so fast that distinguished officers, who had been 
brought by the crisis to this point, jumped down and assisted with hands 
and shoulders at the guns — Longstreet amoug the number. Captain Hero 
was badly wounded while working away at one of these pieces, and was 
thing across an empty caison on his way to the rear, with not much idea of 
his ever turning up alive. He, however, lived to take part in the subsequent 
battles of Lee's army,to get wounded again while standing on the breastworks 
in the final assault upon Petersburg, and to obtain (what he probably valued 
more than any other of his soldiering experiences) the hand of one of Vir- 
ginia's daughters, who had nursed him during his sickness. He now 
stands in the front rank of cautious and painstaking notaries of the city. 



Washington Artillery. ix 



t\ sburg. Now of the firm of J. M. Sandidge & Co.. cottou fac- 
tors, New Orleans. 

Junior 1st Lieutenant George B. DeEussey, Company C — 
Left as private of 1st Company. Promoted Sergeant, and after- 
wards -d Lieutenant in 1X02. Wouuded at Chancellorsville in 
isfio. Served during the war and surrendered at Appomattox. 
Now a prominent cotton weigher of New Orleans. 

2d Lieutenant D. Kilpatrick — Joined in 18t>2. Taken 
prisoner at second battle of Fredericksburg. Wounded at 
Petersburg. Now of the firm of Jackson & Kilpatrick. 

Sergeant YV A. Collins, Company A. — On the march from 
Orange Coiat Rouse to Raccoon Ford aud thence to Rich- 
mond, such a stalling of caissons and pieces took place 
as old soldiers never saw before or after. The wheels of the 
pieces actually dragged through the mud and would not re- 
volve. It took the whole of a very tempestuous night to go 
eight or nine miles, and the movement could not have been 
made at all except by double, or rather treble teaming; that is, 
instead of the usual four horses, twelve w. j re attached to a 
piece. The men got no rest at all that night. They halted be- 
hind an old barn (on a tobacco plantation) tilled with staves, 
and spent their time in splittiug up tobacco sticks, preparatory 
to kindling fires, and destroying their gun carriages and ex- 
ploding the caisous. in case the euemy should appear. Sergeant 
W A. Collins had charge of this work, for which his business 
experience and mechanical turn well adapted him. 

The truth was that many of the ablest workers in this corps 
of artillery — a service which depends for its value upon the 
pride aud intelligence of the men as much as upon that of the 
superior officers, were the individual privates and uou-commis- 
officers. Success was due to the constant interest they took in 
the care of the horses, pieces, implements and ammunition. 
Excellent instances of this assertion were Sergeants Pettis, 
Ellis, Coyle, Randolph, Fuqua and De Blanc. Men like these 
had each to be, a cook, woodcutter or dishwasher, in their indi- 



Washington Artillery. 



vidua! capacity, make the details, and (when it came to greas- 
ing the pieces, digging fortifications and packing ammunition 
chests,) had, besides, to show brilliant examples of hard work. 

Sergeant P. O. Fazende is worthy of mention as a cool sol- 
dier, present iu every engagement of his command, and as repre- 
senting the stock of the original settlers (through the Chevalier 
Fazende, one of the first four Administrators of New Orleans)who 
peopled Louisiana when she was a French province. He went out 
when 17 years of age, and was several times slightly wounded. 
At Gettysburg his piece was disabled (with nearly every man 
and horse attached to it), and had to be left between the lines 
after Pickett's repulse. This did not prevent Sergeant Fazende 
from returning with more men and horses, and from recovering 
the disabled gun. He was taken prisoner at Drury's Bluff, and 
succeeded in making a daring escape (by way of Canada). He 
reached Niagara when Messrs. Clay and Hoi comb were there, 
endeavoring to arrange the terms of a treaty, and made him- 
self sufficiently useful to be several times sent from the Can- 
ada side into the Northern States on secret service. When he 
returned to Richmond he brought important dispatches, and 
was honored by the Secretary of War with a complimentary 
pass to every part of the Confederacy. Sergeant Fazende is now 
a sucessful note broker of the city. 

H. M. Isaacson — Orderly Sergeant of Company A, ranking 
Captain in the first year of the war, and one of the most active 
organizers of the Battalion in its early history. His usefulness 
and knowledge of the work in hand at the reorganization, led to 
his prompt assignment by his old comrades to the arduous post 
in which he had first made his reputation. 

H. Dudley Coleman — Orderly Sergeant Company A. He was 
but little more than an awkward, unformed boy during the 
war, with no more opportunities for distinction than that of 
every soldier who simply did his duty. He, however, showed 
enough character to secure the esteem of his army frieuds, es- 
tablish himself in business, and obtain a leading position as a 
merchant and upright citizen. 



A LAST CHAPTER PLACED FIRST 



REORGANIZATION 

OF THE 

WASHINGTON ARTILLERY, 

SINCE THE WAR. 



In the years immediately following the termination of the war the Washington Artillery 
still retained its old autonomy as a benevolent society or association. Partly owing to 
military rule, partly to a disinclination to bear arms under State governments whose policy 
was foreign to their sympathies, the reorganization into Batteries and Companies was not 
attempted until ten years after the close of the struggle. 

In the month of July, 1875, the general aspiration for a better feeling at the various celebra- 
tions of the anniversary of American Independence, and the honorable part assigned Confed- 
erate soldiers at the centennial celebration of the battle of Bunker Hill in Boston awoke a 
responsive throb. 

On the -2M of July a meeting of the surviving members of the companies of Washington 
Artillery who served in the Virginia and Western Armies, was called, and a formal organ- 
ization at this and subsequent meetings acted upon. The object set forth in the meetings 
was to take part as a Battalion in the National Centennial of the following year. The Bat- 
talion was divided into three batteries, and these, after according the commanding officer who 
might be elected, the privilege of appointing his Staff, elected their Field and Company 
Officers. The names given below represent the present organization of the Battalion : 



FIELD OFFICERS (elected). 

J. B. WALTON Colonel. 

W J. BEHAN Major. 

STAFF (APPOINTED). 

1st Lieut. W. M. Owen Adjt. and Chief of Staff. 

1st Lieut. John N. Payne ' ; Quarter-Master. 

1st Lieut . John Holmes Commissary. 

1st Lieut. W. B. Krumbhaar Ordnance Officer. 

Thos. Y. Aby Surgeon . 

NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF (APPOINTED). 

E. I. Kursheedt Serjeant-Major, 

W. H. Ellis Q.-M. Serg't. 

M. W Cloney ' Commissary Serg't. 

0. F. Peck Ordnance Serg't. 

Frank P. Villasana Chief Bugler. 

J. W Dempsey Artificer and Armorer. 

Colou Corporals.— H. F. Wilson, W. C. Giffen, Gus. J. Freret. 

Color Guard.— A. H. Peale, J. W Parsons, C. C. Lewis, Geo. W Dupre. 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 

Finance.— Major W. J. Behan, Chairman .• J. M. Seixas, P. 0. Fazende, C. L. 0. Dupuy. 
W. G. Coyle. 

Uniform and Equipment — W. M. Owen Chairman; J. D. Edwards, W. B. Krumbhaar, 
Jno. B. Richardson, B. T. Walshe. 

Arrangements. — H. Dudley Coleman, Chairman ; F. N. Thayer, C. H. C. Brown, O. S. 
Babcock, Frank McElroy- 

Organization. — A. Hero, Jr., Chairman .• T. L. Bayne, D. M. Kilpatrick, Wm. Palfrey, 
Jno. W Emmet. 

Investigation.— Jos. H. DeGrange Chairman; Geo. W Dupre, John R. Porter, Wm. A. 
Randolph, F. F. Case. 



Company A.. 

OFFICERS. 



Captain 

Sr. 1st Lieut 

Jr. 1st Lieut 

2d Lieut 

Orderly Sergeant. 

2d Sergeant 

3d Sergeant 



M. Buck Miller. 

. . . .Andrew Hero, Jr. 

Frank McElroy. 

Geo. E. Apps. 

.H. Dudley Coleman. 

W A. Collins. 

P. W, Pettis. 



4th Sergeant. 
5th Sergeant. 
1st Corporal. . 
2d Corporal.. 
3d Corporal.. 
4th Corpora!. 



O. S. Babcock. 

...John R. Porter. 

E, L. Mahen. 

E. 0. Cook. 

. W. W Charlton. 
G. Leeie. 



PRIVATES. 



Adam, L. A. 
Andres, F. M. 
Aime, Gus. 
Andress, S. S. 
Bartlett, Napier 
Brewer, Wm. P. 
Benton, J. P. 
Brode, F. A. 
Ballauf, R. 
Charlton, Geo. W 
Clark, E. A. 
Carey, Thos. 



Cantzan, W H. 
Cowand, A. S 
Cloney M. W 
Carter, T. 
Dempsey, J. W. 
Ellis, W H. 
Forshee, J. M. 
Guillotte Hy. 
Gerard, L. M. 
Holmes, W H 
Harrison, S. 
Jagot, Jas. 



Langdon, Tom 
Labarre, L. V. 
Leverich, C. E. 
Luna, A. 
Leefe, Gus. 
Michel, Jr., P. 
Miller, Louis 
Madden, J. J. 
McDonough. B. A. 
O'Neal, W. T. 
Peck, O. 
Rousseau, J. A, A. 



Stocker, C. H. 
Smith, J. H. 
Seichsnaydre, L. 
Seicshnaydre, A. 
Selph, V. R. McRae, 
Shaw, F. 
Shecker, J. 
Treme, J. 
Tew, W. A. 
Ulrick. F. 
Whittington, J. B. 



Company JE$. 

OFFICERS. 



Captain 

Sr. 1st Lieut 

Jr. 1st Lieut 

2d Lieut 

Orderly Sergeant. 

1st Sergeant 

2d Sergeant 



.Eugene May. 

Wm. Palfrey. 

.... W. T. Haidie. 
M. J. Bebee. 

F. L. Richardson. 

R. McMillen. 

.... C. C. Cottirg. 



3d Sergeant. . 
4th Sergeant. 
1st Corporal. . 
2d Corporal.. 
3d Corporal. . 
4th Corporal. . 



Gus. Mieou. 

.Ant. Sambola. 

Jno Meux. 

Robt. Strong. 

...C. W. Witham. 
• W. D. Henderson. 



PRIVATES. 



Abbott, Jno. 
Bryan, J. A. 
Bayne, T. L. 
Belsom, Drausin 
Belsom, Felix 
Brewerton, E. W 
Bridge, B. 
Blafler, J. A. 
Bartley, Jno. 
Bloomfield. Jas. 
Bruce, Robt. 
Byrne, Chas. M. 



Carpenter, J. D. 
Crawford, Geo. 
Cowan. Chas. 
Cowan, E. A. 
Davidson, Jno. 
DeGrange. J. H. 
Dugan, Jos. H. 
Eschelman, B F. 
Freret, Gus. J. 
Fox, C. V.'. 
Giffen, W C. 



Hews, E. L. 
Holmes, Jno. 
Jones, G. R. P. 
Kent, John R. 
Kenner, Minor 
Laffington, A. M. 
Lamare J. M. 
Legare, J. C. 
Levy, L L. 
Marsh, J. B. 
Miller, Jno. 



Company C 

OFFICERS. 



Captain 

Sr. 1st Lieut 

Jr, 1st Lieut 

2d Lieut 

Orderly Sergeant. 

2d Sergeant 

3d Sergeant 



..John B. Richardson. 

C. H. C. Brown. 

. . .Geo. B. De Russy. 

D. M. Kilpatrick. 

H. M. Isaacson. 

.John R. McGanghey. 
Chas. Palfrey. 



4th Sergeant. 
5th Sergeant. 
1st Corporal. . 
2d Corporal.. 
3d Corporal . 
4th Corporal. . 



Miller, Henry 
Oliver, Wm. 
Peale, A. H. 
Seixas, J M. 
Steven, Wm. 
Thayer, F. N. 
Tynan, Wm. 
Turpin, E. S. 
Villasana, F. de P. 
Walker, G, 
Webre, Jules 



T. 0. Fuqua. 

F. A. Behan. 

John Bozant. 

Ed. Collins. 

....H H. Marks. 
.. -Ed. Peycbaud. 



PRIVATES. 



Augustus, E. D. 
Brinsmade, A. A. 
Baker, H. H 
Bradley, J. S. 
Bartlett. F. A. 
Coyle, W. G. 
Cronan, I). 
Carter, Thoa. 
Case, F. F. 
Dupuv. C. L. 0. 
Dupre, Geo. W 
Drew, E. S. 



Emmett, Jno. W 
Edwards, J. 1>. 
Egan, Pat 
Fagan, J. 
Florance, H. 
Fazende, P. O. 
Falconer, W R. 
Gessner, Geo. 
•Tuillotte, L. E. 
Hufffc, Bern'd 
Harris, Chas. 
Jones, A. C. 



Kelly, D. II. 
Lobrano, F. 
Lobdell, A . G . 
Lund, J. R. 
Lewis, C. 0. 
Lehman, C. L. 
Leahy, P. 
MeCormick, J. 
McCarthy, 
Metzler, J. 
Payne, E. ('. 
Pievson, J. G. 



Pinekai d, W. F. 
Randolph, W A. 
Rodd, Jno. R. 
Roebuck, J J. 
Roaeli, Louis 
Von Colin, P. 
Walshe, B X. 
White, D. Prieur 
Wilson, H. F. 
Zfbal, H. L. 
Zebal, L. E. 



A SOLDIER'S STORY OF THE WAR. 



INTRODUCTORY 



Like many better soldiers, when I came back from the 
war, I determined at once to adapt myself to the changed 
condition of things in the South and not to waste anv 
time or weary the patience of friends with fighting over 
old battles. I kept my resolution for more than thirteen 
years after my first battle. Still one cannot always be 
discreet — some experiences, like the secrets told of the 
ears of Midas by the whispering reed, will have ex- 
pression. 

What I have now to say is what is being said by the 
fifty thousand soldiers from this State who wore Confed- 
erate uniforms during the war — by the fifty thousand 
refugees who went from this city after its capture — in 
fact, is the same story that will be talked over by forty 
millions of people North and South, or so long as the present 
generation shall remain alive. Secessia, amid her deso- 
lation, looks to the old battlefields, as the Sphynx does 
towards the ruined cities of Egypt ; and whether Ave will 
or not, in our dreams or daily ideas we are constantly 
hearing the command to ''March;" to pack up our slender 
baggage and go vagabondizing from one miserable town 
to another searching food, shelter and rest for your tender 
ones, if you are a woman ; or, if a man, to take your place 
in line of battle, and receive the bullet that has already 
been moulded for your breast. The old ideas cannot be 



6 A Soldier's Story of the War, 



rubbed out — will come back ; some unseen influence will 
march you over the well-tramped, fenceless, grassless and 
herbless fields — through the forests whose trees have been 
cut down or completely killed by the volleys of musketry 

Do not these fancies come to all of us ? Do not some of 
our old men who dry up and drop off, and tearful-eyed 
women who still pray for shelter and protection from 
beggary — do not the surviving soldiers who find it hard 
to cope in skill or robust health with younger rivals brood 
over these memories ? 

My excuse for writing this narrative is that I never at 
first intended it ; I thought only to pass a wearisome hour 
in a letter to an old friend. Once commenced, I could not 
end ; at the same time many old comrades, the subject 
once suggested, begged me if I proposed writing about the 
war at all, to take for my theme the soldiers who went 
from Louisiana. 

I have tried to do this, though at the same time 
attempting only a rough military narrative. I want 
only to try and show how large bodies of our young men 
went through the transformation of the citizen into the 
soldier. How we learned and became reconciled to the 
rough life of camp ; consented to new ways of think- 
ing and living, and suffered, as it were, a general breaking 
up and wreck of our previous identity and existence. 

A story of such great changes in worldly circumstances, 
of any class, ought to have its charm, if properly brought 
out; the charm that we find in Crusoe, in the Blythedale 
visionaries who renounced the luxuries of civilization 
and became farmers, in the nun who buries herself in the 
cloister, or in a St. Francis who renounces his riches and 
weds himself to poverty You will perhaps not care for 
the dull details of a soldier's life in itself; but when it is 



A Soldier's Story of the War, 



added that it embodies the experience of many men of 
well known names who have since made themselves dis- 
tinguished in industrial enterprises, in positions of trust 
and responsibility, and as worthy and virtuous citizens 
every way, their marches will not be without interest. 
Some of us too, have seen the world outstrip us in the strug- 
gle for existence ; our rough life in the army has made us 
duller than rival applicants or contracted for us bad 
habits, and we will have to limp along and get on the 
best we can ; but this crude narrative will not have been 
written in vain, if it succeeds in awakening any sympa- 
thy with the young men who are coming on, and whom 
we will leave behind us, or if it awakens with those who 
give employment any increased tolerance or respect for 
soldiers whose convictions meant, for one out of every 
three — Death ! 

This narrative will be rather of the cheerful or careless 
sort — one not intended to awaken foolish feeling about 
our struggle, or which had better be forgotten. It will pick 
away, Old Mortality-like, a little of the mildew and moss 
from the graves of martyrs of conviction ; but it will be 
tempered with the reflection that the surviving comrades, 
who marched barefooted and without food, have since had 
better days ; and that their adventures in hard straights 
will be read with something of the same interest as that of 
those princes of romance, whose lives are no longer cared 
for the moment they become happy and comfortable. But 
enough : when we came back from the wars our friends 
treated us with so much sympathy, that we preferred enter- 
ing by quiet streets to witnessing their generosity or tears ; 
and the monument recently erected in Greenwood, tells us 
that our heroes have not been forgotten. I believe that the 
services of our troops deserve to be recorded not only in 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



monumental marble, but in the page of history ; in such 
works as those of '•' the grand old masters," as well as of 
the humblest scribes. Not as belonging to any regiment 
or batallion, but as illustrating what our beloved State 
did when we were all placed in the balance — as showing 
what the Louisiana Soldier did in times that tried men's 
souls. My belief is that it is a great misfortune for a 
State not to recall the names of her great dead — not to 
hold them up as models for the old and young, and to 
keep them from falling into obscurity We are made good 
and useful more by example than by the pulpit or school- 
house ; and if Louisiana had preserved the legacy of 
great names which she has produced, she would have 
escaped much of the misery into which she is now 
plunged; her men of ability would prefer glory to the 
thrift which follows fawning ; and she would probably, as 
is the case with Georgia or Virginia, be again on the road 
to prosperity. 

The man who gives his life doing what he believes to 
be his duty, makes a bequest which has an actual value 
to a State not exceeded by that of lands and money. 
The day of her ruin is when we regard the time serving 
and corrupt with equal favor with the good man and 
hero. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE BOLL CALL 



I went out to the war with a large number of young 
men in the Batallion of Washington Artillery, and as 
the reader is henceforth to be familiar with the name, a 
word will here be said as to its early history. 

In 1830, Gen. Persifer F Smith gave the first decided 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



impetus to the volunteer companies of the city, and con- 
tributed greatly to their organization. He was really the 
founder of nearly all above Canal street. It was by his 
efforts that the Washington Regiment was organized, and 
it remained under his command until the breaking out of 
the Mexican war, at which time he was appointed Gene- 
ral of the brigade composed of it and three other regiments. 
Eleven days after the call for volunteers, the Washington 
Regiment was descending the river in transports on its 
wav to Mexico. 

Previous to its departure the regiment partook of the 
nature of a legion in its organization : that is was com- 
posed of horse, foot and artillery 

General Smith distinguished himself at Monterey — rose 
to be Brevet Major General, and by his talents caused 
himself to be retained in the U S. Army in spite of the 
absence of a military education. He died in command 
of the Department of the Pacific shortly before the war. 

The company of the Washington Regiment which more 
than any other bequeathed its organization to the Wash- 
ington Artillery Batallion, first appeared as an organized 
company in 1840; but this organization dwindled down 
to seventeen men in 1852. In those days the company, 
then known as the " Native American Artillery," after- 
wards as the Marion, was drilled by Capt. R. 0. Smith, 
and subsecpiently by Brig. Gen. E. L. Tracey. James 
Beggs, Capt. H. M. Isaacson, Gunnegle,* Bannister and 

* Lieut. X. G. Gunnegle is the oldest member of the organization known to 
he alive. He joined in 1840, when the Artillery went by the name of the 1st 
Company Native American Artillery. The well known Armory on Girod street 
was then a blacksmith shop, but was gradually adapted to military purposes. 
In 1845 $30 a month was appropriated by the State to maintaining an armorer. 
Capt. Forno, who was a few years since killed by a railroad accident on the 
Jackson Railroad, had, up to the date of the Mexican War been its captain ; 
but at that time he resigned or perhaps was promoted to be Lieut. Colonel. 
Forno was succeeded by Capt. Isaac Stockton, much to the surprise of Gunne- 
gle's friends, who had wasted their time and money in advancing hi3 claims. 



10 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



some others are names that are still associated with the 
old organization. 

Then Soria became its Captain and the honor cost him 
his life. That is, the Artillery on the occasion of some 
rejoicing had carried out to the Levee at the foot 
of Canal street, four guns which were fired to the four 
points of the compass in honor of the event. It was 
while ramming a cartridge home that the piece he was 
loading prematurely exploded. His arms were torn from 
his body, and he sustained such other injury as to occa- 
sion his death shortlv after. Until the Batallion went to 
Virginia, the coat and equipments of Captain Soria hung 
as a memento of his services in its Arsenal or drill-room. 

The company still numbered not over fifteen members, 
with H. J Hunting, 1st Lieutenant, and Dan. Harrison, 
2d. The Captaincy was now offered to Leeds, who 
declined, and afterwards to Col. J. B. Walton, then 
Secretary to Mayor Waterman, and who had served in the 
war with Mexico, as the Colonel of the Washington 
regiment. This was two or three years prior to the war. 

A growing interest in military matters now became 
prevalent as sectional passions increased in intensity, and 
the feeling was increased and encouraged by leading men* 

The latter went as 3d Sergt. and ultimately was courtraartialed for refusing to 
fill a position to which he had never been elected, but was ultimately acquitted. 
Stockton, whose company in the Mexican War was the first of the Washington 
Regiment, enlisted 64 men, and died after his return. At the time he went out 
the old privates in the company furnished officers for four or five regiments. 
Add was then Adjutant and Breedlove Major of the Washington Regiment, Jas. 
Strawbridge, 1st Lieut, and Greene 2nd. The regiment advanced as far as 
Barita in Mexico, and has still some twenty-five members alive, several of whom 
went out with the Batallion to Virginia. 

Gunnegle served as Treasurer, Secretary, keeper of the Arsenal, and 2nd 
Lieut, till 1857. He applied for leave to serve in Virginia, but was refused on 
account of age. 

*" With the commencement of the year '61 a stranger visiting our city would 
have deemed its streets the parade ground of one vast encampment. At every 
step a soldier is met, and martial music fills the air. The tramp of armed men 
is heard by day and night, and the reverberation of the drill room assails the 
ear upon every side."— True Delta. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 11 



who foresaw the approach of war. Parti}' from this 
cause, partly because the men began to work with a will, 
and through the talents of Col. Walton as an officer, the 
Artillery steadily increased in number and reputation. 

A fine armory had been given it by the city, situated 
on Girod between St. Charles and Carondelet, and from 
this the Batallion armed as infantry, marched to assist in 
the capture of Baton Rouge from the U. S. authorities, 
previous to the commencement of hostilities. * 

In the month of Mayt the Batallion was accepted " for 
the war" by President Davis, an arrangement which 
caused us to be classed as Confederate instead of State 
troops contributed by Louisiana. This arrangement, had 
afterwards the effect of giving us some advantages over 
other troops, or disadvantages (for both were contended 

*0n Jan. 10th, 1801, the first active steps towards separation were taken, 
and the steamer National started for Baton Rouge after midnight for the capture 
of that place with a strong force of citizen soldiers. They were " young men 
mostly of hot blood, and determined to do the State some service.'' An expe- 
dition down the river got off at 10 o'clock the day after. At Baton Rouge, Jan. 
11, P M., Major Haskins commanding at the arsenal capitulated 50,000 stand of 
arms and other munitions. The companies from New Orleans now held the 
barracks. Some of the Baton Rouge companies deemed themselves slighted by 
not being sent to take charge of the place, and intimated that they would dis- 
band. Great excitement in consequence. 

Three companies afterwards disbanded, retiring in high dudgeon. The vol- 
unteer troops of Baton Rouge finally took charge of the Barracks. Capt. Yoories 
during the expedition commanded the Washington Artillery, Captain Charles D. 
Dreux, the New Orleans Cadets, and the Orleans Guards were under Captain 
S. M. Todd and Lieut. Girardey. The whole expedition was under the com- 
mand of Col. Walton. 

fAs earl}- as the month of December, 1860, a requisition was sent to Governor 
Moore for guns, stores, battery, horses, forges, etc., in order to put the Batallion 
in a condition for service in the field. On the 27th of March the petition was 
renewed, and subsequently made to the Secretary of War at Montgomery. The 
following extract quoted from the application of the commanding officer will 
show what was then its condition : 

" The Batallion Washington Artillery, under my command, numbering upon 
the rolls over three hundred men, two hundred and fifty for service, and divided 
into four companies, with a battery complete in all respects, of six bronze six 
pounder guns, two twelve pounder howitzers, and one eight pounder rifled can- 
non, is ready and desirous to take the field. The Batallion can take the field 
within a very few days after being notified, and provided with horses, camp and 
garrison equipage, etc., which of course I will be obliged to make requisition 
for upon the Confederate States." 



12 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



for) among which was the appointment instead of the 
election by the men of their officers. 

We were mustered into service on the 26th,* and then 
marched in a body to Christ's Church, and preached 
to by Rev Mr. Leacock, who recommended us to remem- 
ber that we had been educated to be gentlemen, and to 
bring back our characters with our arms. This advice of 
the worthy Doctor caused us afterwards some mental dis- 
cussion in settling in our own minds whether a soldier 
could or ought to be any thing of the sort, and whether it 
was not better to leave his society manners, pride, preju- 
dices about birth, education and modes of living, and nearly 
every thing that makes up the word, behind. However it 
may have been, and this is what we suppose the Doctor 
intended to advise. They, most of them, retained their 
cheerfulness and a disposition to do their duty in camp or 
society, and probably gained more in manly feeling than 
they could have ever acquired any where else. 

To complete its outfit the citizens of New Orleans con- 
tributed $7,000 — the Ladies' Association alone giving 



* The Washington Artillery were out in full dress uniform yesterday with 
fine band. Alter delighting the spectators who lined the streets, with a display 
of their accurate maneuvering, they were drawn up at Mr. T. C. Twichell's, St. 
Charles street, and presented with a beautiful Camp flag of the Confederate 
.States. " You take with you," said the speaker for the ladies who pre- 
sented it, " their blessings and the Godspeed of every loyal heart in the entire 
community." This morning at 8 o'clock, the Battalion — every man — will be 
mustered into service by Lieut. Phifer. On Monday at 6 o'clock they will take 
their departure for Virginia. The reserve corps of the Batallion will be left 
here until further notice. Lieut. W Irving Hodgson has been detailed on 
special duty as an agent and resident quartermaster of the Batallion : also in 
command of those detailed from the corps for home duty. The honorary mem- 
bers will escort the Ba*allion to the Railroad depot on Monday evening. In the 
course of a little while from now the reserve will probably be on the way to 
some other point of action than Virginia. — N. O. Crescent, May 26, 1861. 

This prediction came true. Under the call of Gen. Beauregard for ninety 
dayp men for the army of the West, Capt. Slocomb, or rather Capt. W I. 
Hodgson, at that time taking out the 5th Company of Washington Artillery, 
250 strong, and with them gaining full as many laurels as were obtained by the 
first four companies in Virginia. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



13 



$500, and the large houses and corporations aiding with 
equal liberality. 

The folloAving were the names of the officers and of 
those who on Sunday morning May 26th, 1861, answered 
to Lieut. Phifer's roll-call — a very solemn moment — and 
who thus became mustered into the Confederate service:* 

S T .V F F . 

Major J. B. Walton, Adjutant Lieut. W. M. Owen, 

Surgeon Dr. B. S. Drew, Quarter Master Lieut. C.H. Slocomb. 

XON-COMMI88IOED ST^FT. 

Sergt. Major C. L. C. Dupuy, Quarter Master Sergt. Stringer Kennedy, 

Color Sergeant Louis M. Montuomery. 

COLOR GUA.RT>. 

Corporal George W Wood, Corporal E. L. Jewell, 

" A. H. Peale, " J. H. Dearie. 



F. P. Villavasana, 



BUGLEI18. 



Jo. Kingslow. 



ROLL OF FIRST COMPANY 



Captain H. M. IsaacsoD, Jr. First Lieutenant,... J. B. Richardson, 

First Lieutenant C. AV. Squires, Second Lieutenant H. G. Geiger. 

First Sergeant Edward Owen, First Corporal F. D. Rnggles, 

Second Sergeant J. M. Galbraith, Second Corporal E. C. Payne, 

Third Sergeant C.H. C.Brown, Third Corporal W Fellows, 

Fourth Corporal F. F. Case. 



Thomas S. Turner, 
G. M. Judd, 
E. J. Kursheedt, 
J. W. Kearney, 
C. Rossiter, 
W. Chambers, 
W. F. Perry, 
J. E. Rodd, 
M. E. Jarreau, 
J. A. Tarlton, 
T. Y. Aby, 



C. Chambers, 

G. W Muse, 

L. Labarre, 

M. Mount, 

P. A. J. Michel, 

J. M. Payne, 

R. McK. Spearing, 

A. F. Coste, 

J. R. McGaughy, 

E. A. Cowen, 

F. A. St. Amand, 



W. T. Hardie, 
H. Chambers, 

E. V. Wiltz, 
J. P Manico, 
L. E. Zebal, 
H. L. Zebal, 
W. R. Falconer, 
G. B. DeRussy, 

F. Lobrano, 
C. A. Everett. 



* The Batallion, when in Virginia, was several times recruited to fill the 
places of the killed, wounded and disabled, who averaged about one hundred 
to each company. 
>?, 



14 



A Soldier s Story of the War. 



S. G. Stewart, 



Geo. Bernard, Sergt, 
Michael Hock, 
Charles Rush, 
Jno. K. Scheman, 
Jno. O'Neil, 
W K. Dirke, 



ARTIFICERS. 

W. D. Holmes, 

x>ri"v:er,h. 

Pat. Mooney, 
H. Meyer, 
Jno. Jacobs, 
Thos. Kerwin, 
David Nolan, 
Win. Forrest, 



Israel Scott, 



Fred. Lester, 
R. Nicholas, 
Jno. Charlesworth, 
Jno. Anderson, 
Mathew Burns, 
Jas. Heflogh. 



ROLL OF SECOND COMPANY. 



First Lieutenan C. C. Lewis Com'dg, 

First Lieutenant Sam'l J. McPherson, 

Second Lieutenant C. H. Slocomb, 

First Sergeant J. H. DeGrange, 

Second Sergeant Gustave Aime, 



Third Sergeant H. C. Wood, 

Fourth Sergeant C. Huchez, 

First Corporal J. D. Edwards, 

Second Corporal C. B. Leverich, 

Third Corporal Jules Freret, 



Fourth Corporal -B. V- L. Hutton. 



H. N. Payne, 
J. S. Meyers, 
Tracey Twichell, 
T. J. Land, 
J. W. Bmmett, 
J. A. Hall, 
G. Humphrey, 
W. C. Giffen, 
J. 0. Woodville, 
A, A. Brinsmade, 
E. L. Hall, 



John Montgomery, 



John Weber, 
Toney Hulby, 
John Fagan, 
George Barr, 
Wm. Carey, 
B. B. F. McKesson, 



R. Axson, 
Wm. Roth, 
E. D. Patton, 
A. G. Knight, 
J. D. Britton, 
W A.Randolph, 
W F. Florence, 
J. W. Parsons, 
J. Howard Goodin, 
Thomas H. Suter, 



ARTIFICERS. 



13RIV3E2RS, 



William Little, 
James Crilly, 
John Cannon, 
Jas. Leyden, 
Ed. Loftns, 
Ewin Lake, 



F. Alewelt, 

F. P. Buckner, 

G. E. Strawbridge, 
A. R. Blakely, 

R. Bannister, Jr. 
R. C. Lewis, 
H. B. Berthelot, 
W. J. Hare, 
J. H. Randolph, 
W H. Wilkins. 
Sam'l Hawes. 



Leonard Craig. 



James Brown, 
W. F. Lynch, 
Louis Roach, 
William Oliver, 
Corn'l McGregor, 
Alex. Bucher. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



15 



ROLL OF THIRD COMPANY 



Captain M. B. Miller, 

First Lieutenant J. B. Wbittington, 

Second Lieutenant L. A. Adam, 

First Sergeant Frank McElroy, 

Second Sergeant A.. Hero, Jr. 



Third Sergeant L. Prados, 

Fourth. Sergeant J. T. Handy, 

First Corporal B. L. Jewell, 

Second Corporal A. H. Peale, 

Third Corporal W. H. Ellis, 



Fourth Corporal W A Collins. 



Napier Bartlett, 
II. D. Summers, 
J. H. Moore, 
W Mills, 
Robert Bruce, 
J. H. Holmes, Jr. 
T. H. Fuqua, 
O. X. DeBlanc, 
K. W Morgan, 
P. W Pettis, 

E. Riviere, 

F. Kremelberg, 
Chas. Hart, 
Sam'l C. Boush, 
Geo. McNeil, 

J. H. Colles, 
Frank Shaw, Jr. 
E. Toledano, 
W. S. Toledano, 



Jos. Blanchard, 



P 0. Fazende, 
Fred. L. Hubbard, 
Jos. H. DeMeza, 
L. E. Guvot, 
J. F. Randolph, 
S. Chalaron, 
J. T. Brenford, 
C. W Deacon. 
Stringer Kennedy, 
Howard Tully, 
Wm, Leefe, 
I. W Brewer, 
C. H. Stocker, 
J. R. Porter, 
S. G. Sanders, 
B. L. Braselman, 
R. P Many, 
Y. A. Carl. 



ARTIPICERi' 



('. E. Fortier, 
U. Maxwell, 
K. Avril, 
E. Charpiaux, 
T. M. Mc.Fall, 
M. W Cloney, 
Ed. Duncan, 
<\ A. Falconer, 
H. J. Phelps, 
T. Ballantine, 
E. W Noyes, 
M. W. Chapman, 
W. P Noble, 
W. G. Coyle, 
L. P. Forshee, 
George H. Meek, 
J. C. Bloomfield. 
A. B. Martin, 
R. Turnell. 



Jas. Keating, 



ROLL OF FOURTH COMPANY 



Captain B. F.Eshleraan, 

First Lieutenant Jos. Norconi, 

Second Lieutenant Harry A. Battles, 

Second Sergeant W J. Behan 



Third Sergeant G. E. Apps, 

Fourth Sergeant J. D. Reynolds, 

First Corporal Geo. Wood, 

Second Corporal J. W Dearie 



A. D. Augustus, 

B. F. Widler, 

J. R. McGowan, 
J. M. Rohbock, 
H. F. Wilson, 

C. C. Bier, 



G. L. Crutcher, 
J. F. Lilly, 
T. J. Stewart, 
Sanvl A. Knox, 
Wm. Palfrey, 
L. C. Lewis, 



H. N. White, 

Jno. B. Chastant, 

W Snead, 

H. D. Seaman, 

F. H. Bee, 

C. W xMarston, 



16 



A Soldier's Story of the War, 



J. C. Wood, 
Jno. S. Fish, 

F. A. Brodie, 
E. Lauer, 

G. Beck, 

E. F. F. Moore, 
H. H. Baker, 
J. W. Burke, 
Jno. Meux, 
J. B. Valentine, 
Phil. Von Coin, 
T. B. White, 
Bernard Hufft, 



Levy Callahan, 



J. V. Gessner, Leader, 
T. Gutzler, 
Ch. W. Struve, 
J. Arnold, 



J. H. Smith, 
G. Montgomery, 
Isaac Jessup, 
A. F. Vass. 
W W. Jones, 
P. C Lane, 
T. Carey, 
W. P. S. Crecy, 
W. C. Morrell, 
W T. O'Neill, 
A. Banksmith, 
Frank Williams, 



ARTIFICERS. 



BAND. 

Jno. Deutsch, 
Jno. Geches, 
Peter Trum, 
Jno. Lorbs, 



C. A. Deval, 

E. A. Mellard, 

J. W- Wilcox, 

V D. Terrebonne. 

E. F. Reichart, 

Thos. H. Cummings, 

P.. H. Gray, 

S. T. Hale, 

J. W. Lesene, 

Chas. Hardenburg, 

J. C. Purdy, 

E. Jaubert. 



Jno. McDonnell. 



Thos. Kostmel, 
J. H. Sporer, 
Charles Meir, 



C H AFTER II 

DEPARTURE FOR VIRGINIA. 

Theee will never be a time of such intense public feeling 
in the history of New Orleans, or perhaps in that of the 
country generally, as that which attended the departure 
of the first troops at the commencement of the late civil 
war. Writing at this day, one is almost inclined to doubt 
the impressions which still remain in his memory, not to 
speak of those half effaced, which are occasionally brought 
to mind by the conversation of old comrades or friends, 
or by glancing over old letters or files of papers. Can it 
be possible, you say to yourself, that business men, though 
always in our city known for generosity, would give away 
clothing, arms or horses, without scarcely thinking of the 
matter : or that salaries Avere continued, by liberal 
houses, even after the employees had enlisted for the Avar ; 




Rev Dr. PALMER, Page iy. 



A Soldiei-'s Sto7-y of the War. 17 



that the stores were closed on the day of our departure, 
the streets were crowded to suffocation, the balconies lined 
with smiling and crying women, and that those were 
esteemed most happy who had departing friends upon 
whom to lavish their gifts, or bestow their flowers ?* That 
certainly is the only time we can remember when citizens 
walked along the lines offering their pocket books to men 
whom they did not know ; that fair women bestowed their 
floral offerings and kisses ungrudgingly and with equal 
favor among all classes of friends and suitors ; when the 
distinctions of society, wealth and station were forgotten, 
and each departing soldier was equally honored as a hero. 
On the day of our departure we certainly had a little 
touch of the millenium of good feeling, and it was nearer 
like Utopia than one generation can ever live to see a 
second time.*!' 



* The Washington Artillery embraces as large a representation of our old and 
permanent population, the suns of our old citizens, as any military organization 
in the city. Every member of it is a gentleman ; many occupy high positions 
in social and commercial circles, and the parting scenes were most affecting — 
Delta, May 28. 

f Rev. Dr. Palmer delivered from the steps of the City Hall an address from 
which we quote the final passage : 

"The alternative now before us is subjugation and absolute anarchy — a 
despotism which will put its iron heel upon all that the human heart holds 
most dear. The mighty issue is to be submitted to the ordeal of battle, with 
the nations of the earth as spectators, and with the God of Heaven as umpire. 

" With such an issue we have no doubt of the part that will be assigned 
you to play, and when we hear the thunders of your cannon echoing from the 
mountain passes of Virginia will understand that you mean in the language of 
Cromwell ' to cut this war to the heart.' It is little to say that you will be 
remembered. And should the frequent fate of the soldier befal you in a soldier's 
death, you shall find your graves in thousands of hearts, and the pen of history 
shall write your martyrdom. Soldiers farewell! And may the Lord of Hosts 
be round about you as a wall of fire, and shield your heads in the day of 
battle." We make room for an equally touching farewell from the sermon of 
Rev. Dr. Leacock of the Sunday previous : 

" Remember that the first convert to Christ from the Gentiles was a soldier. 
Inscribe the cross upon your banners, for you are fighting for liberty. In but 
a few hours more you will dare the toils of the battle field, and may God 
protect you in your absence. Our hearts will follow you — our ears will be open 
for tidings of your condition, and our prayers ascend for your safety, success 
and return. Let us, as the last thing that we can do, commend you to the care 
of Him who alone can assist." 



18 A Sohlirrs Story of the War. 



But though the route to the depot was scattered with 
flowers, the thought also began to enter our minds that 
we had assumed the hard and unprosaic duties of soldiers, 
and that individual freedom and happiness were now to 
be left behind. The day too, in spite of our glory and the 
enthusiasm of our friends, was suffocatingly hot — so much 
so as to cause the death of two of our men,* as it were, 
in the ranks, from sunstroke ; and although every other 
military organization turned out in honor of those whom 
they envied the priority of departure, and allowed us to 
go to the cars through their divided ranks, it would have 
added greatly to our bodily comfort to have had more air, 
even at the sacrifice of some of the music of the brass 
bands, proffers of gifts, sympathy and excitement. We 
suffered the torture of unaccustomed heavy clothing, 
knapsacks, and the dusty march of three hours duration, 
but meanwhile were being equally suffocated with roses ; 
but what young man or soldier who has just enlisted ever 
cares for fatigue, when compared with such glory; or 
would exchange the happiness of seeing his whole past 
life brought out, as it were in tableau, at the moment of 
leaving it probably for ever, for ten times as much fatigue? 

Our Batallion, at starting, consisted of three hundred 
men, who, most of them, had parents or other friends to bid 
them good-bye. Had they known that an interval of four 
years would separate them — that thirty battle fields were 
to be strewn with their bones, and that every other man 
of their number would be crippled or killed, the scene 
would not have been more affecting than it really was.f 

* One of them F. A. Carl, singularly enough was an old soldier who besides 
speaking five languages, had served three years in the Russian Royal Artillery 
and fought in the Hungarian struggle. 

flsrael Gibbons, himself an excellent soldier, and at that time writing on the 
Crescent, thus describes the scene: 

"The departure yesterday was a perfect ovation. No previous military 



A Soldiers Story of the War. 19 



A great many fathers, in shaking hands with the men, 
would ask us to look after and keep an eye on their sons. 
It generally turned out that the parties recommended 
would be the first to be killed, or that difference of tem- 
perament prevented an opportunity of acquaintance, much 
less doing the solicited service. 

departure bas been honored with so tumultuous a demonstration. The Batal- 
lion moved in four columns, with the drivers as a fifth or auxiliary, and 
with a large turn out of honorary members. Their escort were the Orleans 
Light Horse, Capt. Leeds, the Orleans Guard, 5<Ji; strong, Capt. Theard, and the 
Louisiana Cadets. All along this route the scene was one of the most unexam- 
pled enthusiasm. The men made noise with cheers and huzzas, and the ladies 
silently expressed their feelings with their flowers and handkerchiefs. The 
scene at the Depot was indescribable. All the carriages of the town were 
here filled with loads of beauty, and the balconies, windows and house-tops 
were filled with people. 

i; We never before saw ladies of fashion, respectability and wealth do as much 
as they did last evening for a final view, leaving their carriages, dodging under 
mules heads, and wading ancle-deep in dust. The crowd extended a half a mile 
beyond the Depot — to the edge of the swamp. They gave all sorts of evidence 
of the very .highest heart-feeling, and everybody had wet eyes. As the twilight 
faded into dark, the train rumbled off, groups of people were seen sitting about 
on the piles of lumber, waiting for the ladies to have their cry out, before start- 
ing for home. 

The Honorary Members who turned out upon this occasion, were : 

Brig. Gen'l E. L. Tracey. Col. A. H. Gladden, Hon. Gerard Stith, W. A. Frerct, 
Esq., John D. Foster. M. D., E. T. Parker, Adam Giffen, Norbert Trepagnier, 
Hon. P H. Morgan, M. A. Foute, Jules Tuyes, Hon. Wm. G. Austin, M. D., D. 
Maupny, Alfred Munroe, E. B. Smedes, John Holmes, Col. C. A. Taylor, A. S. 
Withers, Hon. C. M. Bradford, T. 8. McCay, Hon. John T. Monroe, E. C. Hancock, 
A. P. Harrison, Mark F. Bigney, E. F. Schmidt, H. G. Stetson, John Calhoun, 
Hon. John B. Leefe, Wm. G. Hewes, Maj. Thomas F. Walker, John Pemberton. 
R. L. Pugh, Jacob J. Herr, Hon. J. 0. Nixon, J. C. Ferriday, A. P. Avegno, 
Dan'l E. Colton, Charles T. Nash, T. L. Leeds, H. W Reynolds, B. F. Voorhies, 
R. L. Outlaw, G. H. Chaplain, W. B. Bowles, W. L. Allen, Col. S. H. Peck, T. L. 
Bayne, P. N. Wood, H. Doane, Geo. W. Hynson, Col. Geo. W. Race, Wm. H. 
Hunt, W. C. Lipscomb, Col. Daniel Edwards, R. Esterbrook, J. M. Davidson, 
0. F. White, F. Wing, Howard Hmith, M. D., W. M. Pinckard, Wm. Ellis, A. W 
Bosworth, George Connelly. J. D. Dameron, G. S. Hawkins. 

The names of the members of the Batallion who went as officers in various 
regiments or who continued the existence of the organization in the city, were 
Capt. 0. Voorhies, Jr. First Lieutenant, T. A. James, Second Lieutenant, M. S. 
Squires, First Sergeant, 0. F. Peck, Third Sergeant, A. Luria, Color Sergeant, 
J. Thomas Wheat, Quarter Master Sergeant, E. L. Hews, First Corporal, Charles 
Thompson, First Artificers, C. H. Waldo, D. Kelly, Treasurer (afterwards Capt. 
W Irving Hogdson. 

Privates.— Anderson J. B., Bruce N. M., Baker Marion A., Blair J. C, Blow 
R. A., Butts E. S., Brand F. A., Bisland J. J., Bloomfield Benj., Barton R. G., 
Culbertson C. W., Caldwell A. F., Correjolles G., Churchill W E., Carey F. S., 
Calmes W. N., Dudley L., DeMerritt J. W., Delamore Jas., Evans Geo. P., 
Estella M., Easton T. B., Finley L. A., Jr. Fisk John S., Ferriday W. M., Gray- 
son J. B., Jr. Graham L., Grandpre P., Gordon W. E., Goldsmith F., Halsey 
W. S., Hutton B, V., Henning Wm. H., Iianlou Jos., Harrington S., Hawthorn 



20 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



The leave-taking of the young men, generally with their 
relatives, it must be admitted was much more hurried than 
with their wives, or more often with their sweet-hearts, (for 
we were nearly all at that age when it is difficult to keep 
from having at least one.) Some of us were compelled to 
remain in ranks and be witness to these tender leave-tak- 
ings — to watch the lustrous eyes, suffusing cheeks, the heav- 
ing breasts, the last fond smile, and the concluding kiss — 
all taking place in less time than it takes to relate it; and 
tobecorne, as it were, each of us, by sympathy, an actor and 
jMrticeps criminis in the love-making or love.ending tableau 
that was going on. It did not take a great many minutes 
to complete this part of the drama — though it was curi- 
ous in one respect — that of bringing together so many 
couples of education and refinement and making them act 
out the drama of their loves, or at least a specimen chap- 
ter. All these little incidents were remembered long 
after and frequently talked over in camp, and very often 
when we had all become growlers, not much to the credit 
of the dramatis persona?. The fact is, there was some 
little forgetfulness about these vows after the arrival of 
the Batallion in Virginia, while the fond and trusting 
hearts that were left behind, subsequently found them- 
selves so situated, after the capture of the city, as to ren- 
der any such remembrance inconvenient. 

These little love episodes, too, as we soldiered further 

A. T., Harvey C. M., Hedges J. H. H., Hemines D. P., Johnson F. A., Johnston 
T. G., Johnston D. C, Jones 0. G., Kennedy John, Lipscomb, A. A., Leverich 
Chas, E., Lonsdale H. H., Lowe B. M. Jr., Lange F. G., Morell W. C, McLearn 
John G., McNair H. M., Miller J. H., Norris J. B. O'Brien It. M., Pierson, J. G. 
Prados J. B*., Phelps W. V., Perkins J. A., Quirk ffm. C, Rodgers, J. C. Roc- 

quet A., Robira A., Reid W A., Smith Alex. Jr., St. Amant , Spedden E., 

Speoring C. F., Sambola A., Steven W., Stewart , Stroud George. Sanford 

0. H., Savage A., Seymour J. W., Simpson G W., Summers H. D., Tisdale B. 
P., Tisdale E. K., Tracy M., Vaught W. C. D., West Geo., Wingate W W., 
Wingate E. H., Walshe B. T., Willard E. 0., Webb J. V., Wolf 0. B., Wyche J. 
F., Wordall F., Ximines W A. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 21 



on, were de^tin^dto have their influence, in a remote and 
indirect way on all of the Batallion, even those most 
indifferent to the sentiment, and so far from the fond 
absent being remembered with sympathy, was the cause 
not unfrequently of loud swearing. For instance, the first 
detail made of a member to return home (naturally 
enough) was the man who had just married a bran new 
wife. Then there were faithful spouses who found oppor- 
tunities to overtake the Batallion in its various marches, 
who were either obtaining or entreating to obtain, their 
husband excused from some camp service, and which, if 
obtained, would throw the wearisome duty on some less 
fortunate batchelor comrade. While on the other hand, 
the latter class would either be absent from camp at every 
turn, when the presence of the fair was to be obtained, or 
writing love-letters home, or seeking for furloughs, mostly, 
of course, with reference to attractions left behind. 

At length we were marched into the cars by companies 
and assigned our places for the journej' The knapsacks, 
belts and other useless plunder of one sort and another 
with which we weie all more or less burdened, was quickly 
disposed of upon the hooks over head, or under the seats, 
(Damocles swords were suspended above,) and every man 
made himself as comfortable as could be done in a car 
crowded to its utmost capacity, and on the hottest night of 
the year. 

It need hardly be stated that there was too much 
excitement for the first half of the night to allow of much 
sleep. The men laughed, and danced and sung as if pos- 
sessed by hysteria. The sardine boxes which we had 
brought along to be eaten when rations run short, were 
opened before we reached the first station, and the various 
flasks much sooner. 



22 A Soldier's Story of the War, 



CHAPTER TIT. 

ALL ABOAKD— A CAB WHEEL ANABASIS. 

In spite of all of the heat and dust, and the drawback 
of having no place or opportunity for comfortable sleep, 
we were most of us in excellent spirits, and our upward 
journey to Richmond was one all the way through of wild 
excitement. 

But gradually the older and more serious members 
began to settle down to pipes and tobacco — to staring out 
at the trees which seemed to rush homewards like an 
army of giant phantoms, and to realizing that their past 
habits were cut off from their future. The loud talkers, 
who had indefatigably told heavy stories which the noise 
of the train prevented any one but themselves from 
hearing, began to show signs of exhaustion ; and as the 
night wore on there would sometimes be a brief lull, un- 
disturbed by anything except the heavy breathing of the 
sleepers. Then the train would stop at a station — one 
man would be heard complaining of the oppressive boots 
of his vis-a-vis neighbor against the pit of his stomach, 
while another would expostulate at the length of legs 
from behind which projected over the top of the seats and 
inconvenienced the complainant's head. 

We were now made to realize that those with whom we 
would be most thrown together were the comrades who 
resembled each other in the single matter of height, and 
were in character and tastes the most widely different, 
and that our first study would be to learn to adapt our- 
selves to each other's ways. And a very difficult lesson 
to learn that subsequently proved. 

For instance, the next morning about day light when 
the train stopped for water, a clear branch was discovered 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 23 



Linninsr near the railroad embankment, and the men besran 
) tumble out. considerably worn and pulled down, to profit 
y the best opportunity we would have of washing. The 
rovident soldiers now would produce towels, soaps, combs, 
tc, and save for the trouble of bending on their knees and 
athing like Diana with the brook for a mirror, would 
1 an age to make their toilet about as well as if they were 
t home, or in a fashionable barber's saloon. The only 
'ouble would be that the man who came after would be 
nprovided, or was too lazy to go down into his own 
napsack, and consequently would have to borrow, 
tefore the first borrower had concluded, a second applica- 
on to borrow would be filled, with similar requests fol- 
•wing in rapid order from others, until the owner becoming 
earied with waiting would timidly request that the 
i-ticles be returned when all were through. An hour or 
> afterwards when the matter was under investigation, it 
ould be made to appear that the soap was regarded as 
atallion soap, and that there was nothing more to be 
eard of it; that the tin wash basin which its fastidious 
ivner had fondly fancied would accompany him in all of 
is campaigns, had been left behind at the halting station; 
lat the towel had been hung out to dry ; and as for the 
>mb somebody had brought it along, but precisely who, 
obody could tell ! 

Of course it need not be said that the owner of the 
ash basin felt ruined and discontented for the balance of 
ie day, and the dav after ; for when the time for ablu- 
ons came again, he found no friend that was willing to 
nd him any of the articles before mentioned, and so his 
itisfaction and happiness at leading the life of a soldier 
ould receive its first check and begin to wane. 

"It's not that I care about a d — d little cake of soap," he 



24 A Soldier's Story of the War 



would feelingly growl, as his Alnashar visions of soldiering 
began to disappear like the bubbles that were made from 
the missing cube; "it's not that I can't make a raise of 
another towel and comb ; but it's the principle of the 
thing. I begin to believe that about one half of the 
Batallion are beats that intend to live off the other half, 
and I want it understood that they won't work that game 
any more with me. I've got at any rate a bag of good 
perique tobacco left," (says the speaker filling his pipe and 
anticipating a movement among the crowd) and if you 
hear of any body inquiring for any, send them to me, and 
they will find out where they cant get it. 

And so far from receiving the sympathy which his mis- 
fortunes merited, the victim was affectedly condoled with 
and taken aside by some one of every group in which he 
happened to enter, for the purpose of drawing from him 
a further recifUl of his wrongs. 

We dozed on through the following day, pulled out a 
novel now and then, or talked in a somewhat more quiet 
strain than on the night before. Some of the men had 
still enough enthusiasm left to occupy their time in scour- 
ing their sabres ; others who had not left civilization 
entirely behind, produced cards and an ear of corn, which, 
such is the wickedness of the times, need not be ex- 
plained to any body, meant a mild game of poker. This 
included for several days quite a large circle, but this 
gradually contracted with the pocket books of the players. 
The game always remained popular, particularly after pay 
day, though owing to certain difficulties about chips, the 
number who kept constantly occupied at it was limited. 
There was a small devoted circle who applied themselves 
faithfully to it on the cars and off, at night at the guard 
tent — around the bivouac fire, and sometimes before and 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



after the bloody carnage of battle. The counters were of 
gold not unfrequently, at starting — the cards gilt-edged. 
But the last time I saw the game in camp, the players 
looked unwashed and ragged, and the papers taken from 
a bloody knapsack were dealt on an old red cotton hand- 
kerchief. The prize that was contended for was a chicken 
which had been pressed into service, and the loser was to 
have the privilege of cooking and eating this, and sucking 
the bones. There is nothing like having a passion or 
mission in life ; and except for the difficulty of paying for 
the chips, card playing seemed to be as popular a way of 
killing time as any 

As we journeyed on, we passed through several towns 
where we were welcomed with great eclat by the popula- 
tion, and indeed the same might be said about every vil- 
lage and isolated house. There was always a sign, as 
was the case with all the troops who first went out, that 
the sight of the soldier touched some profound and sym- 
pathetic cord. At every depot there would be gathered 
the most beautiful ladies of the place, who would enthu- 
siastically stream out and welcome us as Calypso and her 
nymphs did Telemachus, giving us at leaving, flowers, 
cold chicken, gloves, aprons and knic-nacs of every sort. 
Sometimes the reception would be at a regularly laid table, 
as it was at Huntsville — sometimes in a ball room, as at 
Iuka Springs, and then after fifteen minutes of waltzing 
of fast city youth and bashful girls (who thought much to 
the astonishment of the former, that it looked nicer to be 
held by the arms instead of being encircled around the 
waist,) the cars would again move on. 

Knoxville and Chattanooga each furnished impressions, 
but our pride had been humbled along that portion of our 
route by having to ride all night in box cars. Our 



26 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



special glory was reserved for Lynchburg, and in after 
years we never grew weary of gloating over the honors 
there bestowed upon us. It was on Sunday about noon 
that we first stood drawn up in line in the principal 
street, and there were many carriages filled with ladies who 
lent the charm of their presence to the occasion. One 
of them was a gorgeous looking beauty who seemed from 
the glances she bestowed, to have fallen in love with some 
one of us at first sight. We each of us flattered ourselves 
with having wrought the charm, and doubtless thenceforth 
would have recounted around camp fires a good many 
Arabian night romances, or stories of ourselves, simi- 
lar to that of Queen Christiana and Ronzares, promoted 
from a coming soldier, to be a Spanish grandee. But a 
civilian who was standing by her carriage, dashed these 
hopes by bringing a message of invitation to one of the 
color corporals, and this was followed up by an introduc- 
tion, exchange of rings, correspondence, and all that. 
Possibly the romantic meeting would have ended in some- 
thing else, had not death swept away both before the 
second year of the war. 

We passed the remainder of the day and night in Lynch- 
burg, the citizens entertaining us at their houses — that is, 
all with the exception of the Zenophon of this narrative 
and a dozen other unfortunate wretches. These were de- 
tailed on a very dark, chilly night, to stand guard over the 
cars on the railroad — none of us well knew which. The 
first guard mounting, proved as dangerous as it was irk- 
some. Having been placed on the embankment, the sen- 
tinel was ordered to march forward on the side of the cars 
fifty feet and return, keeping meanwhile a bright look out 
for the enemy He started to march, as directed, on the 
track by the side of the train, but had not proceeded fifty 



A Soldiers Story of the War. 27 



feet before his path (owing to the narrowness of the em- 
bankment suddenly ended.) As it was very dark, he was 
not made aware of this state of things, until he found 
himself about twenty feet below, with his sabre sticking 
in the ground, and very much wondering how he so sud- 
denly reached there. 

We stood our guard watch of two hours and were then 
allowed to crawl among some sacks of corn in one of the 
freight cars, and sleep there until again wanted. By the 
time we had got through our second dose of guard 
mounting, there were a dozen. of their country's defenders 
who began to have a low opinion about soldiering. 

The only other incident I shall now stop to relate, pre- 
vious to the arrival at Richmond, was that performed by 
a young private of that day, and a well known merchant 
of this. While the train was in motion, proceeding to 
the last point of our week's journey, a very pretty and 
patriotic youog girl appeared near the track with a bouquet 
of flowers in her hands, of which to her evident regret, 
she had no opportunity of disposing. The rear of our 
long train was composed of platform cars, laden with the 
guns which were afterwards to accompany us into the 
field, and underneath whose rattling chains at night the 
men would crawl and sleep. Upon the last of these plat- 
form cars a sentinel was standing, who thought it a pity 
that such a pretty bouquet should be left behind. The 
train was going slowly around a curve. Acting up to his 
idea, he jumped down without accident, took the bouquet, 
and the moment after succeeded in regaining the train. 
In fact, he did more — he not only gallantly took the 
bouquet, but a kiss besides, from the lips of the astonished 
donor. The same sort of thing happened at a way station 
where a young lady locked in a room on the second story, 



28 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



offered a bouquet, then a ring, and finally a kiss to anybody 
that would climb after them. The work had to be done 
on a shutter and the outside of a window sash, neverthe- 
less, we had such a variety of talent, that the work was 
accomplished. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE CONFEDERATE CAPITOL. 



We were very much disgusted on arrival at Richmond, 
for arrive there we at last did, to find that instead of being 
allowed to take a run around and see the place we 
were shut up in a tobacco warehouse and a sentinel placed 
at the gate. While some of us were meditating an imita- 
tion of the too lively Zouaves who had been shut up tem- 
porarily in an upper hall, and who made a very practical 
use of their new sashes to let themselves down to the 
ground, the welcome order came to march to a hotel break- 
fast. This was our breakfast of adieu, the last we were 
ever to eat altogether, and when finished, we moved toward 
camp. 

We were now marched in a comfortable frame of mind 
through the streets of Richmond, led on by the exhilerating 
notes of Gessner's brass band, which accompanied us from 
New Orleans, and we spread to the breeze the most costly 
and beautiful standard borne by any of the Confederate or 
holiday troops. * 

*This standard made of very costly silk, yellow upon one side and red upon 
the other, represented the coat of arms of Louisiana and of the Batallion. It 
was said to have been made in Paris at a cost of $750, was heavily mounted in 
silver and was presented by the ladies of New Orleans, in a speech delivered by 
Senator Benjamin in which he predicted the war. 

It was replied to by the gallant Capt. Wheat, then the color bearer of the 
Batallion. Towards the close of the war when its preservation became difficult 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 29 



The uniforming of the members which was done by 
first class city tailors, had been an item of something like 
$20,000 and with brass scales, white belts and gloves and 
flashing sabres, no organization in the world, as was after- 
wards told us by President Davis and Lee (to which latter 
we reported,) ever presented a braver appearance. 

Still, in spite of our ardor, there appeared a cer- 
tain coolness on the part of spectators, which had been 
previously lacking in our reviews. "We did not under- 
stand it then, but did afterwards. The fact was, the town 
was overrun with soldiers, till, as the phrase then was, you 
could not rest. This was the meditative view taken by the 
business population, who were occupied rather in thinking 
of the additional amount of money that would be spent 
in the city than our showy appearance, and in the few 
words that we were permitted to exchange in ranks, the 
people of Richmond began to descend to a low figure. 
But we soon had cause to change this opinion in every 
respect ; and certainly the ladies of the city, when in the 
afternoon our camp had been pitched, and who came to see 
us by thousands, magnificently atoned for any lack of en- 
thnsiam during the day. 

It need not be added that there w r as no city of the Con- 
federacy with which we became so familiar, or to which 
we became so much attached, as Richmond. It was in 

amidst incessant marching, it was sent to grace the Louisiana table of Mrs. 
Slocomb, at a fair given at Columbia, S. C. The colors were however stolen, 
before its arrival from the valise of the soldier who had been entrusted with it, 
together with the valise itself; and though rewards have been offered nothing 
has ever been heard of it from that day to this. Several of the battle flags that 
went with the different batteries were brought back. The silver socket was all 
that was ever brought back of the standard. 

It was displayed for the last time on the works in front of Petersburg, on the 
morning of July 4th, 1864, as a sort of defiance suggested by the day. The pro- 
duction of this flag was speedily responded to, by the hoisting of apparently all 
of the regim -ntal colors along both Federal and Confederate lines. It was of 
course subject to a heavy cannonade during the day, though without once being 
struck. 

4 



30 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



reality for the next four years our second home, and be- 
came the permanent one for a good many of the members, 
who there contracted ties of marriage and of business, and 
never returned to the Crescent City- There were none of 
us but what formed a large circle of friends of every class 
among the inhabitants, and as time wore on, we found a 
very large population from our own city gathered there, 
and in the surrounding camps. To take a Virginia sol- 
dier's impressions of Richmond from his pleasant recollec- 
tions, would be the play of Hamlet with the part of the 
young lord of Denmark omitted. They were our gleams 
of sunshine. 

But to return to camp. After the work of putting up 
tents, which we found to be a tremendous bore, the hour 
for evening drill had arrived, and a very large crowd had 
gathered to witness our manoeuvres, including President 
Davis himself. We were overwhelmed with invitations 
to houses, and received them just as readily without 
any introductions, and inside of camp lines, as we did in 
private salons. I used to wonder how Romulus and his 
fellow-robbers, when they seized on the Sabine women — 
how they managed in the shortjtime they had for acquaint- 
ance, to adapt their booty to individual taste — whether, 
for instance, the white whiskered robber, who had been 
compelled to take a sentimental prize, did not afterwards 
have to swap her off to some young comrade, in exchange 
for another that was domestic and who had no nonsense 
about her. But as far as making acquaintances went in 
our experience, it was astonishing how the different cliques 
and classes seemed almost instinctively or naturally to 
find out and adapt themselves to their own kind, whether 
they believed in blood, money, talent or education, whether 
carefully brought up or fond of a wild life, of a religious 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



or business turn, or fond of intrigue and adventure. One 
of the latter sort. I remember who was on guard at the 
time of the parade, made a lady acquaintance which made 
him leave his post to accompany her home ; which kept 
him in all sorts of scrapes for the balance of the war, and 
which years after led to the singular fainting away of 
"a star," (for she finally went on the stage,) in a way 
that the audience could not understand. By a singu- 
lar sort of coincidence a second lady of the same party 
became attached and afterwards married to a soldier who 
was never once absent without leave, and is now well 
known in our city for his business capacity 

Discipline was very rigidly enforced, and the guard tent 
was the centre of intelligence, partly because of the 
details for duty from the various companies, partly because 
it was generally filled with offenders who had gone off to 
town without leave, and the narrative of whose adven- 
tures about every class of city society was fully as lively 
as the average newspaper chronicles. Though the guards 
were very strict (rendered doubly so because they them- 
selves had probably already been caught and made to do 
extra duty) there never was any means found out for 
keeping the men in camp when there was no prospect of 
battle. They would cross the lines, apparently to go after 
water to bathe, or wash their clothes, (for we were already 
commencing to do this) and would show no alacrity about 
coming back. As the sight of a soldier dressed to go to 
the city would have been enough to have led to his arrest, 
the plan would be to start badly dressed with a bundle as 
if for washing, but which in reality contained the best 
suit. The washing in reality was mostly done by colored 
blanchisseuses who were constantly about camp. When 
this plan could not be worked at night, some such ruse as 



32 A Soldier's Story of the War, 



turning a horse loose and rushing after it would be re- 
sorted to. 

Meanwhile in the matter of sleeping accommodations, we 
fared rather roughly, for a time. Our blankets were of the 
thinnest sort, and hardly large enough to envelope a cat. 
When you covered your feet, your breast would be uncov- 
ered, or a gentle zephyr would be playing about your ears 
or back. Besides, for the first night there was nothing 
between us and the ground, and we could not well get to 
sleep without undressing. If ever there was a thoroughly 
disgusted crowd when the bugle summoned us at day 
break to roll call, ours was that one. The complaints 
went to the officers, and the one especially in com- 
mand could be heard harshly swearing about everybody 
and everything all through camp. That was the worst 
day we ever had for growling and rough talk. Then too 
we had nothing to eat but very tough fried beef, cut in 
small rhomboids, instead of the magnificent flaps of por- 
ter-house steak to which many of us had been accustomed. 
One of the companies had an excellent cook, J H. Ingra- 
ham, who has since become conspicuous among the colored 
members of the Legislature;* but Joe, the one we had, 
was such a travesty upon the noble chefs of the Crescent 
City, dressed in paper caps and white aprons, that it 
made us furious to hear him lying, chattering and frying, 
as if in defiance of our misery Joe subsequently grati- 
fied us by deserting to the enemy, and figuring very 
largely as an intelligent and well informed contraband. In 
some of McClellan's reports the northern papers spoke 
about giving him an important command. 

*Dick Kenner, one of our eooks, has also since been a member of the Legis- 
lature. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 33 



CHAPTER V 

SURE-ENOUOII SOLDIERING. 

We remained about Richmond, awaiting orders, several 
weeks,* undergoing daily a good deal of hard drilling, 

* The following is a letter written by Fishback to the N. 0. Crescent, dated 
July 7, 1861 : 

"The third and fourth companies of the Washington Batallior. artillery leave 
to-day for Manassas Gap, whither the first two companies have already preceded 
them. 

A delay in obtaining the cannon, harness and drivers, the latter still wanting, 
has thus far detained them from what is known as " the scene of action/' We 
leave Camp Beauregard with few regrets. Heat, cold, dust, rains, flies — each 
tent looked as if a swarm of bees had been hived in it — altogether, contributed 
to make us the most wretched band of patriots upon whose heads ever descended 
a hot sun or drenching rain. It was a soldier's life with all its hardships, with 
none of its pleasures or excitements. Our only amusement was cleaning sabres, 
mounting guard, going through the motion of loading cannon, and lastly, sleep- 
ing under the shade of two stunted trees — the only chance for shade there was 
in the camp. And then, too, to be so near town, and not be able to get there 
oftener on an average than once a week 1 The old steeples and roof-tops, as 
looked down from our camp upon the southern metropolis, was for us an en- 
chanted city — something about which we might sigh, dream about, and form 
strange fancies, but could not often see. Any one who obtained two " permits" 
during the week was viewed with considerable envy and jealousy, and when he 
returned with his pockets filled with candy, sweetmeats and whisky, and told 
big stories of having dined with Jeff. Davis, and advised his Cabinet officers, we 
regarded him in the light of a distinguished traveler just returned from some 
remote land. 

I do not know what we should have done, if we had not at length grown 
weary of so much camp life, and learned to pass the sentinels' lines without 
always remembering to give the countersign. We began to make acquaintances, 
to accept invitations to houses, and there were vague rumors which hinted at 
successes among the fair sex of a more enduring kind. 

For myself, my modesty led me to be satisfied with the friendship of a pretty 
widow, the relict, I think, of some deceased butcher ; and I can't boast that I 
ever succeeded in obtaining from her partiality more than an occasional beefsteak 
or mutton chop 

Returning late one night, I concluded to sleep till tattoo upon a long bench 
which occupied the side of our stable, stealing from a horse his bundle of hay 
for a pillow. I suffered considerably from nightmare, and on awakening was 
not a little astonished to find pillow, straw hat, and the best part even of my 
flannel shirt, all gone. 

The streets of Richmond are crowded with almost as many soldiers in uni- 
forms as were those of Paris in the Allied Occupations of 1815. I walked all 
over the city without counting more than ten young men who were not dressed 
a la militaire. Bar rooms and hotels are coining money — your plain drinks, 
(whiskeys, for instance, which cost, perhaps, twenty-five cents per gallon) sell 
for fifteen cents a glass, and mint juleps and sherry cobblers at twenty-five cents, 
so that a campaign of six months would be in what the soldier gets for pay 
worth exactly three hundred and sixty-five drinks ! 

We are limbering up our cannon ("Key up that sponge-staff there") for the last 
time here, and the men are filing off ("Never make the turn until the word, march") 



34 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



and becoming accustomed to our new duties, (which at 
first we found extremely irksome, and which took up 
most of our time) as best we could. The men when not 
on guard duty, drilling, policeing camp, loading the am- 
munition chests, would hunt the shade of small trees, and 
only move with the shadow, or would be seen stretched 
out in the tents, like so many sullen, discontented animals, 
in the depths of a cave, glaring out angrily and selfishly 
from their limited quarters at every intruder.* 

By this time, having in our leisure nothing to do but 
sleep, notice and comment on individual character, we 
had come to be pretty well acquainted with each other's 
failings and strong points. Like every other organization, 
the Batallion had its aristocracy and popular favorites, 
and coming, as we did, from a large business centre, those 
who had been previously engaged in commercial pursuits 
gave the tone to, the balance of the organization — the 
book-keepers and attaches of the large cotton, commission 
and grocery houses assuming, or having accorded to them- 
selves the first rank. Those whose opportunities as clerks 
had thrown them much with the every day world, had 
sufficient powers of self-assertion to claim probably the 
next grade, while, as likely as not, the men with the most 
learning, the deepest experience, rarest talent, and eccen- 
tricities, generally were regarded rather shyly in the mess 

for the last drill; and now having packed our knapsacks, pitched our tents, and 
kissed the sweethearts we leave behind, you will see us for the future more 
actively employed, with the scowl of battle upon our face, and hanging upon 
the flying ranks of the foe." 

*Some such speech as the following, was very commonly heard : "Now don't 
all of you come piling in here, unless you want to knock the tent down ; there's 
some cussed galoot that makes it a point to stumble over the tent ropes and 
pins every time he passes, who has nearly done it already." 

" Come, Tom, take a rest, and dry up. You've managed to smuggle in the 
best canteen of whiskey brought into camp, and you can't throw off on old 
friends that way. Out with it." 

And after one more growl about bringing around the whole Batallion, the 
coveted canteen would be reluctantly handed over. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 35 



and social relations of camp. For instance, a French 
Colonel who had accompanied us as a volunteer, hardly 
became known by name, and would never have been pro- 
moted to the rank of a Corporal. The same was true of 
one or two Prussian officers. Of the half dozen lawyers, 
and the same number of writers, none of them were much 
thought of — that is in the first year of soldiering. But 
the truth was, that the men of most ability had no oppor- 
tunity of showing their special talent, and had but little 
of any other kind — generally becoming disgusted with 
camp life among the first, and too contemptuous or despair- 
ing of the scanty honors within their reach, to take the 
trouble to obtain them. "The world is full of the suc- 
cesses of common place men," says the proverb, and 
undoubtedly the working characters of every day life 
made the best soldiers with us. 

The real aristocracy, however, in the harsh life of a 
camp — as well as everywhere else — which outranks all 
others, is that which can always command money, and 
which knows how to spend it. On a long march in after 
years, it is astonishing, when provisions are scarce, how 
much respect we can have for a comrade who has money 
enough to buy a loaf of bread for himself as well as his poorer 
mess-mate. Such a man would be forthwith invited to 
join the best messes, and be allowed to shirk, if not the 
entire mess work, at least its roughest parts; and his 
influence in obtaining leave of absence, a horse to ride, or 
some body to stand his extra guards, would extend through- 
out the camp. 

The best men would frequently fail of commanding 
much influence, through modesty and the absence of a 
stirring, bustling disposition. There for instance, was 
Professor Gessner, well known now in our city as an accom- 



36 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



plished teacher, who was scarcely known in camp, except 
as a faithful, brave soldier; and the same remark would 
apply to Ernest Byer, the present Prussian Consul at 
Mobile, and who has since made a fortune in buying cot- 
ton. Corporal Coyle has since found it easier to control 
the coal or towboat business than he did in four years 
service, to get made Sergeant; while our well known 
Notary of the present day, A. J Hero, though the small- 
est man in the company, through his vigilance, energy and 
unremitting attention to his duties, became Captain of the 
Third Company. 

In what has been said in our social distinctions, reference 
is had rather to the make up and material of the Batal- 
lion as we started out, than to its character, as we soldiered 
on. The young snob who believed implicitly in blood, 
in his father's wealth, family position, or felt elevated 
above ordinary mortality from having obtained a fat situa- 
tion in a banking house or insurance company, got bravely 
over these ideas as he soldiered further on — forgot to part 
his hair in the middle, and learned to regard men rather 
by their worth than their artificial position. On the 
other hand, those who were not known at all at starting, 
in many instances continued to obtain influential places in 
the Quartermaster's or Commissary department, and make 
their influence felt in the. distribution of rations. The 
tendency of this class, who were generally thought to be 
partial, and were therefore unpopular, was to assume style 
and airs in proportion to their power; however small and 
insignificant our honors, we liked to have them recognized 
for what they were worth. 

In the last year of the war, when the provisions given 
out for three days could have been easily consumed at one 
meal, I received with several others, an invitation to take 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 37 



dinner with the Commissary of our company Although 
we had nothing but fried middling and bakers bread for 
our repast, no reader at this day can reaLze how much 
awe the hospitality of our Arnphytrion inspired, even in 
the breasts of some of the higher officers who happened 
to be present. As each guest present felt in honor bound 
to eat only a fair share of the delicacies spread before us, 
one can judge how much of the company's rations had 
been actually stolen ; the effect however of these gorgeous 
spreads, was to create the impression that the detailed 
commissaries were reveling in the luxury of Lucullus ; or 
something like the celebrated banquet given years ago in 
this city, where a politician on the verge of ruin, spent in 
one night $40,000 in entertaining his friends. 

There were a good many other classes that might be 
named, such as the class who continued to obtain soft 
places, and to shirk duty by flatten- and playing in a very 
modest role as courtiers — such too as the musical choirs — a 
class much envied, who through their talents were always 

welcomed, not unfrequently to the exclusion of less for- 
tunate rivals. 

Having stated thus much of the critisisms which sol- 
diers, for absence of other employment, passed upon each 
other, it is but just to add, that with no hope of glory or 
of doing more than what every man ought to do for his 
country, they bore their trials, the meanest of them, with 
excellent spirit. Their miseries which were indeed great, 
were met with no discontent. There was no crime — 
there were no murmurs — and there waa a patient acquies- 
cence in orders, except when men were detailed to be away 
from the battle field, and these were hardly ever obeyed. 



38 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



C H AFTER VI 



OUK FIRST BATTLE. 



Having bade adieu to civilization and comfort at Rich- 
mond, a dusty day and night of travel brought us to 
Manassas. I remember nothing of this, except that there 
were two or three ill-natured disputes among the men who 
were out of humor about seats, and that the farther we 
traveled, the less impressed seemed the world, at the sight 
of a soldier's uniform. It was evident that the farmers, 
so far from regarding us as patriots, were concerned only 
about the best means of preserving their fences and crops ; 
our predecessors in soldiering had taught them this much 
already Instead of fair women to welcome us with 
flowers, we saw if we got out of the cars, only cynical 
landlords who regarded with an evil eye any attempt at 
a free use of his water or towels, or who would indulge in 
sneering remarks in reference to a lavish extravagance in 
the matter of soap. 

Arrived at the depot, which was afterwards to become 
so identified with our recollections of Virginia, we were 
set to work in the hot sun at getting off our guns, horses, 
and ammunition chests. We had then to take the road to 
" Camp Louisiana," whither two of our companies, 1st and 
2nd, had already preceded us. We found them pleasantly 
entrenched on the south bank of Bull Run, in rows of 
tents connected by an arbor shade, and which latter was 
as great a luxury to us as Jonah's Gourd was to the much 
complaining prophet. Our comrades who preceded us 
consoled us for our fatigue and travel, by welcoming us 
to a dinner on beans — equivalent on the field to covers at 
Fritz's or John's at this day. Still it was not without some 
agony and depression of soul, that we came down to sheet- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 39 



iron crackers, or hard-tack, or reconciled ourselves to the 
afterwards familiar smell of fried bacon, with which, to 
tell the truth, I have, ever since the war, associated mili- 
tary glory. Now commenced those longings for sweet- 
meats and vegetables with which our soldiers for four 
years were consumed, and so hardly, indeed, did it fare 
with us in diet, that the most intellectual men in the Ba- 
tallion probably spent more time in painful or envious 
thought as to the best means of obtaining pies, chickens 
and eggs than we did on any other subject — patriotism, 
danger, home and sweethearts, all included. 

Those were the days when alarms were of very frequent 
occurrence — when the imagination was excited by talk of 
masked batteries, black horse cavalry, "Tigers," Zouave 
slaughters, and the like — when cautious sentinels would 
watch the ears of horses to discern the first tread of the 
foe, (thirty miles distant) or when the return of the bat- 
tery-horses from watering, would lead to a rush of the 
guard to arms, or to the prancing around of the officer of 
the day with a drawn sabre, and a tremendous shout to the 
off-duty men to "Fall in." I remember one fine looking 
officer, dark, bushy whiskered, and covered with a red-lined 
cloak, who went through the pantomime of rushing to meet 
the whole of McDowell's army, so dramatically — in the 
style of Forrest, say — that we all voted him, in camp talk, 
promotion at once. 

But at last the alarm which we had felt in our bones 
for days previous did come — a rocket had been seen — as 
well as a pillar of smoke, and these marked the approach 
of the enemy The most prudent betook ourselves to 
packing and looking after rations — bathers came in from 
the Bun ; idlers quit lazing in the shade, and even the cooks 
who were dancing or singing around the camp fires, became 



40 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



silent and watchful. We did not wait long — soon came 
the bugle sound to "Hitch up," and of "Boots and saddle," 
and in a moment all was confusion. In less than an hour 
afterwards the white tents had disappeared and we were 
galloping off to positions assigned us at the various fords * 

I was lying on a caisson the next day, reading an old 
farmhouse novel, when we saw the enemy appear on the 
opposite heights. I did not believe then it was worth 
while turning down a leaf, even when we could see the 
gleam of the sun on their brass pieces or arms. A light 
curl of smoke, followed by a shot, which we could see 
coming towards us, and which looked like an India rubber 
ball thrown through the air, convinced us that the first shot 
had been actually fired. We shifted our position — as 
their guns were of longer range — and soon saw our line 
of infantry moving towards the Run. The regiments that 
then moved forward were mostly composed of sanguine 
impetuous young men, the pick of the fighting material 
of the South, who moved forward with loud shouts and 
an exultant, swing at the prospective combat, and who 
were so impulsive and imprudent, that they threw away 
their knapsacks and blankets in order to have more free- 
dom of movement. They felt the need of them badly before 
we were through with our fighting. 

As the day advanced (the 18th of June) the enemy 
made an attempt to cross the Run — our batteries were 
shoved forward, the infantry opened fire, which rattled 

*General Evans of South (.'mo ina. was the first to lead his Brigade into action 
at Stone Bridge. It consisted of the Fourth South Carolina Regiment and 
Wheat's Louisiana Batallion. Sustaining them, was Gene, al Coeke's Brigade, 
consisting of the 17th, 19th and 28th Virginia Regiments, commanded respectively 
by Cols. Cocke, Withers, and Robert T. Preston. These Brigades were the first 
to bear the brunt of 'lie action, as they were exposed to a concentric fire the 
object of the enem; ing to turn our left flank while we were endeavoring to 
turn his right. These regiments oi inl'ai.'try u ere sustaining the (annus Wash- 
ington Artillery, of .New Orleans, who had two of iheii guns at this point, which 
made terrible havoc in the ranks of the enemy. — Richmond Dispatch, July 6th. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 41 



along the line in murderous vollej-s, and the skirmish or 
battle of Bull Run was brought on. 

It was just as much of a battle, so far as our artillery 
was concerned, as any we afterwards were in, as we were 
under heavy fire and continued in action until the fight 
was decided. It had been commenced, according to Swin- 
ton, through the " silly ambition" of Gen. Tyler, "who got 
it into his head that the enemy would run whenever seri- 
ously menaced." In pursuance of a belief that the man 
that got Manassas would be the great man of the war, 
and of an intention, as he expressed it, "to go through 
that night," he drew up his forces on Bull Run parallel to 
the Confederate troops, and opened an unmeaning fusil- 
lade. The result did not correspond to his expectations. 
The Confederates did not scare worth a cent; on the 
contrar}^, they suddenly charged across with a loud yell, 
and astonished Tyler by completely disrupting his left 
Hank. Meanwhile the guns of the Washington Artillery, 
which had been distributed about, at the various fords, 
kept up an active fire until the foe had disappeared. 

The following memoranda of the affair of the 18th, 
was made by Adjutant (afterwards Lieut Colonel) Owen, 
to whose journal frequent reference will be made in these 
pages : 

" Camp was broken up on the 17th, owing to the driving 
in of our pickets and the advance of the enemy. Troops 
withdrawn from north side of Bull Run. Baggage was 
ordered to Manassas; bivouacked in a pine^thicket, near 
McLean's. Guns placed at McLean's and Blackburn's 
Fords ; we were roused on the 18th, before day, the bat- 
teries getting closer to the fords, and one detachment 
being sent to Union Mills. Zouaves seen moving about 
in the woods on opposite heights." 



42 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



A portion of the second and third companies were or- 
dered to Blackburn's ford. Geo. W Muse, a young man 
of much promise and amiability was the first victim of the 
war in the Batallion. Gen. Beauregard, after the engage- 
ment, sent us word that we had behaved "like veterans." 

The troops kept about their same positions during the 
following day, though subject to frequent movements 
and alarms. At a consultation of our Generals, held at 
McLean's house, afterwards used as a hospital, Beauregard 
said on the 20th, " Let to-morrow be our "Waterloo." If 
his prediction had been carried out, for which the Con- 
federate Army had every facility in the route of Manassas, 
it is not too much to suppose that the history of the Con- 
federate war would have been somewhat different from 
what it is. 

The following was the report of Gen. Beauregard, of 
the action of the Washington Artillery upon the 18th of 
July: 

"It was at this stage of the affair that a remarkable artil- 
lery duel was commenced and maintained on our side 
with a long trained professional opponent, superior in char- 
acter as well as in the number of his weapons, provided 
with improved munitions and every artillery appliance, 
and at the same time occupying the commanding position. 
The results were marvelous and fitting precursors to the 
artillery achievements of the 21st of July. In the out- 
set, our fire was directed against the enemy's Infantry, 
whose bayonets, gleaming above the tree-tops, alone indi- 
cated their presence and force. This drew the attention 
of a battery placed on a high, commanding ridge, and the 
duel began in earnest. For a time, the aim of the adver- 
sary was inaccurate, but this was quickly corrected, and 
shot fell and shells burst thick and fast in the very midst 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 43 



of our battery, wounding in the course of the combat, 
Capt. Eshleman, five privates, and the horse of Lieut. 
Richardson. From the position of our pieces, and the 
nature of the ground, their aim could only be directed at 
the smoke of the enemy's artillery ; how skilfully and 
with what execution this was done, can only be realized 
by an eye witness. For a few moments their guns were 
silenced, but soon reopened. By direction of Gen. Long- 
street, his battery was then advanced by hand, out of the 
range now ascertained by the enemy, and a shower of 
spherical case, shell and round shot flew over the heads 
of our gunners ; but one of our pieces had become hors de 
combat from an enlarged vent. From the new position our 
guns fired as before, with no other aim than the smoke 
and flash of their adversaries' pieces, renewed and urged 
the conflict with such signal vigor and effect, that gradu- 
ally the fire of the enemy slackened, the interval between 
their discharges grew longer and longer, finally to cease, 
and we fired a last gun at a baffled, flying foe, whose heavy 
masses in the distance were plainly seen to break and 
scatter in wild confusion and utter rout, strewing the 
ground with cast away guns, hats, blankets and knapsacks 
as our parting shells were thrown among them. In their 
retreat one of their pieces was abandoned, but, from the 
nature of the ground, it was not sent for that night, and 
under cover of darkness the enemy recovered it." 

The guns engaged in this singular conflict on our side, 
were three 6-pounder rifle pieces, and four ordinary 6- 
pounders, all of Walton's battery — the Washington Artil- 
lery of New Orleans. The officers immediately attached, 
were Capt. Eshleman, Lieuts. C. W Squires, Richardson, 
Garnet and Whittington. At the same time our infantry 
held the bank of the stream, in advance of our guns, as the 



44 A Soldiers Story of the War. 



missiles of the combatants flew to and fro above them ; as 
cool and veteran-like, for more than an hour, they steadily 
awaited the moment and signal for the advance. 



CHAPTER VII 

BATTLE OF MANASSAS. 

The battle of Manassas was, in many respects, the most 
curious, and at the same time, the least eventful of the war. 
If the Federals had given battle on Saturday instead of 
Sunday, (the 21st of July,) they would have encountered 
the Confederate army without Johnston's command, whose 
men, as it was, only arrived at the most critical moment. 
If the Federals had delayed their attack a few hours 
longer, Beauregard, dreading Patterson's arrival, would 
have attacked them, with all the advantages of position 
on their side. In no battle of the war was there so much 
of the heroic element developed; the leading generals 
fought like private soldiers. Gen. Johnston threw him- 
self into the thickest of the fight, and led the gallant 8th 
Georgia Regiment on with their glorious colors in his 
hand; Beauregard charged at the head of Hampton's Le- 
gion. He was riding up and down the lines between the 
enemy and our men, thoroughly combative, shouting them 
on with desperate ardor. Still the battle was going against 
us. Bee, JBartow, Fisher, Branch and all the field officers 
of some regiments were killed while struggling to main- 
tain the Confederate line. This was being slowly driven 
back a mile and a half. But now the quick eye of 
Jackson discovers a weakly guarded battery and swoops 
down upon it; Beauregard at the same time pushed for- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 45 



ward to regain his line, and so the chances went balancing 
from one side to the other — the Confederates at one moment 
driving, at the next being driven. Finally, while John- 
ston, like Wellington about Blucher, was sighing for his 
additional regiments to appear in sight, Kirby Smith, who 
had come fifteen miles since the battle commenced, now 
rushes forward, and though he falls wounded, cheer after 
cheer from the Confederates tells that the battle is won* 
The rest was but the stampede of a panic-stricken army 
towards Washington. f 

We- make the following further extracts from Adjutant 
Owen's report : 

"Gen. Kirby Smith coming up on the left, the enemy are 
routed; we firing the last gun. At 4 p. m. I rode over the 
field and saw the effects of battle for the first time. Men 
lay killed and wounded on every side — broken muskets, 
pieces of clothing and dead horses and disabled cannon 
were scattered about. 

"We had been fighting Sherman's, Griffin's and Sprague's 
Rhode Island Batteries. In the panic they left all their 
guns where they had been fighting, near Mrs. Henry's 

*His coming up, I heard one soldier remark, was like the throwing of four 
aces upon a poker table. There was nothing more to be done but to sweep in 
the stakes. 

■|-July 21. — Enemy shelling different portions of our line from the high ground 
on the other side of Bull Run ; it is evident we will have another battle to-day. 

V a. m. — Five guns under Capt. Squires ordered to Lewis House, near the 
Stone Bridge. Enemy moving towards our left ; Evans and Wheat fighting there 
and falling back. Two rifle guns ordered forward. Enemy still pushing us, and 
it now becomes evident, from the clouds of dust which rise over their line of 
march, that the enemy's main attack will be directed here. Gens. Beauregard 
and Johnston ride by us; fresh troops ordered up; our guns ordered in. We go 
into position under heavy fire, and fight the enemy's batteries around Henry 
House. Jos. Reynolds falls mortally wounded. In the thickest of the battle 
Gen. Beauregard, Capts. Chisholm and Hayward ride up. Gen. B. said to Col. 
Walton, in passing, 

"Hold this position there, and the day is ours. Three cheers for Louisiana." 

The cheer was taken up on our right and left and ran the whole length of the 
battle line. At this instant the General's horse had his head shot off, and his 
Aid took Sergt. Owen's mare, much to the latter's disgust. — Hatallion Journal. 

6 



46 A Soldier's Story of the War. 

house. She, poor old lady, was between two fires, and 
was killed in bed. We buried her in her garden. 

"Lieut. Dearing and I brought in the colors of the 2d 
Michigan Regiment, and gave them to Gen. Beauregard. 
5 p. m. President Davis arrives from Richmond — is received 
with great cheering. The pursuit has been checked; why 
we cannot tell. It is reported the enemy are going at 
"double" for Washington. Bivouac on the field." 

The fact that the last gun of the day was fired by our 
battery will be confirmed by the following from the Peters- 
burg Daily Express, July 26th, 1861: 

" The Washington Artillery, who had drawn their guns up the hill and in 
front of the house known as Mr. Lewis' — Gen. Cocke's and Gen. Johnston's 
headquarters, and which was riddled with shot — commanded by Major J. B. 
Walton in person, gave the enemy about this time a parting salute. * * 

" Before the ball had well reached the point aimed at, a whole regiment of the 
enemy appeared in sight, going at the "double quick" down the Centreville 
road. Major Walton immediately ordered another shot "to help them along," 
as he said, and two were sent without delay right at them. There was no 
obstruction, and the whole front of the regiment was exposed. One-half were 
seen to fall, and if Gen. Johnston had not at that moment sent an aid to Major 
Walton, with an order to cease firing, nearly the whole regiment would have 
been killed." 

Draper, in his history of the war, says that the panic 
was produced by the jam over one of the bridges, and 
the unexpected explosion of a shell in the midst of the 
fugitives. 

Considering that the route of the Federal army was 
complete, the most astonishing thing in the world was 
that none of the desperate ardor that had characterized 
the generals and troops came to the surface now The 
promptness of Evans, on our left flank, in forming a 
new line of battle with a handful of men, different from 
what he had anticipated, together with the resistance of 
Wheat's (La.) Battalion, the 4 th Alabama, and 8th Geor- 
gia, had stemmed the tide until the other Confederate 
troops, who were totally unprepared for the situation, 
could come up; in other words, about all the generalship 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 47 



that was displayed or much needed, was to animate the 
troops on the ground, and to shove in the balance as fast 
as thev arrived on the field. But when the battle was 
over, the leading actors were either killed, worn out, or 
ignorant of their victory, or incapable of profiting by it. 
I remember seeing some officers stop, before charging, to 
read the news of the glorious victory to a brigade who 
had not been in the fight at all, and the slowness with 
which the brigade moved off in pursuit, contrasted strongly 
with the impetuous rushes which the men learned at a 
later day to make. It is hardly credible to think of our 
attacking afterwards impregnable positions like Gettys- 
burg and Malvern Hill, and showing lack of the requisite 
fire in the moment of victory A little of the daring of 
Cortes or Pizarro was what we needed. Jackson, who 
had been pointed out as standing like a stonewall, and 
whose cry of, "We must give them the bayonet," had 
largely decided the battle, earlier in the day — Jackson 
had too little influence to control, and neither he nor 
Longstreet (the men on whom Lee afterwards principally 
relied,) had fairly come to the surface. We had three 
commanders-in-chief during the day, and it was to the 
weakness of some one of them that our cavalry charged 
only for a mile or two. As Greeley trulv states, ''there 
were hours of daylight when our troops rushed madly 
from the field like frightened sheep, yet their pursuit 
amounted to nothing." The truth was that the Federal 
army was in a great deal worse conditiou than Lee in 
his final retreat, (who took two hundred prisoners a few 
moments before surrendering at Appomatox Court-House,) 
and if the cavalry of Manassas had corresponded to that 
of our enemy's in the last fight, there is no reason why 
the whole of the Federal army should not have been 
bagged. 



48 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



As for what followed after the battle,* all of the military 
rules were observed, and by ordinary prudential lights the 
war was prolonged as well this way as perhaps by any 
other means that could have been adopted. But this 
policy did not correspond to the wishes and dreams of the 
men, who were, from impatience of camp life and disci- 

*Fxtract from the Adjutant's Journal. 

July 22d — Raining'' this morning ; rode down the turnpike towards Centrevillet 
the route of the fleeing column; we pass large numbers of prisoners coming in! 
the road is strewn with guns, clothing and dead men; abiudoned ambulances 
and wagons — some filled with wine and luxuries of every kind. Many citizens, 
members of Congress and others, came with the Federal Army to " see the fun ;" 
ladies came as far as Centreville — we have seen several carriages coming in. 

At Cub Run suspension bridge, everything is jammed and smashed up. Cap- 
it red here a good supply of red blankets and overcoats, which were distributed 
o the men on returning to camp. 

24 — The enemy has fallen back to Washington, and everything is supposed to 
be in a great confusion. In fact, persons coming from there say, all organization 
is gone ; why we don't move on and enter Washington, Pres. Davis and Gen. 
Beauregard best know. 

August 1st — Still encamped at our old camp-ground, going through the dull 
routine of camp life. We see many visitors daily who have come onto visit the 
battlefield; we are kept busy riding about and pointing out objects of interest; 
enough of the exploded caissons belonging to Sherman's Battery, has been 
carried away to build a house ; we live splendidly : Chickens, eggs, vegetables, 
milk, ice, and claret, pate de foi gras, sardines, etc. Mr. Slidell of New Orleans, 
visits our camp ; we are now according to the papers, the famous Washington 
Artillery. 

Sept. — Change our camp to Centreville, call it Camp Orleans — it is laid out 
beautifully, and the Third Company has its streets covered by an arbor of 
branches and leaves. 

Oct. — Move camp to Fairfax C. H., (ramp Benjamin.) 

Nov. — The Army falls back to Centreville; fortification thrown up on the height; 
our camp is near Gen. Beauregard ; a new supply of tents have been sent us from 
New Orleans; our camp looks very pretty. 

Dec. 25 — Begin building winter quarters on Bull Run, on the old battle field of 
the 18th July. 

30 — The winter quarter camp is laid out, regularly, with a street for each Com- 
pany ; the houses are of logs, and are rooled with planks, and all have glass 
windows ; the officers have double houses, two rooms on a line and at right 
angles with the Company Street, the staff on a line in rear of the Company's 
Officers, the long stable for the horses are in front of the camp, as is also the 
park of Guns. 

Jan. — Gen. Beauregard and Staff have left us: have been ordered to the West; 
much regret is felt at his being removed. Gen. Joe Johnston is in command; 
we have but 30,000 men here, and learn that McClellan is massing a large force 
at Alexandria; we anticipate a retreat from our present position ; we have some 
sport; one day it was fighting a snow ball battle with St. Paul's Chasseurs 
Batallion. 

March 6— Attached to Gen. Longstreet's Division by order of Gen. Johnston. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 49 



pline, compelled to die a thousand deaths, and rot away 
in idleness. In the same way that in times of revolution, 
the public prefers the bloodiest tragedies on the stage, or 
that the soldier selects the wildest and most bizarre novel 
for camp reading — in the same way ought our generals to 
have found work for an army, upon whose ranks, inaction 
was more fatal than the bullets of the enemy. For a 
cause that from the first could not hope for success, if con- 
tinued on until one side or the other was exhausted, 
appeals to extraordinary motives should have been made, 
daring chances should have been encountered, the feelings 
and passions which make a frenzied people superior to all 
military force, should have been stirred up. To do some- 
thing was the true policy of the Confederacy. Our troops 
were then the flower of the South, men capable of extra- 
ordinary things. They could have been made to dis- 
perse and re-assemble, in and out of the enemy's coun- 
try — as was once done by a Roman conspirator who, 
finding his six hundred men surrounded, ordered each 
man to shift for himself and report at Rome, hundreds of 
miles distant. Any plan as Avild for instance, as that of 
Mahomet and his few followers who broke down the East- 
ern Roman Empire, would have been better than slow 
strategy, where our enemy had every advantage in 
military resources, in the facility of filling up their regi- 
ments with foreigners, and in the more patient temper of 
the troops. The fact that the South sent so many men of 
education and accomplishments into the ranks, lying about 
camps idle for months, was an evidence of the devotion 
of her people, and at the same time of the heavy strain 
there was upon her. A man ignorant of fencing, and who 
fights without rules, will frequently disconcert his expe- 
rienced antagonist ; on the same principle having to meet 



50 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



a foe who would always be better prepared than himself 
for standing a long war. the South ought to have adopted 
a policy which savored rather of madness and desperation 
than one of retreats. v 

Possibly the war in this way would have been ended in 
a few months. If so the means suggested were the best. 
If otherwise, it ought to have been the best reason for 
preventing the total destruction of property in the South.* 

*Col. J. B. Walton, states that the Batallion carried into various portions of 
the line on the 21st, thirteen guns under the commands of Miller, Lewis, Richard- 
son, Squires, Rosser, Slocomb, Battles, Xoreom, Garnett, and Whittington, three 
rifled six pounders, and the balance 4 twelve pound howitzers and smooth six 
pounders. The battery under Lieut. Squires, received the first fire l'rom the 
enemy's guns. Fire was shortly after opened by Lieut. Richardson ; Sergeant 
Owen dismounted one of the enemy's guns. About 10 a. m., the artillery was 
upon the crest struggled for during the day, subject to a terrific fire, the men 
working as silently and composedly as when on ordinary drill, until the fire of 
the enemy was silenced. About 1 p. m., Lieut. Squires took position on the 
Stone Bridge Road, and opened fire upon the retreating columns of the enemy 
until ordered (momentarily) by Gen. Johnston to save our ammunition; soon 
after, having obtained their range, our shots fell like target practice upon an 
enemy retreating by thousands. "The last gun of the 21st was fired from one 
of the rifles of my battery." Sergeant. J. D. Reynolds, killed — wounded, Cor- 
poral E. C. Payne, 1st Company; G. L. Crutcher, 4th Company. 

Gen. Beauregard in his report says, that two pieces of the Washington Artil- 
lery under Richardson, four under Imboden, confronted Hentzleman's Division, 
and another at about 11 a. m. The Confederates then had only Evans, (Wheat's 
gallant Batallion,) Bee and Bartow, and two Companies of the 11th .Miss. Against 
this odds, scarcely credible, our advanced position was for a while maintained, 
and the enemy's ranks constantly broken and shattered under the scorching fire 
of our men. Col. Early, with the "7th Va., and Hay's 7th La., came on the ground 
immediately after Elzy, and took position near the Chinn House, under a severe 
fire, outflanking the enemy s right. At this moment, under a combined attack 
all along the line, and by the aid of the fresh troops, we finally carried the con- 
tested plateau, and "Early's Brigade pursued the now panic-stricken enemy." — 
Beauregard's report, battle, of Manassas. 

Telegram sent of the Battle of Manassas. 

Richmond, July 24— {Crescent 25th.) Out of the four hundred of Wheat's 
Command engaged, less than a hundred escaped being either killed or wounded. 
The Catahoula Guerillas, Capt. Bahoup, belonging to the Batallion, fought with 
desperation. 

Letter from a, mem/irr of Wheat's Batallion. 

(Crescent, August 1st 1861.) On Sunday 21st, at sunrise, the enemy commenced 
throwing shot and shell among us ; the enemy fired as if all hell had been 
set loose. Flat upon our faces we received their showers of balls; a moment's 
pause, and we rose, closed upon them with fierce yells, clubbing our rifles and 
using our long knives. This hand to hand fight lasted until fresh reinforcements 
drove us back — we carrying our wounded with us. Major Wheat was here 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 51 



CHAPTER VIII 

CAMP LIFE. 

After the battle, we had for some months* no other inci- 

shot from his horse ; Capt. White's horse was shot under him ; our 1st. Lieut. 
Dick Hawkins, was wounded, shot through the breast and wrist, and any number 
of killed and wounded were strewn all about. 

The ]Sew York Fire Zouaves, seeing our momentary confusion, gave three 
cheers' and started for us, but it was the last shout that most of them ever gave. 
We covered the ground with their dead and dying, and had driven them beyond 
their first position, when just then we heard, three cheers for the Tigers, and 
Louisiana. The struggle was decided. The gallant Seventh had "double-quicked" 
it for nine miles, and came rushing into the fight. They fired as they came 
within point blank range, and charged with fixed bayonets. 

When the fight and pursuit were over, we were drawn up in line and received 
the thanks of Gen. Johnston, for what he termed our extraordinary and desperate 
stand; Gen. Beauregard sent word to Major Wheat, "you, and your Batallion, 
for this day's work, shall never be forgotten, whether you live or die." 

CAMP AND GENERAL RECORD. 

*Our Batallion sustained, during its first year, a severe loss in the resignation 
of some of its best officers, among whom were Capt. Isaacson and Lieutenants 
Lewis, Slocomb, Whittington and Adams, whose talents had greatly contributed 
to the successful organization of the Batallion in its infancy, and most of whom 
afterwards did good service in other companies. The truth was, that an officers' 
duties involved so much constant care and trouble, that the position was scarcely 
to be envied, and we had a good many instances of officers from other corps who 
honored us by entering our ranks, and like D'Artagnon and his friends of the 
"Three Guardsmen," were contented to do the duty of a private soldier iu 
preference to holding command. 

.Aug. 7. — The Louisiana troops now concentrated at Brenville, near Centreville. 
The 6th and 7th Regiments and Wheat's Batallion near by, Col. Seymour com- 
manding. The time is now arrived for concentrating them all in one brigade. 
Hon. John Slidell and Warren Stone among the visitors. 

Aug. 24th. — The Washington Artillery in New Orleans, turn over $1280 as the 
result of a concert given to assist destitute families. 

Aug. 16. — Prince Napoleon (Plon-Plon) a guest of Beauregard for two days. 
The news was soon transmitted by some waggish skirmisher that " Old Fuss and 
Feathers" had beeu bagged at last, and the Prince enjoyed the joke largely, until 
a Georgia regiment was met, which manifested a disposition to anticipate the 
action of a court martial. 

Oct. 20th, 1861. — The first and second company stationed on Munson's Hill. 
The first had been sent to different points on secret expeditions, one of which 
was going thirteen miles in the enemy's lines, surprising a camp, etc. 

Nov. 26. — Amount expended and due for equipping State soldiers up to date, 
beside private contributions, $2,300,000. Gov. Moore states that "the Secretary 
of the Confederate States made his first requisition on me tor three thousand 
volunteers in April. Before this was filled, the Secretary made a second requi- 
sition for five thousand men. In July a third was made for three thousand 
more. Eight of these regiments and two batallions are now in Virginia, one in 
Mississippi, three in Kentucky, and five within our own State. There have been 
besides fourteen companies of infantry mustered in for the special defence of 
this State, and four companies of artillery. Thirteen other companies are at 
Camp Lewis — making an aggregate of 20,202, raised by the State, besides, as 
I believe, 3891 men of independent organizations, or 24,003 in all." — Governor 
Moore's Message, Nov. 26, 1861. 



52 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



dents in our life than the changing from one camp to 
another — the distribution of uniforms, drill, guard-mount- 
ing and an occasional detail to go with the wagons to 
Manassas Station to get corn and provisions. This latter 
duty or privilege, of riding in a six-mule wagon, driven 
at full speed, which almost jolted the teeth out of you, 
was regarded in somewhat the same light at that day as 
a drive over the shell road would be now. It was a hap- 
piness to get a half a dozen miles from camp, and besides 
that we had a chance of meeting up with friends from 
other organizations; and, if we had any money, of spend- 
ing it. These meetings were not, however, generally very 
satisfactory, and resulted only in showing how men let 
down as they soldiered on. If the writer of the "Guide 
to Politeness" had had his rations of water limited to 
what he could carry in his canteen, it is doubtful whether 
he would have insisted so strongly that no man could be 
a gentleman who did not wash his face at least once every 
day Possibly, too, in time he would have had his views 
modified as to the amount of mud upon a man's back or 
straw in his hair admissible in strictest drawing room 
etiquette. Count D'Orsay and Beau Brummel would in 
the end have become disgusted at having to substitute a 
tin plate, a la Jack Strop, for a Venitian mirror — to trying 
to imagine that his frying pan at dinner represented costly 
plate or Sevres china, or to using clothes brushes to which 
the backs of the battery horses might have advanced 
superior claims. We were so overwhelmed with absurd 
changes and variations upon all ordinary modes of living, 
that things became, after a while, as was said by the 
Texan (when he saw every thing he owned burned down 
or destroyed) " perfectly ridiculous." 

The worst of it was, too, that though somebody was 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 53 



always falling a victim to these contre temps or innovations, 
the jokes gotten off about them would not always be of 
the most original or outrageously funny sort. They sel- 
dom, for many of us, amounted to much beyond awaken- 
ing a sad smile, the first time they were told; and they 
did not pan out any better as they grew in age. But 
with the majority they wore well, like army clothing; 
and they were a well-spring of joy to a good many old 
buffers, whose heart}' haw-haws would at the same time 
reward the narrators, each time they were told, and 
threaten the stability of our rather rickety tents. 

One of these standing camp jokes I may as well mention 
here, as an illustration of what tent-life is in summer, 
rather than from any fondness for inflicting old stories. 
It was about some man who went dead in some particu- 
larly hot camp, and whose ghost, some nights after, 
haunted his old comrades ; not because of any remorse, 
or for the reasons that ghosts usually come. The ghost's 
real reason, he stated in answer to a cross-examination 
upon the subject was, that hell was so cold compared 
with the heat of camp, that the place seemed to have 
burned down and frozen over, and he had consequently 
got a leave of absence to come back for his blanket. This 
joke had a big run in both armies; in fact there was only 
one other that was oftener quoted; that of the sutler who 
found he had to compete in selling whisky with a chap who 
had gone behind his tent, and who, with aid of a gimlet, 
was underselling him from the sutler's own barrel. One 
of the yarns said to have secured the passage of the 
conscript law, was told of an officer who had leave of 
absence to go home and raise a volunteer regiment, six 
months after we learned what soldiering was. When the 
Secretary of State inquired how he was getting on, the 
7 



54 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



officer reported that he had not yet made any enlistments, 
but that he had had his eye on a d — d fine looking recruit. 

In the days when it began to be said that one had to 
take a good wallow in the mud to make himself respecta- 
ble, the visitor who had the hardihood to appear in camp 
in citizen's clothes had a terrible gauntlet to run in the 
way of advice, suggestions and comments. How many 
kind voices would extend him invitations to " Come out 
of that hat," with such corroborative hints thrown out to 
convince him that he ought to act promptly, as that his 
legs were "sticking out." It would be pointed out that 
his Parrot shell hat might explode; and if a timid turn, 
he would be agonizingly warned for "God sake to lie down, 
we are going to explode a cap." The joke was not always 
confined to the civilian; it was just as exasperating if you 
were a grand officer and prancing around in gold lace, to 
create no other effect than the shout of, "Here's your 
mule." 

But as has already been said, a soldier's life is too hard, 
too much like that of a frontiersman or gambler's, to 
admit of much sentiment or generosity. The instinct of 
self-preservation prevails; "everything for me — nothing 
for you" was the rule generally carried out. Men in 
those days who had been accustomed at home to jovial 
dissipation in midnight suppers, with a crowd of similar 
spirits, bent on amusement or excitement, would some- 
times go off alone to the station, from the various regi- 
ments and make a small investment in fire water. Now, 
happiness ! This would consist in stealing off to the shade 
of a fence corner, or of getting under the wagon, if its pro- 
tection had not already been previously pre-empted, and 
the happy proprietor would then think that happiness con- 
sisted in having a full canteen, and being untroubled by 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 55 



flies. Soldiering, which is founded on rough military rule 
inculcates the principle of looking very carefully after 
self, and it is not easy to remember many names who very 
often lost sight of this rule — possibly because they had 
nothing to give, but there were times when, in spite of the 
hard life by which we were surrounded, their better 
nature would crop out. We could give our lives for our 
country, but found it hard frequently to divide some 
trifling comfort. 

But once in a while the old spirit would flash up, and 
the generous disposition shine forth. For instance, it was 
the fortune of one of us at the battle of Manassas to get 
run over by a caisson full of ammunition, and with eight 
or ten men on it besides. The battle was not over, and 
any one who had a flask of liquor, was likely enough to 
need it himself. This fact, however, did not keep Jack 

C— from generously extending the last drink in his 

flask. To know the value of this act, one must have sol- 
diered or traveled across the plains. 

On the other hand a wounded man of an adjoining 
regiment was carried off by a comrade from where he was, 
bleeding to death, and sent to a hospital, Avhere he recov- 
ered. The two men came together again in Pizini's Res- 
taurant — the wounded man eating ice-cream, his brother 
soldier without a cent of money, and as hungry as a thirty 
miles march could make him. The man who had been 
wounded did take the trouble to lay down his spoon long 
enough to shake hands, but that was all. His omission 
to offer his comrade a crnst of bread proba.bly arose from 
forgetfulness or lack of more money, as he at any rate 
gave his life to his country. 

Once a man who had one of his legs shot off, begged so 
hard for his life that some of us picked him up and carried 



56 A Soldier's Story of the War. 

him away, although it was rather a neglect of duty, as the 
firing might at any moment have recommenced. This 
poor fellow had a pocket book containing $2.50 which he 
gave to one of us to carry, and which was handed back to 
him when he was put down. The man counted over the 
Confederate money attentively, in spite of the pain he 
must have suffered from his wound, and rather intimated 
that twenty-five cents were missing. But he got over this 
feeling presently, and then offered us about fifteen cents a 
piece for having saved his life. It was a noble offer on 
his part, as he proceeded to tell us that he was wounded 
and helpless, and would need the money more than we did. 
Some of us helped off a Federal soldier who was similarly 
wounded ; he afterwards met one of our command as a 
prisoner, and gave him a piece of tobacco, and an old 
knife, both of which he begged from somebody else, by 
way of showing that he wished to do what was right. 
Some such gossiping comments as those above made, 
would occur as likely as not, while we were marching side 
by side on the road, when some comrade had been suffi- 
ciently rich and generous to buy a flask of liquor and 
divide its contents with his friends, or where a detail 
had purchased the article by forming a joint stock associa- 
tion. I shall tell, and then proceed, one more incident 
which I heard in a similar crowd, by way of showing that 
we sometimes become hard-feeling and brutal, but after- 
wards saw our selfishness in its truest light: Tom C 

was a gallant Louisiana Sergeant, who had been wounded 
in every fight he went into, and whose jnosition near the 
colors made it certain in his own mind that he always 
would have the same luck. Passing through Atlanta 
towards the] close of the war, on his way to Chattanooga, 
he mentioned his presentment to a relative, who told him 



A Soldier s Story of the War. 57 



to telegraph back any casualty he might meet with, if he 

had a chance. C went into battle, his color-sergeant 

was wounded and the colors fell on C . He had 

not proceeded far with them, before he was shot through 
both hips. A friend gave him a plug of tobacco and a 
canteen of water, promised to send his telegram, and the 
regiment moved on. The doctor came around and refused 
to move him or dress his wound, as it appeared beyond 
cure, and thousands of others were suffering. Tom lay 
there for two days, was carried from the field by his rela- 
tive, and ultimately recovered enough to hobble about on 
crutches. 

About the time he had recovered enough for him to 
take the cars and go home, a comrade came to the same 
house whom Tom had once helped when in great danger, 
and which comrade, if he had been so disposed, could now 
have rendered Tom a good manv little services. But his 
friend did nothing of the sort. Tom, who was not only 
very polite and respectful, but almost reverent towards 
every woman, had found warm friends in the household 
among the lady inmates, who rightly regarded him as a 
hero, and had it not been for the coming of his handsome 
and showy comrade, probably Tom, in spite of his crip- 
pled condition, would have carried away the heart of one 
of the party But after his fellow soldiers arrival a cloud 
came over Tom's fortunes ; his simple stories, and honest, 
artless comments upon life lost their freshness and charm ; 
his sweetheart took or seemed to take a fancy for his com- 
rade, and he began to suspect that his friends were getting 
weary of rendering service to a cripple. He left one 
morning with a heavy heart. He had to start at day- 
light on a chilly, tempestuous morning, and as it was with 
the utmost difficulty Tom could drag one foot along after 



58 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



the other, he had hoped that his comrade would take inter, 
est enough in him to help him into the carriage, and assist 
him at the cars. But this comrade who had been talking to 
the ladies late the night before, and who was very sleepy 
at the moment of departure, did nothing of the sort. He 
simply rubbed off enough sleep from his eyes to be able to 
yawn a "Good bye, old fellow — if I wasn't so d — d sleepy 
I'd go and help you off.'' This was the last that the two 
men saw of each other. 

But if Tom had seen the ladies at the breakfast table, 
and seen especially the flashing eyes of the young lady he 
loved, he would not have been unavenged. His comrade 
was told plainly that she could not see how one soldier 
could be so profoundly selfish and indifferent to a wounded 
fellow soldier; and there were no more smiles henceforth 
for him in that house. 

The man that told the story said it was himself that 
had treated Tom C. so badly ; and he thought his conduct 
was as shabby as the ladies had represented, when he had 
been a little while longer out of camp, and began to look 
at things unbiassed by the selfishness which soldiering 
naturally makes. 

I speak about such little incidents, because every man 
worth speaking of, had to do or see some practical sol- 
diering, and in all probability held an obscure position and 
has a hundred little remembrances in his own history 
similar to the above. Nearly every reader knows how it 
was himself, because in all likelihood he as a good citizen, 
"just went along," without bothering much about the 
matter, whether he was a soldier, or held high position. 
There are other and better narratives, which tell of our 
brilliant officers who were every moment galloping by 
with jingling spurs, gold lace and scarlet sashes ; and who 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 59 



for all mention made of the soldier in their pages — did 
pretty much all the service and hard fighting by them- 
selves. It deserves however to be stated, while confining 
myself mainly to an outline of a soldier's life, that nearly 
all of our Southern officers, were too proud to fare any 
better than their men ; and practically in their lives, 
carried out the example of Alexander, when he threw 
away a cup of water in presence of his thirsty troops. 

It deserves to be said that they went in with all of their 
combativeness to the surface — bracing themselves in the 
stirrup, with a lusty wave of their sword, and using a mus- 
ket like a soldier ; or later in the war, sitting still on horse- 
back meditatively, as if each man in a regiment had 
learned what to do, and as if it was better not to bother 
it with any interference in action, or interruption. The 
latter was really the style of fighting that prevailed 
with the veteran regiments. The men kept on as long 
as they felt that they were doing any good, and then if 
not satisfied, as if putting it to a vote, would stalk dis- 
gustedly off. The tone of the officers in the few cases, 
when no general command had been given to fall back, 
would be that of obstinate jurors, or that of a man in a 
stage-coach who has been detained, and asks his fellow- 
passengers to wait with him a little while longer, till he 
gets through with his dinner. An officer's troops would 
always stay with him, when there seemed to them any 
sense in the men keeping on, and sometimes would refuse 
to retire, when ordered to fall back. The best evidence 
of this, is the fact in such battles as Malvern Hill and 
Gettysburg, the storming brigades of the Confederate 
troops lost forty-four per ct. more than Napoleon ever lost 
or than was lost in the Franco-German war. The official 
reports of Gen. Gordon showed that the losses amounted 



60 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



to one man in every three wounded — one man in every 
ten, killed in one battle, not to speak of absentees or 
prisoners. There were brigades where the killed and 
wounded were over one half. 



C H AFTER IX 

A WARLIKE HOTEL. 

I ought not to have left so far behind all mention of 
Manassas station, which point every soldier had more or 
less occasion to visit during the first year of the war, and 
about which every one who then did duty has probably a 
thousand recollections to relate. Apart from its military 
value, it was the most uninteresting place in existence. In 
rainy weather, when the wagon trains of the whole army 
came to it every day, the mud was at least two feet deep — 
so deep that a horse would sink up to his belly, or in walk- 
ing a square on foot, one would have his boots pulled off 
his feet, at least a half dozen times. Beside the cake and 
pie stands, the most conspicuous feature about the station 
was Belcher's Hotel — a building almost as large as the City 
Hotel, though the prices for meals and lodging were 
rather higher. The walls were rushed up very much 
like a barn or stable, where the wind on cold nights would 
whistle through the cracks or intervals of the planks, 
which were at least a half inch apart. The building was 
too stories high, and was heated when cold weather came 
on by an immense stove whose smoke all settled inside. 

There was always a large crowd surrounding the stove, 
though they never remained in their seats more than ten 
minutes at a time, on account of the smoke. Most of the 
men who surrounded it appeared like the Blind Calendars 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 61 



mentioned in the Arabian Nights story, and sat with their 
eyes firmly closed. Candles about the building were con- 
sequently of no use. The last thing you did at night was 
to wash your eyes in cold water, if you could find any, 
and the first thing in the morning — to get out of the 
building as quick as you could, strike for camp, and swear 
you would never enter it again. It was destroyed, with 
everything about Manasses, when Gen. Johnston made 
the first of his everlasting retreats, together with a very 
large amount of Commissary stores, and every other build- 
ing there was about the place. 

We had occasion to do some hard fighting in a few miles 
of this famous depot, when Lee was chasing Pope out of 
his "Head-quarters (or hind-quarters as the joke was) in 
the saddle;" but we never got to see it again until after 
the war. At that time the innumerable wagon roads that 
seemed to lead eveiywhere, had disappeared, though the 
fences were still absent. But the town of Manassas has 
sprung up more prosperously than it had ever been known 
to be before. A new quarry of red sandstone had been 
discovered — new stores had been erected from this, as well 
as a printing office, and a comfortable hotel. Faint traces of 
the old breast- works could just be discovered, overgrown 
with grass, and that was all. 

One of the pleasantest of our resting places I can 
remember, was one known as Camp Orleans. This was, 
perhaps, on account of the shade — perhaps because we 
had some distance to go for water, and thus had a better 
opportunity of getting out of camp limits. The spring 
was the great centre of attraction for our own batallion, 
two or three Louisiana regiments, and the Tigers, Guer- 
rillas and other companies, who composed the gallant 
Colonel Wheat's Batallion.. A little distance off was a 



62 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



little village, known as Centreville, pretty much aban- 
doned by its ancient inhabitants to sutlers, ready made 
forts, quaker guns and all the paraphernalia of war. I 
remember nothing in the way of incident connected with 
the place, except the pleasure we all experienced at the 
commencement of the Indian Summer, at sometimes hav- 
ing to stand guard over the Commissary tent, where there 
were sometimes a few perquisites of office, and at once 
having an opportunity of rescuing a couple of ladies from 
a runaway team of horses. That is, the horses actually 
ran away, and by rescuing them, I mean that one of us 
had the honor of helping them from the carriage after 
the horses had stopped and the danger was over. 

Then the whole army went to Fairfax and did nothing 
particularly worthy of mention, except to execute a beau- 
tiful retreat, which was much gloated over at the time, 
and which simply amounted to striking our tents and 
burning everything we did not want to carry back with 
us, immediately after firing off a sky-rocket. It took us 
all night and part of the next day to get back to camp 
from about the same place where we started. 

Our next camp was called Camp Hollins, and here we 
were again getting into all sorts of scrapes. We kept our 
quarters in excellent condition, cutting broom-straw, which 
grew plentifully, for pallets, and generally having a rather 
pleasant time around camp fires, dodging smoke, telling 
stories, and borrowing from our comrade's tobacco pouch, 
where there was an opening. We had some drills and 
fancy parades, but these were almost the last we were to 
have. Once in a while some improvidential youth would 
be detected in furtively making use of a government 
horse to visit friends at a distance, and sometimes there 
would be a court-martial or two, resulting from this grave 



A Soldier's Story of tlie War. 63 



violation of discipline. The same party of ladies who 
had been rescued from the runaway chariot, were the 
cause of the exercise of one of these exhibitions of camp 
discipline; and if the reader will picture to himself the 
difficulty of obtaining a horse under patrol of two or 
three guardsmen — riding a dozen miles during a snow 
storm, where your horse would fall down three and four 
times in descending long and slippery hills, he will have an 
idea of the restless feeling produced when you are kept 
a long time inactive in camp. Then we were ordered all 
of a sudden to go to cutting down trees, chopping them off 
in prescribed lengths, and then hauling them to a new 
camping ground, preparatory to building winter quarters. 
We soon acquired sufficient experience to lay those notched 
logs one upon the other, and cover them over with shingles 
prepared for the purpose; and when this was done, with 
the addition of a rough puncheon floor, window sash, 
brought in by parties on horseback from some remote 
abandoned house, and a door, the habitation of a dozen 
men was in short measure completed. 



LETTER WRITTEN IN TENT. 



Cextreville, Dec. 6th, 1861. — This will be my last 
letter from this place, so at least our officers encourage us so 
to believe, and feeling that we are thus encouraged for some 
wise purpose, we give fancy free rein in laying out plans for 
the future, quartering ourselves for instance in Richmond, 
and dancing and reveling through the winter solstice with 
the natives. Meanwhile, time drags wearily enough. Dur 
only amusement is to build air castles (I wish it was winter 
quarters) around a big fire and dodge the smoke, and should 
we remain here, I think more of us will die from too 
much Centreville on the brain, than from all other causes 



64 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



whatever. I don't say that the town is any more dull 
and sensationless than many others that we both have 
probably passed through ; but it seems so to us. I doubt 
if an incident or adventure ever took place within its 
dreary limits, unless the necessity of passing through or 
of staying all night, of some benighted traveler in such a 
God-forsaken collection of boards, might be regarded in 
that light. Society of the softer sex, there is none, coffee- 
houses, there are none. A blacksmith shop, a few stores 
kept by men who swindle the careless soldier at extremely 
cheap rates, and the ghost of a hotel so unredeemably 
dismal, that a night spent in a snow bank would be prefer- 
able to entering its portals ; these and a few other houses, 
built upon an almost perpendicular street, constitute the 
town. 

From this atmosphere, a few friends of different regi- 
ments, together with myself, resolved for one day to escape. 
Freedom, though only for a few hours, was a sufficient 
motive for me, but with my friends, a determination to 
obtain a lost dog, was an additional inducement. Our con- 
versation naturally turned upon the qualities of this faith- 
ful follower of man, and from my friends I learned that 
his complexion was a billious, soap colored yellow, that 
his body was bereft of its tail, and that his legs were dis- 
proportionately long for his body, had it not been curtailed 
of its narrative already. What the use of this sorry cur 
was, I was unable to ascertain, as the mere asking of such 
a question might have been construed by a soldier's mind, 
into an affront. But, I learned that the mere permission 
to hunt for him required the signatures of half the officers 
in the regiment, besides one or two Brigadier-Generals, in 
order to pass the pickets. 

Gradually the conversation subsided into subjects of 



A Soldiers Story of the War. 65 



less interest, (excepting of course, inquiries of every "way- 
farer, in reference to the lost animal,) and one of the 
party, who seemed familiar with localities, and anxious to 
talk, pointed out surrounding objects of interest, Among 
others he described the occupant of a small house — two 
rooms and a small garret, which was, he said, familiar to 
soldiers as the "Widow's," and where those who were 
fortunate enough to have fifty cents were wont to repair 
for their meals. 

The doorway, continued my informant, is always 
thronged with a hungry crowd, under the eye of a senti- 
nel, of officers and privates, who restrain their impatience 
until the board is spread, by wallowing on the beds, or 
smoking pipes, with their legs above the kitchen mantle- 
pieces, ejecting saliva at the hissing stove. Whether the 
guests visit the widow from admiration of the sex, or the 
culinary art, my friend thought impossible to say, her pre- 
tensions to beauty and skill being about evenly balanced. 
But eating or love making, no one seems able to boast of 
much preference, her smiles being distributed with the 
same impartiality as the tit-bits, gizzards and livers of 
her table. 

Conspicuous at one time among the widow's admirers, 
was a sandy-haired youth with a "coming stomach," whom 
you may know as Charles. Charles's parti-colored ties, 
moccasin vests, bear greased locks, and glittering appear- 
ance generally, had constituted him at one time the cyno- 
sure of the bar-rooms and banquettes of your city ; but the 
sun of his glory has long since set, and nought remained 
of his former splendor, but a dirty shirt. His face bore 
but little evidence of a familiarity with water, while the 
tangled jungles of his head were equally untroubled with 
the inroads of brush or comb. His hands dangled at his 



66 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



side, coarse and dirty, like a couple of smoked hams, and in 
short, as mouldy and wilted a looking bird was Charles, 
as was to be found in the Confederate camp. It was about 
this time that chance led him to the widow's door. The 
visit awakened old memories, and was attended with pur- 
chase of a comb. The second interview involved the 
washing of his face and hands, and each succeeding visit 
was succeeded by a similar change and transformation. 
Whether this brilliant metamorphosis was wholly due to the 
humanizing influence of woman, or partly to his month's 
pay, and the holding of strong hands at poker, my 
informant did not take it upon him to say ; but at any rate, 
the moments of Charles, which are not absorbed in painting 
a pair of tremendous boots — tops, soles and all, are gener- 
ally whiled away in the widow's salons. 

Thus discoursing and listening to the statistics of another 
soldier, whose mind appeared to have been much occupied 
with the study of mules, wagons, and other means of con- 
veyancing not mentioned in law writers, not forgetting 
meanwhile, to make constant inquiries in reference to the 
missing dog, we passed through a country war-scathed, 
exhausted of almost every supply, and almost depopulated 
of its native inhabitants. No traces of anything like an 
inclosure were to be seen. 

The zig-zag worm fences had disappeared at the first 
appearance of winter, and a rail is now almost as much 
an object of curiosity as would be the presence of the great 
rail-splitter himself. Much was said at the time by the 
few farmers, who remained, about the destruction of their 
property, and stringent orders were issued from camp. 
But the soldiers, whose blood was freezing, were not in a 
condition to weigh calmly the difference between meum 
and team. It was doubtless good that farmers should 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 67 



have fences, thought the soldiers; but it was also good that 
patriots should keep warm, and so the last sign of one 
has long since disappeared. 

Our roads led us over the black waters of Bull Run, by 
the famous stone bridge and stone house, (the Hougomont 
Chateau of our Waterloo.) and through the memorable 
battle-field itself. The fallen trunks of the trees which 
were cut down to intercept the enemy's path near the 
bridge, are still remaining, and the broken, splintered tops 
of others attest where the whirlwind of battle has passed; 
otherwise, a few shreds and patches of cotton which mark 
the position of the batteries, a house almost destroyed by 
the balls and, lastly the graves of the dead, are the sole 
remaining indications of the greatest battle ever fought 
upon this continent. 

We had not proceeded many miles farther before we 
came to a house, which appeared to be still inhabited by 
its owners, and whose external appearance, and the savory 
smell from the kitchen, gave us some encouragement to 
hope for dinner. It is not generally thought necessary by 
the soldier to waste much time in knocking or pulling at 
the bell, and so we entered the parlor without further cer- 
emony By way of announcing our arrival, one of the 
party, in a large, broad-brimmed hat, and with blanket 
thrown around him, in Indian style, seated himself at the 
piano, and favored us with some music, with a touch 
about as light as would have been produced by a horse 
galloping across the keys. We had sung or rather shouted 
the Marseillaise and other airs, and one or two couple were 
waltzing in bonnets and other articles of female para- 
phernalia which Ave found in the room, when just at that 
moment the door opened, and through the dust which had 
been kicked out of the carpet, we saw the angry face of 



£6' A Soldier's Story of the War. 



the lady of the house. There was evidently no use of 
apologizing or attempting to mitigate her wrath. So put- 
tine on a courageous face, we told her we wanted dinner 
— we were ready to pay for it, and were obliged to have 
it — that we were not particular, and that anything in the 
way of chickens, eggs, butter, and other light dishes of 
that sort, would easily satisfy us. This we finally per- 
suaded her to give us, and before we had finished the 
meal, she admitted we were not as hard-looking cases as 
she at first thought us to be, and that we might, if we 
chose, return. Meanwhile, one of the party who had been 
out on the back porch, discovered the lost dog jTige, 
lying sleeping in the sun, and was beckoning, whistling, 
and employing all the endearing names which are gener- 
ally found most successful in attracting a dog's attention, 
but without avail. Tige seemed to be afflicted with the 
aristocratic affectation of deafness; but at the first move- 
ment that was made by the soldier in his direction, he 
uttered an indignant yelp, and sought refuge under the 
kitchen floor. His retreat was, however, useless. The 
lady of the house abandoned him to his fate, and the 
remainder of the party coining to the rescue, a part of the 
flooring was removed, and Tige was ignominiously dragged 
from his hiding place. His captor now took his prize 
under his arm, and bidding adieu to our hostess, we all 
started for camp. 

Our return was not attended with many incidents. The 
soldier who was so well informed on the subject of mules 
had rashly exhausted his stock of ideas in the morning, 
and so we trudged on through the mud in silence, by the 
side of the heavily laden wagon. Once, upon the way, 
one of us ventured to enter at the back of one of those 
wains, and had appropriated a seat beside what appeared 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 69 



to be a closely muffled soldier, but was not a little aston- 
ished to find, as he crowded into one-half of the seat, that 
it was in reality a lady. He was about to vacate the 
premises, with a profusion of apologies, when she laugh- 
ingly told him he might stay — that she wanted some one 
to talk to and would be glad of his company She was 
the wife of an officer, who, she proceeded to inform me, (I 
might as well admit it was myself,) had come on a flying 
visit to look after her truant husband. 

But the road soon forked. I had besides to get down 
and show my pass to the sentinel, who examined it very 
carefully up side down. Here, too, our faithless cur availed 
himself of a moment's freedom, and took to his heels, and 
although we made the air vocal with Tige's name, we 
soon found, as one of my disappointed comrades gravely 
observed, "all hell couldn't whistle him back." 

We gained our camp without further adventure, and I 
soon fell asleep, dreaming that I led the hostess of the 
day to the altar in the dress of a Vivandier, and that 
your Fat Contributor acted as grooms-man, in a flannel 
shirt and red-topped boots. Fishback. 



CHAPTER X 

IN WINTER QUARTERS. 



There is nothing about which soldiers more pride them- 
selves, or about which they show more jealousy, than in 
retaining the few fair acquaintances it was their fortune, 
during their marches, to make. Whether it was the pas-, 
try cook and her little girls who sold pies at Centreville, 
the village teacher, elderly, motherly old ladies, or dashing, 
9 



70 A Soldier's Story of the War, 



showy belles, who would move around on horseback, or 
travel in the ambulance wagon, most of the young men 
were keenly sensitive to their good opinion, and however 
awkward, backward or indifferent to ladies' society at 
home, would always put the best foot forward, where the 
presence of the fair was to be met with about camp. For 
them the immaculate collar, which had only been worn on 
a half dozen state occasions, would be carefully extracted 
and adjusted — your neighbor's high-top boots would be 
borrowed, and a contribution generally levied on the 
slender stock of effects admitted by camp wardrobes. 

The most amusing part of the matter was the way 
in which the old soldier would continue to adapt their 
appearance, manners, or past history to the ideas of their 
new friends, and it need hardly be said that the traveler's 
privilege of relating wonderful and marvelous stories was 
not forgotten. Old sporting characters soon learned how 
to dandle babies in their arms, or rock cradles in the most 
domestic manner in the world, or to sanctimoniously join 
in hymns with as much fervor as they had in times past 
trolled out bacchanal songs. Some of these old soldiers 
acquired extraordinary proficiency in the use of the long 
bow, however it might be with the artillery practice. 
We had a saturnine, red-faced company commissary, who 
was with the Washington Regiment in the Mexican war? 
a thorough martinet in all military matters, and who never 
wearied of relating wild and hair-breadth narratives of 
personal adventure — all with the most gloomy composure. 
As showing what this gallant soldier had achieved, it may 
be stated that he was present at one massacre, and was 
the only man who escaped. It ought to be recorded, too, 
as a part of history, that he once had a conducta of Mex- 
can wagons and mule trains, laden with gold, to bring 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 71 



through a mountain pass, and was almost certain his con- 
voy would be attacked and captured by robbers. What 
was he to do? Why, to make up a party at Monte at the first 
pueblo with a Mexican propriedor of the richest mine in the 
world, and who happened very conveniently to be on hand 
at the time. The game was made — the unhappy old sol- 
dier soon found to his chagrin that somehow he could not 
lose — that he won as many wagon loads as he already 
held, and that he was now burthened with a dozen more 
impedimenta. His apprehensions proved well founded — 
just as he had finished acquiring this embaras de richesse, the 
guerrillas ~ struck the train, as he all along expected, 
and had captured every thing. And worse than that," 
would the old soldier conclude with great energy, " d — n 
my Confederate soul if they did not take every rag from 
our backs — even from a party of young ladies who were 
along with the conducta, on their way to a convent. We 
made a pretty figure, let me tell you, when at the end of 
our journey we were all carried into aposada, wrapped up 
in sheets and horse blankets." 

There were plenty others, like Henry Phelps, who had 
a good deal to say about Mexico, or like the Hon. Ned 
Riviere (of the last legislature,) and Sam Rousseau, (the 
brother of the Federal General,) who had soldiered in 
Central America, under Walker, and who were accorded 
the privilege of distinguished travelers in telling of a 
hundred mile march made in one day, or of having rations 
of monkey meat distributed out, as our armies did bacon. 
But they were overawed when Commissary Hart was 
about, and never put forth their full strength or quite did 
themselves justice in his presence. 

Then there would be another heavy conversationalist 
who had had some experience at sea, and who finding the 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



land well occupied, was compelled to take to salt water, 
and told as exciting sea-stories about Confederate rams, 
blockade runners and submarine boats, as Sinbad and 
Maryatt could have done. We had several of that sort, 
who used to practice and polish up their yarns at night, 
around camp fires, preparatory to the next "pirout;" and 
these artless raconteurs would have a queer group of 
eccentricities gathered around in long blanket coats, with 
cowls, one here and there in a Mexican jacket or red 
flannel drawers, while a third would be tink-a-tinking at 
the guitar. There was a mess of queer fish, who from 
having some defects of temper, were forced to occupy the 
same winter quarters — an eccentric poet in one case, in 
another a cynical prodigal, who had spent a pretty fortune 
in a few months, on friends who had politely laughed in 
his face when his money was gone; another, singular to 
state, was the nice man at home, who played on the piano 
and parted his hair in the middle. But defects are devel- 
oped in other ways in camp than with a comb, and the 
musician, though engaged to marry a beautiful and wealthy 
girl at home, (perhaps on account of it,) finally left us 
with a never-ending furlough. 

One night there came a singular report in camp. It was 
whispered that a move the next morning was to be the 
word, and there was an immense amount of bustle and 
packing in consequence. When we went to bed we were 
only permitted to sleep till three the next morning, and 
were^then aroused without bugle call. And after cooking, 
as was done by the Grand Army at Moscow, over the 
flames of our burning quarters, and eating (in part) our 
rations and good many baker's dozen of biscuit, and 
drinking a tin cup of coffee each man, we took our places 
rather silently at the pieces and moved off. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



We are now upon the first of our retreats — the retreat 
from Manassas to Richmond. A frosty morning shows us 
the whole Confederate army drawn up in the road, the 
men facing towards Richmond. There is a slight tremor 
or depression at first, indicative of a fear that something 
has gone wrong, or else we would not have to fall back ; 
this soon wears away ; and the infantry meanwhile march 
with arms at will, and the air of men who carry heavy 
burthens, and with that movement which indicates that 
long marching is before them At the head, or in front 
of their divisions and regiments, ride the men whose 
names occupy the page — sometimes the lying page — of 
history, flanked by cavalry outriders and a cloud of skir- 
mishers. Then come the slow moving trains of ammuni- 
tion, supplies, and ambulances containing the sick and 
wounded. 

As the day advances, and we discern that the retreat 
is not the result of any anticipated misfortune, the men, 
who are glad of any break in camp monotony, regain their 
spirits. 

To understand the first comment frequently made about 
this and other long retreats, the resident of New Orleans 
should take a look at the large, liic-sized picture, which 
represents Napoleon's retreat from Moscow The dead 
horse, and attendant scavengers — the broken down waeron 
or forge — abandoned equipments, the sick and wounded by 
the wayside, make up some of the details at which many 
of us looked very hard before enlisting, and of which 
we thought very frequently afterwards. This picture 
was brought to mind by one of the dreary sights about 
camp, especially during the winter season and on a long 
march, that is by the number of dead horses who perish 
from hunger, cold, bad treatment, or exhaustion. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



In this and other marches it was sometimes said that 
we could have walked all day upon the prostrate bodies 
of the horses which fell by the wayside. The mule was 
a much more hardy animal — his carcass was very rarely 
seen. He endured so well that in time he took the place 
of the battery horse, (as at Drury's bluff ) and we all 
laughed at the manner in which a mule would shake 
himself when struck by a bullet, as if divesting himself 
of some superfluous hornet or gadfly But a horse once 
down was like Lucifer — he fell to rise no more. A 
smooth place would be worn in the mud by the moving 
to and fro of his head and neck, or where he had thrown 
out convulsively his legs ; and then a lingering death, a 
swollen and bloated carcass, or bones covered with col- 
lapsed hide, with the crows holding a coroner's inquest 
upon the neighboring tree tops. 

To see these serviceable friends of man, and almost 
indispensable adjuncts of a good army, lying by the way- 
side, was very depressing, for the reason well known to a 
soldier, that dull, sluggish horses can never be trained to 
the point requisite for efficient cavalry horses. Almost as 
much depends, in a successful charge of cavalry, on the 
horse as on the man. Raw recruits mounted on well- 
drilled horses, are more serviceable than veteran troops 
mounted on clumsy, low-spirited animals. At the battle 
of the Pyramids, the horses of Muzod Bey's cavalry 
charged repeatedly in squadrons after their riders were 
killed. So did the French horses at Waterloo on the 
English under the same circumstances. 

And after the Marquis Rom an a was compelled to leave 
his horses on the shore of Denmark, at the embarkation 
of the troops for Spain, they formed themselves into two 
hostile armies, as the ships of their late masters faded in 



A Soldiers Story of the War. 75 



the distance, and charged upon each other with such fury 
that the earth shook for miles around, and the terrified 
inhabitants of the country fled panic stricken to their 
houses. So terrible was the slaughter of these fine Anda- 
lusian horses, that out of a body of 10,000 but a few 
hundred remained alive. 

I have always thought in reading this in history, that 
this was the way in which the inhabitants accounted to 
the government for some of the missing chargers. This 
supposition is supported by a remark I once heard dropped 
by a cpaarter-master, that the mortality was always heavier 
with horses when near the cities, and that the deaths 
reported would sometimes be excessive when in close 
proximity to a faro bank. There was a great deal of 
mortality among the horses too, at the close of the war, 
especially among the cavalry Capt. G , upon being- 
questioned by the Federal Commander as to what in the 
deuce had become of all his stock, reported that " Ze buf- 
falo gnat — he eats them all." 

By the time that McClellan had discovered the uses of 
Quaker guns in forts, we were far away on our retreat 
towards Richmond. I leave it for abler judges to decide 
as to the policy of keeping an army inactive for months 
at a time — composed as that one was, of the tlower of the 
South — of retreating to the peninsula, and then retreating 
from there. What Jackson did in the valley, ought, it 
seemed to us, to have been clone with the army about 
Manassas; and it seemed to us that if a General has enough 
inventive genius, he could always find opportunities, like 
Napoleon, for striking blows with his force whether large 
or small. But General Johnston probably knew best — he 
was a cautious, prudent, and thoroughly able commander, 
who never was caught unawares, but a little long in 
finding his opportunity 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 



We had some terrible weather in getting down to 
Orange Court-House, and the most perfect picture ever 
made on my mind of blissful sleep occurred on this march. 
Next to the cooks, who as the men of genius of a mess, 
eave themselves more airs and made themselves more 
disagreeable than anybody else, were those who superin- 
tended the erection of quarters, purchased supplies, etc. 
On the occasion referred to, after long and tedious 
marches and counter marches, making feints upon one 
place and then on the other, the army was overtaken about 
dusk by a tremendous storm. The leader of the mess, who 
exercised great tyranny about having all mess-work done 
exactly right, was absent when our tent was put up, and 
some of the lazy ones had contented themselves with a 
hasty structure, made of rails propped against a fence, 
that ran at the bottom of the hill. The consequence was, 
besides what fell over us, the water ran under our blankets 
from the hill above. Sleep was impossible for many — we 
were drowned literally out. 

"A quarter less twain — six feet scant," and similar 
soundings out was the cry, and there was nothing to do 
but to get up, build large fires of the rails, and keep as 
warm and dry as we best could. 

While standing thus before the fire, miserable and dis- 
contented, we were compelled to regard, and this with 
great envy, a comrade notorious for his indolence, who had 
laid a rail foundation for his bed, and who, covered with 
his gum cloth, and undisturbed by the underground 
streams which worked such misery to the balance of us, 
contrived to sleep like an infant during the whole of the 
terrible storm. If he had once turned over, or he had 
discovered the uproar among the elements, he would have 
been drowned out too ; and it certainly showed a great deal 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 77 



of forbearance to let him sleep on, and merely step in be- 
tween him and his share of the fire, without molesting 
him. 

This storm brought about another accident, The mu- 
sical characters had rigged themselves up with extraordi- 
nary splendor, to make a serenade outside of a hospitable 
mansion, or rather to lay the foundation to giving a little 
musical soiree inside. Nothing favored them, not even 
the weather — the crowd were wet and disagreeable, when 
they arrived, and what was still more exasperating, the 
comrade who had floated around the world was inside — had 
got possession of the field, was telling all of the yarns 
he had rehearsed in camp, and was singing with perfect in- 
difference to the arrival of the chorus. It was in vain the 
latter tried to snub him, and give him the cold shoulder, 
and intimate that he did not belong to the select few The 
first comer held his ground ; and whenever any music was 
called for, would, Avhile the chorus was affecting bash- 
fulness, plant himself absent-mindedly and dreamily at 
the piano, and nothing but a torpedo or bomb-shell would 
ever have moved him until he got through. The part of 
the joke however, which made the chorus most swear was, 
the young lady of the house hung on his lips as if he 
had been a god, and the submissive subject of the admira- 
tion, so far from having shown any repentance for having 
crowded out those tip-top fellows, the musical chorus, got 
desperately wounded in the next battle, and then married 
the ladv 



10 



78 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



CHAPTER XI. 

ON THE KOAD. 

We camped a week at Orange Court House, and this 
left no other impression upon us than that our three day's 
rations of bread at starting, were heavier than the balance 
of our baggage. Most of the rest of the journey to Rich- 
mond was made by cars. Previous to entering one of 
these, one of the messes had bargained for a small supply 
of fluids, which the treacherous Boniface, after receiving 
our money, and finding the men on board of the cars, 
neglected to produce. He failed, however, to carry his 
point. An impromptu detachment was immediately started 
back to his hotel, the humorous George Meek, was placed 
in command, and made for the next half hour, as fierce a 
looking non-commissioned officer as one would wish to see. 
The order to "arrest that man, seize on him," was given 
to the great terror of the treacherous Boniface ; (who 
would probably at that moment, have given a thousand 
dollars to be out of the scrape,) to the accompaniment of 
drawn sabres. However, before carrying him before the 
Commanding General, whom our host supposed had sent us, 
we consented to listen to his prayers. Any quantity of can- 
teens would be given us, or the money returned. The 
sound of the locomotive whistle, made us contented to 
take the latter.* 

^Extract from the Adjutants Journal. 

March 8. — Began our retreat from Bull Run, at 8 p. m. Marched to Suspension 
Bridge ; distance three miles, and reported to Gen. Longstreet. 

9. — Marched to Gainsville. 

10. — Marched to Warrenton. 

11. — Marched to camp in Jones' Wood. 

12. — March to, and camp near Woodville. 

lo. — We are near Hazle River. 

14 and 15. — Still near Hazle River. 

1(5. — Three milesfrom Culpepper Court House. 

17. — Marched ten miles past Culpepper. 

18. — Crossed the Rapidan at Barnett's lord, and camped one mile from Orange 
Court House. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 79 



But arriving at the next station, our good genius came 
to the rescue A South Carolina Lieutenant who had 
been to a still and came back laden with twenty canteens, 
wished to travel on our train. The orders were positive to 
allow no one but the companies to come aboard. This was 
however deemed an exceptional case, and although the offi- 
cer of the day was shouting and gesturing to "put him off," 
some of the men contrived to keep the order from being- 
obeyed, the officer of the day meanwhile making wrath- 
ful imprecations and signs which hinted at court-mar- 
tial. The storm however was foreseen and anticipated. 
The principal offender, as soon as the train stopped, has- 
tened forward to his Captain with one of the canteens in 
his hand, and affected to believe that no officer of the day 
in the world could have wanted to put off a man laden 
down with whiskey.. The Captain kept the canteen, and 
admitted that his command had perhaps been misunder- 
stood, owing to the noise of the train. No other incident 
until our arrival at Richmond. 

Our Batallion camped nominally the first night at the 
Depot, but the understanding seemed to be that we could 
sleep where we chose, and there were not many who did 
not avail themselves of the extraordinary opportunity of 
sleeping in a civilized bed. There were too, some precious 
moments of freedom vouchsafed to us after we had gone 
formally in camp, in which we were permitted to renew 

22. — Marched through Orange Court House, and camped on Terrell Farm, five 
miles from Orange Court House. We halt here for the present. 

April. — We have enjoyed our camp near Orange Court House very much ; the 
ladies are pretty — we have formed a dancing club which meets twice a week 
at the Hotel, Orange Court House. The band of the 1st Regiment furnishes fine 
music Among the members, are Gen. Longstreet, A. P Hill, and the officers of 
tlie Washington Artillery. 

Received orders in Church, to prepare to march. Began 8 p. m.; marched down 
plank-road to Fredericksburg. Very wearisome marching. 

12. — Shipped seven Guns by rail to Richmond; horses and wagons go by 
Turnpike. 



80 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



old friendships, and witness a very curious and motley 
gathering from every part of the world. As nearly every 
one was only temporarily absent from home or camp, in 
search of a commission, or enjoyment of a short furlough, 
the city was naturally in the gayest of spirits, and every 
one lived extravagantly, while his money lasted ; and 
when gone, did not have much difficulty about hunting up 
a friend who would divide his table, purse, or medical sup- 
plies with him. So that each stratum of visitors became 
thoroughly impecunious about the time its furlough expired, 
and would be succeeded by another, whom military acci- 
dents or necessities brought within the radius of the city 

The population of the town at that time Avas extraor- 
dinarily large, for the amount of accommodations, and no 
one under the rank of a Colonel, could hope ever to obtain 
a room at a hotel, or portion of one ; and very frequently 
at late hours, a dozen distinguished officers were seen 
stretched out by envious callers about the entries. These 
latter would be denied the luxury of even a seat in chairs, 
from scarcity of room, and sometimes unceremoniously be 
invited to skip off by the diamonded clerks, or previous 
claimants of tbe space. During my night in the city — at a 
very late hour — happening to think about going to bed, I 
was put in possession for the first time, of this information. 
There was nothing to do but sally into the streets and medi- 
tate over my homeless condition, for which I had abundant 
Jeisure, or to endeavor to meet with some adventures that 
would kill time until day break. 

I had not proceeded far, before I discovered that the 
population was far from having all gone to bed, and upon 
inquiry of a soldier, I found that he was as badly situated 
in the matter of sleeping quarters as myself. The pre- 
vious night he had managed to find some sort of couch 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 81 



about a liveiw stable; but upon returning, he found another 
occupant ahead of him. The night was chilly, and what 
made the matter worse, we had many of us in marching 
worn overcoats and double suits of uniform, on account of 
the smallness of our knapsacks. This extra clothing, 
through vanity or comfort was soon disposed of, once we 
had arrived at Richmond, but at night, with no lodging, 
was much regretted. 

Happening to pass the theatre, I entered. It was at 

that time owned by M'me. , who was an old actress 

herself, and who. from scarcity of talent or infatuation, 
placed in leading parts a half crazy actor named Dorsey 
Ogden. One of Otway's old plays (Venice Preserved) was 
at that time on the boards, and one of the incidents of this 
was the dragging of the heroine around the stage by her 
back hair. The poetry of the play was so antiquated or 
inverted that the soldier audience did not even stop eat- 
ing ground peas to try to catch it. But the back-hair 
dragging magnificently atoned for Ogden's absurd acting 
and absence of everything, except a very fine wardrobe; 
so much so, that the poor heroine was encored and had to 
be dragged a second time. 

A very beautiful theatre, was built during the war, and 
furnished extravagantly . It was always largely crowded 
— so much so on the first night, that I lost both hat and 
overcoat in making my entrance. 

What had suggested the idea of my entering the theatre 
at that time, was the hope of meeting up with some friend 
who would get me shelter. I did not get this, but did 
manage to join a pretty large crowd of soldiers who were 
moving towards obscure lodgings, and in keeping in com- 
pany with these I proceeded to an attic room containing 



»S 



82 A Soldier's Story of the War, 



eight unattractive beds, and succeeded, without opposi- 
tion, in getting the whole of one of these. 

Feeling out of danger in the morning, I ventured to 
inquire of one of my new acquaintances how it happened 
that I alone had occupied a whole bed. The soldier told 
me that for his part he would not have occupied any such 
couch at all, if he never got any sleep; and in answer to 
further inquiries explained that a man had been killed in 
it a night or two previous, growing out of a quarrel as to 
who had the right of ownership for the occasion. I saw 
something of the case afterwards in the papers, but the 
tribunals could obtain no evidence, either through the 
ignorance, or disinclination to speak, of the witnesses. 

Going down to breakfast, I met, up with an old Louisiana 
friend, who, different from every one else, was dressed in 
an elegant civil costume — a thing at that day regarded 
with great envy, and the certain index of a soft situation 
and a plethoric purse. My friend was Jim Morris, (who 
used to be well known on St. Charles street, and in the 
army in Violet Guard circles,) and on scanning his costume 
I discovered that it all probably belonged to its wearer; 
that is, it was not a mosaic gala, composed of the tempo- 
rary loans of a half dozen messmates, which we, like the 
first Napeleon in his days of poverty, were compelled to 
wear. 

I need not state that I felt exceedingly flattered at 
finding a friend thus dressed, who seemed glad to see me, 
and in the fervor of my delight I shook him by the hand 
until the breakfast began to get cold. 

Jim had once been a young doctor of much promise, but 
became seduced by fast company. At some sort of sup- 
per or entertainment one night he had won $1501) at 
gaming; and this success or misfortune c;ave him a rulin<>; 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 83 



passion, to which he devoted his time henceforth — neg- 
lected medicine, and for some years his old friends lost 
sight of him. When I next saw him, he hunted up all of 
his old friends. At first glance, from certain hard lines 
about his face, it was easy to see that Jim had not fared 
well with the world. His object in coming to see us was 
to borrow SlO a-piece, which he was confident he could 
raise the next day We succeeded with some work in 
raising the money, and took the opportunity of trying to 
persuade him to settle down to his profession. He listened 
attentively, went away with the money, and beyond the 
raillery of friends, who smiled at our innocence in wasting 
both money and breath, we heard nothing more of Jim 
or his promise until the meeting referred to. 

As soon as we had shaken hands, instead of sitting down 
to the table, he made me put on my hat and carried me 
off to a restaurant near the Spotswood, picking up more 
comrades on the way. among whom were Kingslow, Handy 
and Ballantine; we obtained the best breakfast the market 
afforded. He told me it was worth his money in the way 
of getting up an appetite, to see an army friend eat, and 
upon this calculation, he probably ought to have been well 
repaid and stimulated by our example. After returning 
the borrowed money, and showing a good deal of curiosity 
as to whether I had ever entertained any doubts about 
repayment (which I was forced to confess I had,) he 
invited us to make his room our headquarters, and to 
always come there when we were in town from camp. Dr. 
Jim now held the rank of surgeon, but I don't think my 
excellent advice about reform had had much of a beneficial 
effect ; but he showed that he had been immensely pleased 
at having a friend that took that much interest in him, 
and never afterwards tired of doimr me little services. 



84 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



I left my friends in the doctor's company, after dropping 
a hint of caution. When I saw them again their features 
were overcast with what was then known as a flour-barrel 
expression of countenance, and their manner was very sad. 
The explanation was soon made. The doctor's company 
had been found so pleasant, that they had not had the 
heart to tear themselves away, until our accomplished 
bugler had lost $150, and the others more than twice 
enough to pay for the breakfast. 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE PENINSULA. 

At the end of April, we proceeded down the James 
River to the Peninsula, and encamped near the York- 
town lines of fortification of the Revolutionary War. 
We did not see the cave in which George (according to the 
authentic old darkey's story) slipped up on Cornwallis and 
took him in out of the cold, while asleep; but the old 
lines of fortification, as evidence that the event really 
occurred, are still easily to be discerned. 

Williamsport, we found to be a queer old place, and at 
that time singularly blended the cobwebs of antiquity and 
scholastic lore with the bare and stripped appearance of a 
beleaguered town. There, were some college buildings 
still in good condition, and a statue of Botetourt, who 
seemed to have had things pretty much his own way in 
his day, (he was Governor or something) . And there too 
was an Insane Asylum, where was to be seen a beautiful 
young lady, who after getting twenty beaux, went crazy 
from disappointed love for the twenty-first — a soldier in 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 85 



a Gulf Regiment who did not know enough English to 
learn what was the matter, or who was prevented by the 
movement of his regiment from saying so, if he did. But 
at any rate, there was the poor woman incessantly wringing 
her hands, or occupied in restlessly rolling up and twisting 
around a red scarf or mantle, which seemed in some way 
associated with her misfortune. The town had long since 
been stripped as bare of everything as a barbecue table 
is, fifteen minutes after a political speech is finished. 

A few days after our arrival, on going to a hospital to 
see a friend, I found the chaplain growling at having to 
perform an unusual number of burial services, just at the 
time when it was the most inconvenient. This statement 
led to the further explanation that the hospital had been 
ordered to the rear, and supported the inference that there 
would be another retreat. We had arrived on the penin- 
sula on a damp, raw evening, but we had beautiful weather 
most of the time returning, and it naturally put us all in 
excellent spirits to get once more near Richmond. We 
had a beautiful country to go through as we approached 
the city, but the fact was we enjoyed nearly all scenery, 
when we were kept in motion, particularly the mountainous 
regions of Virginia and Pennsylvania, and we never heard 
the order given to go into camp without a sigh. 

Extract from the Adjutant's Journal. 

April 20. — Left Richmond for the Peninsula, with bat- 
teries on transport. 

21. — Arrived this afternoon at King's Wharf. Before 
we had our camp arranged, we had an awful storm, wetting 
everything and every body 

22. — Camped at Blow's Mill, seven miles from King's 
Wharf. 
11 



86 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



2"). — Marched to Williamsburg — bivouacked two miles 
beyond. 

May 2. — Ordnance wagons pass, which means orders 
for us. March at 3:30 ; bivouac at Burnt Ordinary Tavern, 
50 miles from Richmond. 

4. — Move on the Diascund Road and camp. Report to 
Gen. Magruder, who commands rear guard. 

5. — March through a heavy rain all day, and with axles 
deep in mud. Met the gallant color-bearer of a La. Regi- 
ment, with no clothing except his shirt, and everlastingly 
splashing mud. Camped near Windsor Shades, at 1:30 p. m. 



C H A P T E II XIII 

THE BIVOUAC'. 

The word which heads the chapter is one which occurs 
frecpiently in this narrative, and is one which will awaken 
a host of recollections from old soldiers, mostly of a 
pleasant character — that is of the comfort which follows 
from rest and food after a long march, and the enjoy- 
ment of pleasant gossip after the supper has been cooked 
and eaten. 

To bring up freshly such a picture again, let us suppose 
about twilight that the bugle has sounded the halt — 
that the pieces have been parked, and the horses watered 
and feci. All is animation and work now, and those who 
fail in the duties assigned them in the mess, will soon 
have to sleep by themselves or make new arrangements. 
One man provides the wood, another the water, while a 
third makes ready with the cooking utensils. Meanwhile 
those whose duty it is to construct the temporary habita- 
tions — for the reader must remember that tents have 
become partially obsolete — are preparing a couple of 



A Soldiers Story of the War. 87 

notched posts to be stuck up in the ground. Across these 
extends a pole 12 feet long, to the top of which smaller 
ones are laid, with one end resting upon the ground ; over 
this is thrown a piece of canvass, where we have one, 
or a large number of twigs and boughs, or even the rotten 
bark of trees. This answers as a covering for the head ; 
the next thing to be done is to scrape away the mud, hail 
or snow, cut away damp grass, and to cover the interior 
with boughs, where straw or planks are impossible to be 
obtained. The fireman has by this time cut some heavy 
luii-s, the fire is kindled against a huge spreading tree at 
the immediate front of the tent, the cold and darkness 
disappear, and the sparks shoot merrily upward through 
the shadows. The rays extend out through the trees of 
the forest, lighting up leaf and bough with ghostly lights 
and shadows, and throwing the melodramatic lurid tints 
over gnarled trunks, or sleet-frimred stems which are found 
so attractive in the Christinas theatrical performances. 
As the aroma from simmering cauldrons or coffee-pots 
mounts into the air. the men who have extended their 
blankets inside of the tent and stretched themselves 
thereon, begin to recover from their languor ; their spirits 
adapt themselves to the fantastic shadows — to the innu- 
merable lights which glimmer in every direction through 
the trees, and reflecting that the entertainment is to last 
at this spot for " Positively one night only," begin to 
enter into the zest of the thing. It need hardly be added, 
that the truant comrade who comes back with additions 
to our slender larder, in the shape of chickens or eggs, or 
better than all, a drop of something to drink, soon has all 
his sins forgiven, and by the time we have consumed our 
hot biscuits, a delicious ration of bacon, coffee, and other 
et ceteras, and smoked a pipe of old Virginny, the soldier 



88 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



finds himself in about as comfortable a frame of mind as 
any other living mortal. 

The most beautiful bivouac I have ever seen, was where 
the whole army encamped in a valley and at the sides of 
a mountain with the bivouac fires close together, as had 
happened already in our retreat from Manassas. There 
is no need to dwell upon the magnificent panorama of the 
improvised city that was spread out around us, or the 
dancing lights, the thousand different calls and cries. 
But such was not always the life of a bivouac, especially 
during a storm. Then the tents, says one camp writer, 
swelling inward beneath the blast, left no slant sufficient 
to repel the water, which was caught in the hollows and 
filtered through. Then the wind would increase to a 
hurricane, in which the canvass would flap and flutter, 
and the tent pole quiver like a vibrating harpstring. 

Finally the pole and the canvass would fall with a 
crash across your whole bed, your effects dispersed on the 
wings of the wind; and all around you, would be seen half 
clad men, grasping their fluttering blankets, and sitting 
amid the ruins of their beds. 

But in good weather, the men were all in splendid 
humor, and the laugh and shout over some of the ridicu- 
lous incidents and mishaps of the day were long and 
uproarious, and the patriotic songs were rung out with 
the sound of " clashing steel and clanging trumpet." 
Then the men would come forward who had yarns or 
curious histories to relate — of sudden fortunes made or 
lost in commerce — of the vicissitudes of trade, bringing 
some men forward and ruining others, or of some of the 
darker tragedies which make up city histories. We would 
give the travelers an opportunity of again crossing the 
plains, shooting buffaloes while on horseback at full speed, 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 89 

with arrows which would go through, or sometimes with 
guns — the slowest way where a man would use his mouth 
as a bullet-pouch, and ram down the ball without wadding, 
by striking the butt end of the gun on the pummel of 
the saddle. There would be some little badsrerina; about 
some of these statements, and the " Old Soldier " (before 
referred to) resented these narratives as a special intru- 
sion, by reciting his own adventures, say, among Mexican 
Indians, where even" body was as virtuous as Hebe and as 
naked as Venus. Then there were singular gossiping 
stories which the men had picked up about some of the 
old houses or villages through which we had passed, 
which began to have a tendency to ghost spectres and 
apparitions, as the hours advanced. 

One of the unflagging talkers of the occasion was a 
certain sergeant with a noble air and beautiful side whis- 
kers, whose faults were not those which arise from over- 
shrinking modesty He came by some of his sins honestly ; 
he had been an old newspaper reporter, and it was not 
expected that he should come down to plain truth-telling 
the moment that printer's ink was beyond his reach. But 
there was another stirring young man present, of an 

imaginative turn (Joe L ) who Avas mixed up with 

half of the deviltry of the Batallion, and who (merely to 
show his style.) once sent half the population of Clinton to 
the woods, by riding through the town while on a furlough, 
and shouting out that the enemy were coming or just 
behind. Old Judge Semple, managing editor of the 
Crescent for many years, and at that time refugeeing, was 
one of his victims, and every one A\ho remembers the 
Judge's girth, and knows the distance that had to be run, 
will admit that the Judge was quite right for abusing Joe 
for the balance of his days. 



HO A Soldier's Story of the War. 

These two untiring talkers had been having a good'deal 
to say, and the audience was looking for an avenger. This 
was found in the person of one of the smallest and most 

quiet of the group, George M , who, with the wicked, 

cynical smile, which every one who knew him will remem- 
ber, proceeded to relate an incident of the night before. 
George went on to state that after eating a very square 
meal, he had laid down to pleasant dreams until he should 
be called to go on guard. He had, however, not more than 
comfortably coiled himself in his blanket, before he was 
wanted. He got up, a little mad at the interruption, and 
found sitting on a log by the fire, what seemed some 
new non-commissioned officer — somebody that he had 
never seen before about the batallion. George started to 
let into the officer, with a good deal of bitterness, for 
calling him too soon, but there was something about the 
looks of the stranger that took him aback and repressed 
familiarity Instead of so doing, he began staring very 
hard at the visitor, and wondering at what seemed a differ- 
ence in his uniform. 

Meanwhile the stranger lit his pipe very deliberately, 
taking the end of a burning fence rail to do so, and occa- 
sionally glancing at George in a way that made the latter 
feel uncomfortable and impatient. 

" Well, what are you waiting for — what do you want?" 
said George, who began to feel nervous, his tone becoming 
coaxing instead of irritable, as he ended his inquiry. 

The stranger went on puffing, with the immense coal 
near his cheek, which gave, as George expressed it, '"'a 
demoniacal look" to his face; he only, however, glanced 
furtively out of his eye as much as to say, '"It's strange 
you don't know who I am." 

George answered his look rather than his words, and 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 91 



inquired if he really knew him, or if he was down for 
any particular detail. 

" Detail — I should think you were." Hei'e he took from 
his side pocket a queer looking roster, or muster roll, and 
commenced reading out the names of a good many men 
that had enlisted in Louisiana companies. This reading 
was listened to with great interest by George; for he 
began to remark as something singular, that after reading 
out the statements of age. nativity and other details placed 
upon muster rolls, the "'•Remarks" would invariably end 
with "died." or "killed at Blackburn's Ford, Manassas," 
or other battle field. In other words, only those were 
read out who had died or been killed in some previous 
euiauemrnt. Georue beuan to think this sort of reading 
had an ugly look, and he waited and sat thinking that he 
had had a very strange visitor indeed. 

However, the stranger at last came to his name, and 
bewail to run his forefinger slowlv out to the end of the roll. 

"Well, how does it all end? — you've got nothing to say 
about my name, have you?" said George, with a quaver- 
ing voice. 

The stranger passed his forefinger over his line twice, 
as if he had possibly made a mistake, and then added: 

"No; you are right. The name is not fully run out. 
But now that I am here. 1 may as well tell you I'm 
around, and there is no telling when I'll want you. All 
I care is to know where to find you, in case you should be 
called. And this reminds me that there are some others 
in this camp that I shall want to report right away, and 
whom I had perhaps better take in my rounds." 

The stranger inquired where some others were sleeping, 
made a sort of military salute, and stopped a moment to 
clance at the remaining names by the light of the fire. 



92 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



a 



Meanwhile George had dropped off, glad to find that he 
was not wanted, and more determined than ever to get a 
good night's rest. 

He was again mistaken. Before George had fairly 
closed his eyes, the stranger was back to his tent, and 
again disturbing him. 

" I beg your pardon for again bothering you, but the 
fact is your name is down on my detail, after all. I am 
afraid you will have to come along." 

George's heart misgave him. He, however, concluded 
to crawl out of his blanket and fall in. 

'' Have you got many down on your list ?" he inquired 
as they proceeded. 

" Not so many as we have had — though there were a 
good many after the last battle, whom I carried off armed 
and equipped as the law directs." 

" That must mean that a good many went to heaven 
with their boots on," as we say now, thought George, but 
he only inquired if any body else had been detailed from 
the batallion. 

"Oh, yes! There's the Sergeant and Joe L , 

and notoriously hard cases they are too. They were 
detailed to go along too, and have already passed on. 
But here we are — we've got tvo doors by which we can 
now enter, and I hardly know which is the proper one for 
you. 

" Do you know which one Joe and the Sergeant went 
in at?" anxiously inquired George, endeavoring himself to 
guess which would be the best one for him. 

" Which gate? Why, the directions were plain enough 
in their case. They went in here — at the left. They 
are in there now, and likely to stay some time." 

" Iu that case say no more. If men who never tell the 



A Soldier's Story of the War, 



truth went in that way, I know I can't fare any worse, 
and probably will a great deal better, by taking the road 
that leads in the other direction." 

And so the result would have turned out, if I had not 
at that moment been shaken up out of a sound sleep and 
told in good earnest to go on guard. 

The point of the narrative, in spite of the clums}- way 
in which I have told it, would now appear so obviously 
to be at the expense of the two preceding truthful speak- 
ers, that the narrative ended in the indignant growls of 
the victims, and the laugh of the rest of the listeners. It 
was then too late to tell any more stories: besides 
half of the men had fallen asleep before it was concluded; 
and soon the whole camp was buried in profound slumber. 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE BELEAGUERED CITY. 

We were suddenly marched off, late one night* down to 
Drury's Bluff, and in anticipation of the coming up of 
the Federal monitors, placed in position upon the bank. 

*The following were the orders of our movements : 

May 6. — Ordered to move at once to the forks of the road, near Forge Bridge. 
Camped in a beautiful pine grove at 5 p. m. 

Enemy pursuing — infantry ordered back. We remain on aecount of the bad- 
ness of the road. 

7. — Ordered to cross the Chickahominy, at Long Bridge. March ten miles and 
bivouac. 

8. — Marched at a little before 6 a. m. Camp at Blakey's Mill Pond at 12 m.; 
having made 23 miles in 6 hours — the quickest marching, with perhaps one excep- 
tion, done during the war. 

13. — Capt. Miller's 3d Company ordered to meet gun boats coming up the 
river at Drury s Bluff. 

14. — The rest of the batallion march at 6 a. m. to Bottom's Bridge to report to 
Gen. Johnston. At 11 J a. m., ordered in camp. At 5 ordered by Gen. Johnston 
to go two miles back. Bivouac at Savage Station and rejoined by the 3d Co. 

10. — I amp six miles from Richmond, at New Bridge. 

17. — Back to Blakey's Mill Pond. Whole army in position and invested by 
McClellan. 

12 



94 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



I was placed on guard, on a high bluff overlooking the 
river, though it really was not necessary, as every one 
was awake and expecting every moment to open fire. The 
monitors were indeed so near, that we could hear their 
subdued puffing, and even see the gleam of lights or fur- 
naces on board of the black hulls. Those were the days 
when the imagination of soldiers were greatly affected by 
the novelty of the danger we were called upon to meet, 
and it seemed more terrible, the idea of being killed by 
a shot as big as a water cooler, than by ordinary musketry 
fire. It is not a particularly pleasant business any way 
to be worn out with marching, and then to be forced to 
meditate upon your chances for the morrow's battle, espe- 
cially as I can remember was the case at Gettysburg, when 
the dead and dying of the two days preceding fights are 
lying on every side of you ; when you are compelled to 
witness every stage of the death saturnalia from the un- 
happy victim trembling with the last shiver of dissolution 
to that of the corpse who sits upright with staring eyes, 
or whose stiffened arm seems to point you yourself the 
road to perdition on the morrow A corpse of the latter 
description passed by us in a wagon while we were at the 
Bluff, whose hand could not be forced down, and which 
the soldiers declared was protesting to heaven against the 
rations we were compelled to eat. 

After waiting, or rather changing position twenty times 
during the following day and digging fortifications in the 
rain, the batteries were hurried off at midnight, fifteen 
miles back to Richmond, then down to Chickahominy 
Swamp, then back to the city again. 

Thus we continued to move around the city* with Gen. 

*May .'-il. — Battle of Seven Pines. Longstreet routes Gen. Casey; Capt. Miller 
brings off a battery of four Napoleons which we are allowed to keep. Capt. 
Dearinsj lo3es nearly all his horses and men. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 95 



Johnston's army, having sometimes to be under heavy 
lire as at Malvern Hill, but at the same time having to 
hold ourselves in readiness as reserve, to gallop off at the 
top of our horse's speed, as the tide of battle ebbed and 
flowed. I walked over nearly all of the battle-fields 
about Richmond, and found them as well, as those after- 
wards of North Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania — 
pretty much the same — bloated corpses and carcasses of 
horses — scattered commissary stores. The hotness with 

Jfne 26. — Ordered to the Mechanicsville Road, and held in reserve while A, 
P Hill drives the enemy. Standing in the road all day, ready at a moment's 
notice, and the men all impatient. 

27. — Still in reserve. 

28. — Move to Mechanicsville Bridge, on Chickahominy. 1st and 3d Company 
report to Longstreet, on the field. 2nd and 4th, bivouac at bridge. Desperate 
fighting day before. 

29. — At Battery No 3, Williamsburg Road. At 5 p m. we (with the whole 
army) move down the Darbytown Road after McClellan. Bivouacked at night 
in rain. 

30. — Marched at daylight — went into park in advance of Longstreet, who 
promises to put us in to-day. 

July 1. — Hear the terrible guns pounding away at Malvern Hill. Order comes 
from Longstreet to come at once. Batteries galloped over four miles in less than 
half an hour afterwards. Parked in a field where shells whistle over our heads, 
and some fall about us ; but not ordered to open fire, and otherwise doomed to 
disappointment. As we dashed down the road at full speed in the afternoon, we 
were cheered by the troops, as if they had been betting on us in a race ; and in 
truth there are few finer things than to see 32 completely equipped guns and 
caissons, racing with the men on the seats to the battle ground, and stimulated 
by the smell of powder from the field. 

2. — Move across the battle-field of yesterday; dead and wounded lying thickly 
around. One man was seen dead in a sitting posture, who had been skulking 
behind a great oak tree, and who was killed by a cannon ball penetrating through 
it. The enemy had a splendid position, and covered it with guns ; but our troops 
instead of being hurled forward, were put in by Regiments, and cut to pieces 
in detail. Still in spite of the terrific fire, many of the Gforgia and Alabama 
troops fell among the enemy s guns. The 8th Ga. and 3d Ala. from Mobile, were 
terribly mangled. 

Bivouac in the rain, near Poindexter's House, which is used as headquarters 
by Lee. President Davis covered with a Mexican serape, which he perhaps cap- 
tured in the war of '45, passed by amid great cheering. 

3. — Move in pursuit, and bivouac on Waterloo Farm. 

4. — 1st and 3d Companies take position nearer the enemy. 2nd and 4th with 
Anderson. Capt. Squires, with 1st goes below McClellan's position, with S. D. 
Lee's Cavalry, and fire into the gunboats and transports. First instance of 
attack on gunboats by light batteries. 

8. — Back to Richmond. 

12. — Artillery of the right wing on Almond Creek. We call our camp, " Camp 
Longstreet." We rest and refit. 



96 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



which the battle was contested, was of course to be judged 
by the number of dead and wounded, and their proximity 
to each other. About thirty feet apart meant heavy 
work, though where the breastworks had to be stormed, 
as was the case in some of Grant's battles, the dead would 
lie in piles. The most effective artillery firing done 
during the war, was in an artillery duel between our first 
company and an opposing battery of the enemy In this, 
beside exploding the caissons and almost annihilating 
their enemy, they killed every horse on a piece. The 
unhappy animals were all tangled up by their harness, in 
one inextricable pile. One of the men came across a 
beautiful spaniel at Malvern Hill, whom it was difficult 
to persuade to quit his dead master's side. The offer of 
rations, however, finally triumphed over his virtue. The 
dog was alive at Richmond, and apparently infected with 
strong Confederate prejudices when last seen; though he 
made a narrow escape for having indulged in a vitiated 
taste for gnawing off all the buttons off a $500 coat. This 
was the property of one of those fierce Majors, whose 
inarches extended only through the streets of Richmond. 
The feelings of this gallant soldier may be imagined, when 
upon awakening the morning after a debauch, he dis- 
covered the extent of his misfortunes. His fury and 
agony of mind conld only find relief by asking such cmes- 
tions, and failing to understand, "as what 'in the deuce 
anybody wanted to keep any such a d — d flop-earecl hound 
around for anyhow." 

There was another homely looking yellow dog on the 
same battle field (who might have been a relation of 
Tige's.) who could not understand how the battle had 
gone, or who had had no offers of bacon to corrupt his 
principles. In an evil moment he attempted to bite a 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 97 



soldier, detailed to bury the dead, and the attempt cost 
him a bayonet thrust and his life. The soldier was 
too much exasperated, and out of humor at the heavy 
slaughter of our men, to waste any time " fooling around 
an old dawn." 

We were given a number of new guns which had been 
captured in the fights around Richmond, and had to eat 
so much of dried vegetables, that the smell of soup Julienne 
to this day brings to mind the sight of swollen and 
blackened corpses scattered about for miles over a Virgi- 
nia battlefield. 

It was after McClellan had incautiously placed his 
army astraddle of Chicahominy swamp (where as Lincoln 
expressed it, he was like a bull caught on a fence Avho 
could neither kick nor gore.) and where the Federal army 
was bogged up like Captain John Smith, by a sudden rise 
in the stream — that the cautious General Johnston found 
his true chance. Here he hastened to deal his enemy a 
blow, which would have been much more staggering to 
the Federal general than it was, but for Johnston's having 
been severely wounded earJy in the action. The wound 
might have won promotion and honor for a soldier born 
under a more fortunate star ; but it virtually ended his 
Virginia career, before he had a fair opportunity of devel- 
oping his talents. Gen. Lee now came upon the scene 
with the startling and joyous intelligence that old Stone- 
wall had outwitted his enemies in the Valley, and was on 
McClellan s flank. 

I write the hero's name with pride, and am happy to 
remember our Batallion ever took orders from him. His- 
tory will probably give Stonewall the reputation for more 
genius and achievement, than any general the civil war 
brought forth, and had he been at the head of affairs and 



98 A Soldier' s Story of the War. 

remained alive, the war would have ended differently Our 
batteries reported to him at the battle of Manassas, and a 
crowd of us once sat upon the pieces watching him talk ; 
once afterwards, for a half an hour, in consultation with Lee 
and Longstreet. Jackson was then dressed in a sort of 
grey, homespun suit, with a broken-brimmed cap, and 
looked like a good driving overseer or manager, with 
plenty of hard, horse sense, but no accomplishments or 
other talent — nothing but plain, direct sense. It was 
because his manners had so little of the air of a man of the 
world, or because he repressed all expression, that he 
had the appearance of being a man of not above average 
ability The remark was then made by one of us, after 
staring at him a long time, that there must be some mis- 
take about him — if he was an able man, he showed it less 
than any man any of us had ever seen. 

Gen. Lee first appeared before us in citizen's dress — 
that is in white duck, with a bob-tailed coat; jogging 
along without our suspecting who he was. We thought at 
first, he was a jolly, easy-going miller or distiller, on a visit 
as a civilian, to the front, and perhaps carrying out a can- 
teen of whiskey for the boys. He showed himself always 
a good natured, kind-hearted man, as well as a great 
general — stopping once to reprove though very gently, the 
drivers for unmercifully beating their horses when they 
had stalled ; and another day walking about and laughing 
over one of Artemus Ward's stories, and kept in a good 
humor about it, the rest of the day. He got put out one 
day, however, witli one of our men who took possession of 
a shady spot, that had been previously occupied by the 
General ; but which had been temporarily abandoned by 
him to hurry across the James. The young man was 
asked what made him appropriate his headquarters, and 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 99 



what annoyed the General was, the idea that he had aban- 
doned the place for good. As the result turned out, we 
fought more battles in that neighborhood, and stayed there 
longer than we had done about any other place in Vir- 
ginia. 



CHAPTER XV 

THE DRUMHEAD. 



Sometimes in the course of our marches our enterprising 
explorers would come across an odd volume, and for read- 
ing this in camp there would be abundant opportunity 
For instance, if you were of an indolent turn, you could 
smoke and read by the tent fire-place, criticising the cook, 
who was working up to his elbows in dough, or watching 
the boiling and baking, between the interesting passages. 
The volume would pass from one mess or dirty hand to 
another, and the most unreading men in camp, as soon as 
they found that books wer? in demand and that they had 
it in their power to read a coveted volume, would violently 
claim the right, and set to work in good earnest to cry at 
or laugh, as the fashion was, over its sentiment or jokes ; 
just the same as men did who never cared for the society 
of woman previously, or who never cared to drink liquor 
before entering the army. As soon as it was understood 
that a canteen, a book or a woman had its value, everv bodv 
wanted them all; and would study up the art of acquiring 
them, the same as we did at making brier-root pipes 
afterwards. 

On one of the battle fields about Eichmond we came 
across a volume which had probably gone the rounds of 
the Federal camp as it did ours, and from one of its chap- 



100 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



ters, with a view to escaping statistics, and with an object 
which will be explained further on; I propose to quote in 
substance, as remembered. 

This chapter touched upon a very sensitive chord for a 
soldier — the fate of a regiment that had disgraced itself 
in battle, and by shameful cowardice and lack of discip- 
line communicated their panic and exposed the other 
troops, ^ thus converting a half won victory into a dis- 
astrous defeat. The time was in the Thirty Years War 
of Germany, and the name of the regiment was " Made- 
Ion's Cuirassiers." When the remnant of the beaten 
army had rallied under the walls of Prague, sometime 
after, the regiment which had lost the battle was seen to 
approach that city; but its ranks are thinned less by the 
sword than by desertion. It is understood among them 
that the matter will be inquired into, and as they come 
in view r , deep shame sits upon the bearded faces of the 
men; the soldiers declaring that reform should commence 
at th6 top of the stairs; the officers conversing in low 
whispers as to how best to excuse their own conduct. 

Arrived at the gates a message is received, ordering the 
men to dismount, lead their horses, and enter with lower- 
ed colors and without sound of trumpet. This ominous 
reception made the remainder of the regiment regret that 
they had not followed the example of desertion which 
had been abundantly set them at the close of the battle; 
nevertheless, with downcast eyes and with wide inter- 
vals between the files, they marched on through the 
narrow streets. 

Suddenly, dismounted dragoons, with mousqueton, 
appeared behind them — the windows and balconies are 
seen to be lined with carabineers, who carry their weap- 
ons at the recover. In the public square they are ordered 



A Soldiers Story of the War. 101 



to "Halt;" "Draw swords." Then follows the command, 
"Ground arms." The hearts of the now disarmed men, 
who are formed up as prisoners, misgive them. The 
arms and colors are carried off, and every thing appeared 
ready for an approaching execution. For there in 
the centre of the square stands the solemn headsman, 
with his red cloak and black feather, with an iron vice 
upon one side and a pile of fagots upon the other. A 
glittering circle of bayonets appears all around, while on 
one side sit on horseback the military officers who are to 
try the offenders, if trial there be for men manifestly 
already condemned. There is but one question — whether 
the cowardice is the fault of the officers or men ; and 
after the question has been debated violently for two 
hours, by officers and men, and the prisoners are coming 
to blows, the clamor of voices ceases, at the blast of the 
trumpet. The judges consult — the prisoners draw back, 
and an abrupt, uneasy movement commences among 
them — behind and in front. In a moment more the 
cause becomes evident to the spectators — the hands of the 
officers are being bound behind their backs — they are sep- 
arating the soldiers by tens. While these latter are made 
to throw dice on drumheads for their lives, the execu- 
tioner is burning at the stake the regimental flags and 
decorations, or snapping the sword blades in his iron vice. 
With mournful eyes and sad hearts they see their flags 
consumed and weapons broken at the hands of the heads- 
man — they witness it with an agony to which death 
would have been sweet. 

Meanwhile the soldier of the ten who has thrown the 
lowest die is being seized and bound and placed with the 
group of already handcuffed officers. And now comes 
the closing and most terrible act of all. The gallows 

13 



102 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



appears on the scene, and the unhappy tenth man and all 
the officers are strung up by their necks, on a scaffold 
made ready for the purpose, the balance being condemned 
to labor on fortifications ; and the town-crier solemnly 
proclaims the whole regiment, from colonel down to the 
last dragoon, to be u Infamous Poltroons." 1 '" 

I have brought to mind this picture of a regiment w T hich 
has disgraced its colors, by way of making those who have 
never thought of the subject, realize how great a misfor- 
tune a soldier considers it to be, to be disgraced in battle, 
and what dejection and downcast looks settle upon his 
face where the reputation of his regiment has in any 
degree been tarnished. 

Some such picture, in many of its details as the one 
above given, was constantly coming before every soldier's 
imagination. He was hearing the words " miserable pol- 
troons" pronounced in the shambling and straggling march 
of certain regiments who had been disgraced, in the 



*A similar scene is given in a number of the New York Tribune of 1861 of the 
mutiny of the 79th New York Regiment which will be suggested by the above. 
In this 400 men flatly refused to move trom camp. The non-commissioned 
officers took from the men their arms. One hundred men alone stood firm, and 
kept the mutineers confined until surrounded by cavalry, infantry and artillery. 
The leaders were handcuffed, an act was read reciting their many instances of 
insubordination, and the leaders, some seventy in number, who were disarmed 
and marched to the guard house, declared amenable to the articles of war. The 
regimental colors were then taken away, and every man ordered to be shot 
down who refused to obey. 

Another misunderstanding between officers and men is thus given in a letter 
of I. G., from Columbus, Kentucky, to the Crescent, in the same year: 

" Serious difficulties have arisen in the — Artillery from your State. Owing to 
treatment, which is explained — they tore the initial of their Captain from their 
caps, whom they repudiated, and since this a difficulty has occurred with their 
new commander. The men complained ol rough, unfeeling treatment; open 
expressions of dissatisfaction led to an altercation between the captain and one 
of the non-commissioned officers, which resulted in the latter drawing a dagger 
and the former using a sword. The non-commissioned officer had his hand 
badly injured in clutching the officer's sword, and is now under arrest One 
hundred men made affidavit of grievance, which Polk refused to receive, but 
offered instead a transfer. This was declined, and a big trouble the consequence ; 
though ultimately settled by a transfer ot forty of the members to another 
artillery." 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 103 



depressed looks of the men themselves, and in the free 
criticism of onlooking soldiers. He could see the words 
of disgrace betrayed in ambiguous reports of battles, 
where no amount of explanation could conceal what had 
been bad and cowardly conduct ; and at night by camp 
fires he would hear discussed the reputation of those 
regiments who had first broken — at Gettj-sburg or else- 
where, and thus caused the loss of victory and death to 
the overwhelmed bri trades who remained behind. 

A company or regiment that once showed signs of weak- 
ness, makes its own soldiers ten times more distrustful of 
each other's valor in the next engagement, and unless the 
demoralization has been cured, and confidence restored, is 
a source of danger rather than of strength to an army, 
and will inevitably damn the reputation of any good men 
who happen to be connected with it. :|: As I write this 
now, there rises before me the picture of a brave old 
friend from the Nth Georgia Regiment, who was half 
lamenting, half crying, over the repulse his command and 
the Confederate troops had met with at Malvern Hill, 
under the 1-30 guns with which McClellan on "that day 
swept the Confederate line. "We had nothing but our 
reputation," said he, "and now we'll never want to go 
home, as we've lost that." In this latter statement he was 
mistaken. As for tears, a great many soldiers shed them 
at Gettysburg, though there had been no lack of courage, 

*In so speaking, I am far from recommending the frequent enforcement of the 
death penalty, as a remedy. Anthony Sambola. Esq., who was detailed from the 
Fifth Company of Washington Artillery, as clerk to a court-martial, tells me 
there were 150 men shot between Chickamauga and Atlanta. Desertions on a 
large scale showed the discontent or hopelessness of the troops from certain 
States, and wholesale shootings (as for instance, 22 at a time) only made the 
men more disaffected. My information is that Gen. Lee never signed the death 
penalty but once, and only then with the greatest reluctance. The penalty might 
have been just to the men who deserted, or to the officers who did not do their 
full dutv : but |at the same time it destroyed the esprit of the regiments from 
whom the men were taken. 



104 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



and there were no dry eyes at all. though not from a sense 
of shame, on the day at Appomatox Court House, when 
General Lee, for the first time, dressed himself in full 
uniform, and told his few followers, good bye. 

The trials which took place in the Confederate army, 
were mostly regimental, that is were trivial and for which 
no court-martials should have been ordered at all, and were 
much more merciful in their awards than the one above 
recorded — seldom amounting to more than extra "guard 
duty or loss of pay for a month, and for offences, whicn 
were really crimes, to confinement at Castle Thunder, 
with the ball and chain. The only case I can now 
remember where the death penalty was inflicted, was in 
the time following the first battle of Manassas, when two 
of the " Tigers " were tried for insubordination, and for 
striking their officers. The finding of the Court was — 
Death. 

And so death it was, the spot for the tragedy being but 
a little distance from our camp. At the appointed hour, a 
very large crowd of officers and men were there assembled. 
A hollow square had been previously formed of troops 
from the same brigade. At about 10, the prisoners who 
had been sustained in the previous interval by the con- 
solations of liquor and champagne, contributed by generous 
comrades, were brought upon the field. They were dressed 
in striped blouse and white Zouave breeches, and in the 
full eccentric uniform of the Company — the whole com- 
mand being similarly dressed. The arms of the con- 
demned men were pinioned behind their backs ; but their 
steps were elastic and showed no sign of dejection. Now 
the officer in command orders the finding of the court- 
martial to be read, and then the dramatic interest in the 
scene is increased, when the doomed prisoners are con- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 105 



fronted with their own coffins. The remaining details are 
very simple — bandaging their eyes, and causing them to 
get upon their knees, before the twelve motionless statues 
(or friends representing duty,) Avho stand with loaded guns. 
The command is given, " make ready, aim, fire," and the 
strong men of the moment before roll back corpses. 

I saw afterwards, several prisoners taken out and shot 

at Richmond, for various offenses. They were generally 

carefully dressed in black, and did not greatly differ in 

appearance from that of a man who is going to appear in 

public on a formal occasion — who is going to get married 

in his best suit, or who has some public duty to perform. 

We had too in our camp, a driver who had been at West 

Point, enlisted for his knowledge about driving battery 

horses ; but who fell into disgrace. He however, had no 

greater misfortune than to be driven from camp, by order 

of court-martial, after having had his head shaved ; or in 

other words, to be drummed out of the army. The man 

shortly after was elected or appointed major of a Batallion, 

and did good service. There were a great many more 

victims of Avar all through the South, than those who 

were killed in battles; for instance, those who gave 

all their time to drilling and equipping their men, who 

spent all their own fortunes in the work, and that of their 

friends, and who after all. were ruthlessly shoved aside for 

some new favorite, kept behind or constantly placed in 

obscurity The South would have fared none the worse, 

if the men of education, who volunteered from duty, had 

been permitted to go home, and give their talents and 

experience as officers to new regiments. The fighting of 

the regiments raised towards the close of the war would 

have been much better, if such a rule had been adopted. 

A tragic incident which awakened much less feeling, as 



106 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



the guilty party was not one of our own men, occurred on 
our march after Pope in 1862. 

During the march of the army, September 21, 1862, 
a spy dressed in Confederate uniform, or rather an imita- 
tion of it, rode up to Gen. D. P. Jones, commanding divi- 
sion, and told him he had been sent by Gen. Jackson, to 
tell him to halt his division where it then was. Suspicion 
was aroused, from the fact that Jones was under Longstreet, 
and cypher alphabets and memoranda were found upon 
his person. It was now- remembered that one of Long- 
street's couriers had been shot on the night previous, 
while carrying a dispatch, by a man answering the pre- 
tended messenger's description. It was now found too, on 
examination, that one of the barrels of his revolver was 
empty- A drum head court-martial was immediately 
called — papers examined, and his guilt clearly proved by 
his own confession. The unhappy wretch was taken into 
the woods — his hands tied behind him, and placed astride 
of a mule ; a rope was then tied around his neck — the end 
thrown over a lhnb of a tree. Then the mule was struck 
with a stick by one of Longstreet's couriers ; away went 
the mule, and with it went the soul of Charles Mason, spy, 
of Terryville, Pa. The column was detained by this inter- 
ruption three hours. The body of the dangling corpse 
presented a ghastly spectacle, as we inarched by ; his boots 
had disappeared, and it was then said that these were the 
perquisites of the officiating Jack Ketch. The man died 
defiantly, claiming to have given his life for his country. 

All further that need be said upon this head, is that the 
talents, or one talent of a great general, consists in 
knowing profoundly the character of his men — their 
prejudices and sympathies, and where discipline should be 
sternly enforced, or. wisely relaxed. For instance, one of 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 107 



our Generals in a Western Army, was at one time im- 
mensely unpopular by allowing, as was reported in the army, 
soldiers to be shot for chicken and hog-stealing; though 
Cromwell, Napoleon, and other great and popular Gene- 
rals had in the enforcement of discipline, inflicted equally 
great penalties. But the idea of shooting a soldier in North 
Georgia, or Tennessee, for hog-stealing, a crime to which 
the people of those States have the same sort of temptation 
that a Texan has to get away with a horse or cattle! Such 
a sentence, though there doubtless was great need of 
making private property respected, was absurdly unjust, in 
view of the fact that the army was nearly always half-fed 
and frequently starving. To shoot a man born on Ameri- 
can soil, who has a natural tendency to steal, as a quarter- 
master or office-holder, but to die like a man when he is 
fed, was felt to be an outrage on every brave man who 
had given his life to the issue. 

Of a similar character was much of the discipline 
enforced during the first vear of the war. Until officers 
and men had come to understand each other, and were 
forced to accord esteem and respect to great qualities 
shown in battle, we were like animals badly broken or 
harnessed, galled jades wincing under needless restriction. 
The gentleman of the salon or parlor retains in the every 
day life of a camp, but little trace of breeding or civility, 
but his sensibilities and pride were very easily touched ; 
and probably a stricter and more cheerful discipline 
would have been kept up, if careful attention had been 
paid to these facts. Probably, too, there would have been 
less of the weariness and heart sickness which made so 
many spirited men sink off, from a feeling that they had 
not elected rigid and just officers, but selfish and insolent 
oppressors. But this feeling died out as the war advanced 



108 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



— the officers who were reserved, more because of their 
unfamiliarity with their new duties, than from being 
inflated with vanity, gradually learned their true duty to 
their men, and to retain at the same time their respect, 
while the soldiers were not slow in appreciating the 
deserving ones at their true worth. 

It's human nature to abuse more or less, your privileges 
and advantages of fortune — by keeping the tit-bits for 
yourself, the soft places for your friends, and by putting 
on rough duty those whom you do not like ; for instance, 
in putting one soldier to assist in making fortifications 
under heavy fire, with a spade (as I once saw one officer 
of the day do) in place of a lazier or more cowardly com- 
rade. But on the other hand, selfishness would crop out 
just as often in the soldier, as already previously explained. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

BATTLE OF THE RAPPAHANNOCK. 



We laid around Richmond from the thirteenth to the 
twenty-fifth of July The life would have been slow 
suicide a year previous ; but after witnessing the despe- 
rate fighting at Mechanicsville and Malvern Hill, and 
seeing thirty thousand men killed, wounded and taken 
prisoners in the two armies in the Seven Day's Fight 
alone, we were contented to bide our time — to accept a 
sort of happiness similar to that of our battery horses, 
fully assured that we would not have long to wait for hot 
work. 

On the 25th the 3d Company were ordered off with 
Gen. Anderson to New Market Heights ; on the 5th of 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 109 



August au attack having been made by the enemy on 
Malvern Hill we got ready to meet him. The First and 
Fourth Companies were at Laurel Hill Church. 

Evans now commenced pressing McClellan and taking 
prisoners at Malvern Hill, which soon led to its abandon- 
ment and our being sent back to camp (Longstreet.) 

General Lee thinking that McClellan's army was no 
longer worth watching, commenced moving North, and 
our batteries received marching orders on the 10th. 
When we passed through Richmond, as an evidence of 
the change that had commenced, the people looked 
on Lee's army silently and a little sadly, dimly compre- 
hending that in spite of recent victories many more heca- 
tombs of bodies would be made before the end was yet to 
come, and that victory for us meant but little more than 
the showy uniforms in which the volunteer troops had 
first come on. Here were all the regiments marching 
through, except those already dead and crippled; and 
those still alive and now marching on would still have to 
furnish 100,000 skeletons, as if for a corduroy road, from 
Gettysburg to Petersburg. There were at any rate 500,000 
corpses to be furnished to order as if on requisition from 
the two armies ; and the number taken from those who 
died or were killed in Virginia would have exceeded 
Tamerlane's pyramid of 300,000 skulls. 

We camped the first night out on the Chickahominy, 12 
miles beyond Richmond, while the infantry were shoved 
forward to Gordonsville by rail. Jackson had been up to 
his usual thimble-rigging tricks upon Gen. Pope, (who 
was now trying to see what he could make out of the 
office of Federal Commander) holding before his blindly- 
groping enemy at one moment a Jack-o'-lantern light, and 
the next presenting him with a St. Anthony number of 
14 



HO A Soldier's Story of the War. 

temptations. The first of the military blunders into which 
Pope was invited, was to attempt attacking our railroad 
line of communication with Richmond. To do this he 
pushed Gen. Banks forward to Cedar Mountain, with the 
caution given many times, through Pope's Chief of Staff, 
according to Greeley, "that there must be no backing out 
this day " And so there was not to be, he found, when he 
started onward; for Lee's troops meanwhile arriving, 
Jackson stealthily pushed forward Ewell's Division, scat- 
tering the Federal cavalry, and creeping through the 
woods along the western base of Cedar Mountain. Having 
taken up a strong position, fixed his batteries, and gene- 
rally made himself comfortable, there was nothing more 
to be done but wait until Banks should come along and 
carry out his intention of not backing out. 

Banks' attack w r as, however, very heavy upon Early's 
brigade of Ewell's Division, who held the road, and Talia- 
ferro was assailed at one time in flank and rear. ''But 
the best Union blood," says Greeley, "poured like water; 
Gen. Geary was wounded, Price taken prisoner, Crawford's 
brigade was a mere skeleton, and the others lost half their 
number in killed and wounded — more than two thousand 
in all." After several day's maneuvering, Pope captured 
a letter which showed that Lee's whole army was upon 
him, and immediately struck the back track across the 
Rappahannock. 

Meanwhile our batteries had marched to Montpelier — 
traveling early in the morning and late in the evening, on 
account of the heat, and bivouacking at Hope's Tavern. 
The next day carried us to Louisa Court-House, and the 
day after to Gordonsville. 

AV r e were ordered forward again when Pope fell back to 
Orange Court-House, (Aug. 1G,) and found the enemy 



A Soldiers Story of the War. Ill 

directly in our front. On the following day at noon, we 
moved cautiously forward, and camped near midnight on 
the Rapidan. The companies Ave re assigned, Eshelman's 
to Pickett's brigade, Richardson's to Toombs' 

On the night of the 2d it was understood that we 
were to prepare for hot work the next day, and at day- 
light the following morning. Col. Walton pes tea the guns 
on the South side of the Rappahannock, at the Railroad 
bridge, and at Beverly's Ford — the elesisn beine' to threaten 
a crossing at these points, while the army meanwhile 
should move up the Rappahannock and get behind Pope's 
right. At G.'-jO, Capt. Miller of the 3d company, who had 
the strain of the firing upon him, discharged the signal 
gun, and before a 'third could be fired, obtained a reply 
from the enemy s batteries upon the opposite siele. And 
a dreadfully hot reply it was. The enemy had as much 
the advantage in position and guns as Jackson had had 
at Cedar Mountain. Every shot they fired tore through 
our ranks, killing and wounding the men, and smashing 
the pieces. The fire became so hot that a battery who 
had been assigned position to the left of the Washington 
Artillery forgot to imitate the boy who stood on the burn- 
ing deck, and moved off without awaiting orders. In the 
progress of the battle twenty-three of our horses were 
killed, and nine men killed and twelve Avounded. Lieut. 
BreAver's horse went galloping back, with an empty saddle, 
(leaving his rider dying on the field) to the very officer 
to Avhorn it had been promised that day, in case its OAvner 
should be killed; which armal happened just as a shell 
exploded at the side of Col. Walton, killing the horse of 
bugler Frank Villasano, and Abounding that of Adjutant 
Owen. Lieut. Brewer sent Avord to his friends at home 
that he had tried to live like a Christian and elie like a 



112 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



soldier. He was buried at night in St. James Church 
yard, with the bodies of other of our own men, who died 
on the same battle field. 

Private R. T Marshall was the brother of Gen. Lee's 
private secretary — the latter assisting at the funeral with 
a clergyman. The grave of the latter is now marked at 
Warrenton, with a piece of the Richmond-made gun which 
caused his death. The further details of this battle will 
be found in the following reports of the battle of the 
Rappahannock : 

REPORT OF GEN. LEE. 

On the- 23d of August, Gen. Longstreet directed Col. Walton, with part of the 
Washington Artillery and other batteries of his command, to drive, back a force 
of the enemy that had crossed to the South bank of the Rappahannock, near 
the railroad bridge, upon the withdrawal of Gen. Jackson on the previous day. 
Fire was opened about sunrise, and continued with great vigor for several hours, 
the enemy being compelled to withdraw with loss. Some of the batteries of 
Col. S. D. Lee's batallion were ordered to aid those of Col. Walton, and under 
their united fire, the enemy was forced to abandon his position on the north 
side of the river, burning in his retreat the railroad bridge and the neighboring 
dwellings. 

REPORT OF GEN. LONGSTREET. 

I had ordered Col. Walton to place his batteries in position at Rappahannock 
station, and to drive the enemy fiom his positions on both sides of the river. 

The batteries were opened at sunrise on the 23d, and a severe cannonade con- 
tinued for several hours. In about two hours, however, the enemy was driven 
across the river, abandoning his tete-de-pont. The brigades of Brigadier Gen. 
Evans and D. R. Jones, the latter under Col. G. F. Anderson, moved forward to 
occupy this position. It was found untenable, however, being exposed to a 
cross-fire of artillery from the other bank. The troops were therefore partially 
withdrawn, and Col. S. D. Lee was ordered to select position for his batteries, 
and joined in the combat. The enemy's position was soon rendered too warm 
for him, and he took advantage of a severe rain storm to retreat in haste, after 
firing the bridge and the private dwellings in its vicinity. Col. Walton deserves 
much credit for skill in the management of his batteries ; and Col. Lee got into 
position in time for some good practice. 



REPORT OF COL. WALTON. 

Headquarters Artillery Corps, Right Wing, 1 
Dept. Smihern Vin/iiiiu, Aug. 25, \Wi. / 
I have the honor to report that, in obedience to an order received from Major 
Oeneral Longstreet, on the. (.-veiling of the 22d instant, accompanied by Major 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 113 



J. J. Garnett, Chief of Artillery on the Staff of Brig. Gen. D. R. Jones, and 
Capt. C. W Squires, commanding the first Company of Washington Artillery, 
I made a reconnoissance of the position of the enemy in the vicinity of Bever- 
ly's Ford and Rappahannock station, on the Rappahannock river, with the view, 
as instructed, to place the long-range guns under my command, in position to 
open upon the enemy's batteries early on the following morning. Having, 
during the night, made all necessary preparation, at daybreak, on the morning 
of the 23d, I placed in position on the left, at Beverly's Ford, Capt. Miller's bat- 
tery Washington Artillery, four light twelve-pounder Napoleon nuns j a section 
of two ten-pounder Parrott guns under Capt. Rogers, and one ten-pounder 
Parrott gun under Capt. Anderson ; and on the right, Capt. Squires' Battery, 
Washington Artillery, four three-inch rifles ; Capt. Stribling's Battery, one three 
inch rifle and three light twelve-pounder Napoleou guns ; a section of Capt. 
Chapman's Battery, one three-inch rifle and one light twelve-pounder Napoleou 
gun under Lieut. Chapman, and two Blakely guns of Capt. Maurin's Battery 
under Lieut. Landry. 

[ The heavy fog prevailing obscured the opposite bank of the river, and the 
enemy's positions entirely from view, until about six o'clock, a. m., at which 
hour, the sun having p_artially dispelled the fog, I opened fire from Capt. Miller's 
Battery upon a battery of long-range guns of the enemy, directly in front, at a 
range of about one thousand yards. By previous arrangements, the batteries 
on the right and left of Capt. Miller's position immediately opened, and the fire 
became general along the line. We had not long to wait for the response of 
the enemy, he immediately opening upon all our positions a rapid and vigorous 
fire from all his batteries, some in position, until then undiscovered by us. 
The battery of the enemy engaged by Capt. Miller, was silenced in about forly 
minutes. Notwithstanding the long range guns under Capt. Rodgers and Ander- 
son, on the left, had, shortly after the commencement of the engagement been 
withdrawn from action and placed under shelter of the hill on which they had 
been posted . thus leaving the battery of the enemy, which it was intended these 
guns should engage, free to direct against Miller, and the batteries on the hill 
on the right, a mo it destructive fire. At this time Capt. Miller changed position 
and directed his fire against the opposing battery, when one on the right of that 
which had been silenced, opened upon him, subjecting him to a cross fire, and 
causing him to lose heavily in men and horses. The fire was continued by 
Miller's Battery alone on the left until seven o'clock, when after consultation 
with Gen. Jones', and the fire of the enemy having greatly slackened, I ordered 
him to retire by half battery, which was handsomely done, in good order. 

At this time Lieut. Brewer fell, mortally wounded. The combat on the right 
was gallantly fought by the batteries there placed in position. 

Capt. Squires assumed command of that part of the field, and won for him- 
self renewed honors by the handsome manner in which he handled his batteries, 
and for the good judgment and coolness he displayed under the heavy fire of the 
enemy, to which he was subjected during four hours without intermission. 

The object eought to be obtained by this engagement, I am happy to say was 
fully accomplished by driving the enemy from all his positions before nightfall, 
and causing him to withdraw from our front entirely during the night. 

I have to lament the loss, in this engagement of a zealous, brave and most 
efficient officer in Lieut. Brewer, Third Company Washington Artillery, who fell 
at the head of his section at the moment it was being withdrawn from the field, 
and of many non-commissioned officers and privates. The officers and men in 
all the batteries engaged, are deserving the highest praise for their gallantry 
upon the field.. The attention of the General commanding is respectfully directed 
to those named particularly in the reports of Capts. Miller and Squires. Too 
much praise cannot be awarded to Capt. Miller and his brave Company for the 
stubborn and unflinching manner in which they fought the enemy's battery in 
such superior force and position on the left, and to Capt. Squires and Stribling, 
and Lieuts. Landry and Chapman on the right. I am iudebted to Capt. Middle- 



114 A Soldiers Story of the War. 



ton. of Brig- (ien. Drayton's Staff, to Lieut. Williams, of Gen. D. R. Jones 
Staff, and to Lieut. William Owen, Adjutant, Washington Artillery, all of whom 
"were constantly with me under fire during the engagement, lor their valuable 
assistance and zealous conduct on the field — there are none more brave or more 
deserving consideration than these gentlemen. I annex a list of casualties, and 
have the honor to be, J. B. WALTON, 

Col. and Chief of Art., Right Wing. 



REPORT OF CAPT. MILLER. 

I proceeded with my battery of four smooth-bore 12-pound Napoleons to 
Beverly's Ford on the Rappahannock, 1000 yards from the river. My position, on 
a hill sloping towards the river, was not such a one as I would have desired, 
though doubtless the best the locality afforded. At sunrise I discovered a bat- 
tery of the enemy in position, immediately in front of us, on a hill on the north 
side of the river, and I opened on it with spherical case. The enemy replied 
briskly, and for half an hour the firing was very spirited. During this time I 
was considerably annoyed by an enfilading fire of a long-ranged battery, posted 
to our right, and entirely beyond our range. After nearly an hour's engage- 
ment I was gratified to notice that the fire in our front had perceptibly slack- 
ened, indeed had almost entirely ceased. Up to this time but one of my men 
had been wounded, and two horses killed. The batteries supporting me at this 
time retired from the field, subjecting me to a galling cross-fire from the enemy's 
rifle battery in their front. I immediately changed tront on the left and replied. 
The enemy having our exact range, replied with terrible precision and effect. 
For sometime we maintained this unequal conflict, when having nearly exhausted 
my ammunition, and agreeably to your orders, I retired by half battery from 
the field. 

My casualties were : Killed — First Lieutenant Brewer, privates Thompson, 
McDonald, Joubert (mortally wounded) and Dolan. 

Wounded — Corpl. P. W. Pettiss; privates James Tully, Levy, Fourshee, Max- 
well, Crilly, Kervvin, Lynch — eight. 

Twenty-one horses killed — 356 rounds of ammunition expended. 

I would be pleased to pay a tribute to the coolness and intrepidity of my 
command ; but where all acted so well, it would be invidious to particularize. 
I should be wanting in my duty, however, were I not to mention Lieuts. Hero 
pnd McBlroy. and my non-commissioned officers, Sergeants McNeil, Handy, Col- 
lin?, Ellis and Stocker, and Corporals Coyle, Kremmelburg, Pettiss and DeBlanc, 
who by their coolness and close attention to duty, contributed not a little to the 
efficiency of my battery. Respectfully, 

M. B. MiLLER, 
C'apt. Commanding 3d Co. 11. W. A. 



REPORT OP CAPT. SQUIRES. 

Early on the morning of the 23d of August, the artillery, composed of the 
first company of Washington Artillery, (four three-inch rifles) and Captain 
Stribling's battery, (three Napoleon guns and one three-inch rifle) marched in 
the direction of the hill opposite to Rappahannock station. * * * The bat- 
tiries were formed in line from right to left in the following order : First Com- 
pany Washington Artillery, four three-inch rifle guns: Dixie Artillery, one 
Napoleon gun and one three-inch rifle ; Stribling's battery, three Napoleon guns 
and one three-inch rifle ; this had scarcely been accomplished when the signal 
was given from your position to " commence firing," which was quickly res- 



A. Soldier's Story of the War. Hi 



ponded to by the enemy. The combat was briskly carried on by the artillery 
directly in .our front for half an hour, when the enemy placed a battery on the 
extreme left, and had partly succeeded in enfilading our batteries, when I with- 
drew the section of Lieut. Galbraith, and directed him to engage the enemy on 
the left. Lieut. G. accomplished this under a heavy fire, and was partly forced 
from his first position when Lieut. Landry, with a section of Capt. Maurin's 
Battery reported, and was sent to assist Lieut. G., the tour guns being placed 
under Lieut. G., who managed to keep a heavy enfilading fire from the main 
batteries, by the coolness and bravery with which he manoeuvred this battery. 
The fire on both sides now became general and rapid. The enemy placed more 
artillery in position, and for some time I thought I should have to retire ; but 
the enemy soon after slackened his fire, and it was evident he was worsted by 
the projectiles with which our artillerists assailed him. An officer now came 
from the right and informed me that the infantry were preparing to charge, and 
to cease firing as soon ns they appeared. I kept up the fire, returning shot for 
shot with the enemy, who appeared willing to give up the combat. 

Seeing this, and being informed that Gen. Evans (commanding the infantry,) 
was advancing to attack the enemy, I ordered the four (reserve) guns of Lieut. 
GMlbraith in position to engage the enemy's artillery, and draw his attention 
while our troops were advancing. The enemy finally gave up his position, 
retired across the Rappahannock, and only replied occasionally to our fire, and 
in an hour after ceased firing altogether. 

It is with pleasure I am enabled to speak of the gallantry with which Capt. 
Stribling, officers and men, behaved on this occasion. Lieut. Chapman, with 
his section of Dixie Artillery, behaved with great coolness, and handled his 
guns with effect. To Lieut. E. Owen, J. M. Galbraith, and those under their 
command, I would especially call your attention. Both officers commanded 
full batteries, and handled them jwith coolness, bravery and good judgment, 
which has so often on previous occasions won the confidence of their men. 
Sergeants T. Y. Abby, C. L. C. Dupuy and L. M. Montgomery rendered me effi- 
cient service: the latter, on previous occasions, has placed roe under many 
obligations for his voluntary services. 

First Company, Battery Washington Artillery, killed : Privates, W. Chambers, 
R. T. Marshall, J. Reddington and H. Koss. Wounded, Coportil W. H. West, 
Privates, John R. Fell, T. S. Turner, M. Mouut and W. R. Falconer. 

Dixie Artillery, wounded: Privates, JohnEddins, Westley Pence, John Knight 
and Daniel Martin. 

Stribling's Battery, wounded : Lieut. Archer, and one Private. 
First Company Battery Washington Artillery, horses killed, 1, wounded, 1. 
Stribling's Battery, horses killed, 4, wounded, 0. 

Dixie Battery, horses killed, 1, wounded, 0. — Total, 6 killed, 1 wounded. 
One three inch rifle gun exploded during action. The batteries were engaged 
from about seven o'clock, A. M., to eleven o'clock, a. m., and expended the 
following amunition : 

First Company Washington Artillery, 400 ; Section of Dixie Artillery, 209 ; 
Section of Maurin's Artillery, 119; Stribling's Artillery, 354 ; Leake's Artillery, 
one gun. — Total, 1,182. 

Captain Leake reported after the enemy had retired with one rifle and three 
smooth-bore guns. He sustained no loss. About two o'clock, p. m., Major 
Garnett rode up and requested me to send^four rifle guns to Col. S. D. Lee, who 
was on the right, near Central railroad. For this purpose I detached Lieutenant 
Owen with one section of the Washington Artillery, and one sectioii of Mann's 
Battery. In. obedience to your orders, at half past five p. m. I ordered all the 
guns back to their respective commands. t 

Very respectfully, Colonel, your obedient servant, 

C. W. SQUIRES, 
Capt. Commanding First Co. Bat, W. A 



116 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



CHAPTER XVII 

SECOND BATTLE OF MANASSAS. 

While Pope's attention was thus occupied with Long- 
street, Jackson was pushing on up the Rappahannock to 
make a crossing at one of the upper fords, (Hinson's 
Mills,) move around Pope's army in the rear, and strike 
the railroad to Alexandria. The first day of his rapid 
march he reached Selma, and as McClellan was coming 
on from the Peninsula with more troops, and no time was 
to be lost, Jackson pushed on to Bristow Station, striking 
the railroad about dark — Hay's Brigade in the front, and. 
Forno in command — capturing two trains of cars. He 
had thus forced himself between Pope and Washington 
without meeting any resistance, or without any suspicion 
upon Pope's part that so daring and dangerous a move 
would ever have been attempted. His position is now 
indeed critical — foot-sore and weary as his men are, he 
must divide off two regiments (21st Georgia and 21st 
North Carolina) and send them with Stuart's cavalry, 
seven miles further on to Manassas. This expedition 
crept cautiously through the dark and struck the place 
from behind. It might have been warned by the dash- 
ing by of an engine from Bristow, which soon after ran 
into a train of cars, but was not. 

At this point he captured immense supplies of provis- 
ions, guns, engines, and other munitions of war, for which 
latter Pope's army will soon have sore need. But the 
alarm has been given now, and the enemy are closing 
around Jackson on every side. First, the little force at 
Manassas must beat off Scammon across Bull Run, and 
take his bridge away from him; then Stuart's cavalry must 
raid up and down and destroy everything about Fairfax 



A Soldier's Story of the War 117 



and Burke's station. Then (for the moments grow more 
and more precious) Jackson must push up his own and 
Hill's divisions from Bristow, and rout the Federal Taylor 
who goes one leg on the encounter, and has much diffi- 
culty in hobbling off on the other. But Pope's whole 
army is being spread out now, and they hold the gap by 
which Jackson came in. As the afternoon of this event- 
ful day (the 27th) wears away, Hooker comes up on 
Ewell, (left behind at Bristow,) and after hard fighting 
Gen. Ewell* burns everything behind — the Louisiana 
regiments being "hotly engaged" — and destroys the 
bridges. He must now rejoin Jackson, whose only chance 
is to move westward, towards Longstreet. There was not 
much sleeping that night for the weary soldier ; and at 3 
o'clock the next morning, (28th) Jackson makes a detour 
by way of Centre ville and Sudley Springs, followed behind 
by great masses of the enemy, whom he impeded by de- 

*The following is extracted from the report of Gen. Early: 

Hays' Louisiana brigade was on the right of the railroad, and my own brigade 
to the right of Hays' in a pine wood. 

Col. Forno, with four regiments of Hays' brigade and one of Lawton's, and 
one piece of d'Aquin's battery, was theu ordered to the front to reconnoitre and 
destroy the biidge over Kettle run, and tear up the track of the railroad. He 
found the enemy had brought up on a train of cars a body of infantry sufficient 
to fill nine cars; but having doubtless discovered our force to be larger than was 
thought, was re-embarking it. A few shots from the piece of artillery were 
fired at the train and it made its way back again, after receiving some damage. 
The 6th Louisiana, under Col. Strong, was left on picket two miles in front, on 
the railroad, and the 8th Louisiana was put to work destroying the railroad 
bridge and tearing up the track, and Col Forno returned with the rest of the 
forces. 

The enemy was seen approaching on the right of the railroad and in front of 
Hays' brigade, the 6th and 8th Louisiana regiments falling back and taking 
position in a wood three or four hundred yards in front of the brigade. The 
enemy^s force consisted of heavy columns of infantry, with artillery. As soon 
as the enemy came in range our artillery, from its several positions, opened on 
him, as did the 6th and 8th Louisiana. By this combined fire, two columns of 
the enemy, of not less than a brigade each, were driven back, and the 5th Lou- 
isiana regiment was sent forward to reinforce the sixth and eighth. At this time 
the Louisiana regiments were actively engaged, and a large body of the enemy 
was moving up, and the experiment had to be tried whether our troops could 
be withdrawn in good order. Gen. Ewell directed me to cover the retiring of 
the troops with my brigade. Lawton's was the first withdrawn across the ford 
at the railroad bridge, and then Hays' Brigade followed — all without much loss. 

15 



118 A Soldiers Story of the War 



stroying the bridges and moving on back towards Sudley 
Mills Ford, where he must encounter in a sanguinary 
fight a fresh division, (King's) only to be terminated by 
darkness — Ewell and Taliaferro both being wounded. 

It certainly looks as if the game for Jackson is ended 
now : so General Pope believes, for on the 29th Jackson 
will be assailed by 25,000 troops, and from every quarter, 
at the same time. But meanwhile Lee and Longstreet 
had been following Pope closely behind — so closely that 
at Jefferson, where we bivouacked about sundown on the 
24th, the two hostile camps came in sight of each other, 
and the enemy commenced shelling our position. In 
crossing at Waterloo bridge, (26th) Longstreet had felt 
our need, and made our batteries follow immediately 
after him. 

Moving through woods and fields to keep out of sight 
of the signal corps, through Annan ville and over the 
Warrenton Turnpike, we crossed the Rappahannock and 
camped near Orleans. On the 27th, during a halt for 
rest near Salem, the town was suddenly dashed into by 
Federal Cavalry, and a number of stragglei^s absent for 
water or food barely escaped, came rushing back and gave 
the alarm, though it did not prevent Gen. Lee from great 
risk of capture. Our trouble was we had no cavalry at 
hand to give any news ; and I remember seeing Gen. Lee 
enquire of us, so difficult was it to see or obtain informa- 
tion, whether some horsemen in front were the enemy or 
our own men. At any rate, the infantry with us were 
ordered into line — Gen. Anderson getting them stirred up 
with the cry of "Put on your shirts, men, there's no time 
to lose now " 

The same night we marched to Thoroughfare Gap, a 
very narrow pass, with precipitous sides, and through 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 119 



Bull Run Mountains. We were here delayed by the 
enemy in force, (McDowell) who, it seemed to us might 
have, with a hundred men, achieved among the gloomy 
precipices as much as Leonidas. The Persian king, how- 
ever, did not have Hood's Texas Brigade to do his flanking 
over the mountains ; and so Jackson, whose destiny now 
hangs on a thread, and the booming of whose guns our 
vanguard can hear, will soon be reinforced. At about 
mid-day, (29th) Longstreet, who had been pressing hotly 
forward, came in on the right of Jackson, and the crisis 
for him had passed. Pope's efforts to overwhelm Jackson 
had been a failure. There remained now nothing to do 
but to turn upon Pope, twine around his army although 
still the largest, and to leisurely beat him back in two 
days fighting, across Bull Run, to the heights of Cen- 
treville. The reports of our Commanders, given be- 
low, tells the rest of the story : 

REPORT OF COL. WALTON, 

OF SECOND BATTLE OF MANASSAS. 

Headquarters Batalmon Washington Artillery, ) 

November 30th, 1862. J 
To Major G. W Sorrell, 

Awiiatant Adjutant General, Right Wing, A. N. V. 

I have the honor to transmit the following report of the operations of the 
Batallion Washington Artillery of New Orleans, under my command, on the 
29th, 30th, and 31st August last, at and after the second battle of Manassas. On 
the 29th August, 1862, the four batteries composing the batallion were assigned 
and served as follows : The fourth company, consisting of two six-pounder 
bronze guns, and two twelve-pounder howitzers, under Capt. B. F. Bshleman, 
Lieuts. Norcomb, Battles and Apps, with Pickett's brigade ; the second com- 
pany with two six-pound bronze guns, and two twelve-pound howitzers, under 
Capt. Richardson, Lieuts. Hawes, DeRussey and Britton, with Toombs' brigade ; 
the first company, with three three-inch rifle guns, under Capt. C. W. Squires, 
Lieuts. E. Owens, Galbraith and Brown, and the third company, with four light 
twelve-pound guns, (Napoleons) under Capt. M. B. Miller, Lieuts. McElroy and 
Hero in reserve. 

About noon on the 29th, the two batteries in reserve having halted near the 
village of Gainesville on the Warrenton'and Centreville turnpike, were ordered 
forward by Gen. Longstreet, to engage .the enemy then in our front, and near 
the village of Groveton. Captains Miller and Squires at once proceeded to the 



120 A Soldier's Story of the Wai 



position indicated by the General, and opened fire upon the enemy's batteries. 
Immediately in Captain Miller's front he discovered a battery of the enemy, dis- 
tant about twelve hundred yards. Beyond this battery, and on a more elevated 
position, were posted the enemy's rifle batteries. He opened upon the battery 
nearest him, and after a spirited engagement of three quarters of an hour, 
completely silenced it and compelled it to leave the field. He then turned his 
attention to the enemy's rifle batteries, and engaged them until having exhausted 
his ammunition he retired from the field. 

Capt. Squires, on reaching his position on the left of ("apt. Miller's battery, 
at once opened with his usual accuracy upon the enemy s batteries. Unfortu- 
nately, after the first fire, one of his guns having become disabled by the blow- 
ing out of the bushing of the vent, was sent from the field. 

Captain Squires then placed the remaining section of his battery under com- 
mand of Lieut. Owen, and rode to the left, to place additional guns (that had 
been sent forward to his assistance) iu position. At this time the enemy's infan- 
try were engaged by the forces on the left of the position occupied by our bat- 
teries, and, while the enemy retreated in confusion before the charge of our 
veterans, the section under Lieut. Owen poured a destructive fire into their 
affrighted ranks: 

Scores were seen to fall, until finally the once beautiful line melted confusedly 
into the woods. 

The enemy s artillery having withdrawn beyond our range, the section was 
ordered from the field. Both batteries, the first and third, in this action, fully 
maintained jtheir well-earned reputation for skilful practice and gallant beha- 
vior. With this duel ended the operations on the left of our line for the day. 

The next morning, 30th August, the second company of Captain J. B. Rich- 
ardson was ordered forward from its position on the Manassas Gap railroad, to 
join its bii^ade (Toombs') then moving forward towards the enemy. Captain 
Richardson pushed forward until, arriving near the Chinn House, he was in- 
formed that our infantry had charged and taken a battery near that position, 
but, owing to heavy reinforcements thrown forward by the enemy, were unable 
to hold it without the assistance of artillery. He immediately took position on 
the left of the Chinn House and opened on the enemy, who were advancing 
rapidly, in large numbers. After firing a short time, he moved his battery for- 
ward about four hundred yards, and succeeded in holding the captured battery 
of four Napoleons, forcing the enemy back, and compelling a battery immedi- 
ately in his front, and which was annoying our infantry greatly, to retire. He 
then turned the captured guns upon their late owners, and at night brought 
them from the field with their horses and harness. 

Captain Richardson, in his report, makes special mention for gallantry of 
privates J. B. Cleveland and W. W. Davis, who were the first to reach the cap- 
tured battery, and with the assistance of some infantry, fired nearly twenty-five 
rounds before being relieved by their comrades. Lieutenant Hawes had his 
horse shot under him during this battle. While Richardson, with the second, 
was doing such gallant services near Chinn House, Eshleman, with the fourth, 
with his short range guns, was doing good work in the same neighborhood. 
Following his brigade, (Pickett's) he shelled the woods in their front, while 
they advanced in line of battle against the enemy, whose skirmishers were seen 
on the edge of the wood. Finding it would "be impracticable to follow the 
brigade, owing to the broken nature of the ground, he passed rapidly to the 
right and front, going into battery and firing from every elevated position from 
which he could enfilade the enemy, until he had passed entirely to the right of 
General Jones' position, (overlooking nearly the whole space in front of Chinn 
House) from which his shells fell into the ranks of the enemy with great execu- 
tion. A persistent attack on the front and flank drove the enemy back into the 
woods, and now the immense clouds of dust rising from Centreville road indi- 
cated that he was in full retreat. He was directed by General D. R. Jones to 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 121 



move forward and shell the wood and road, which he continued to do until 
directed by Gen. J. E. B. Stuart to send a section of his battery to the hills in 
front of the Conrad House, and to fire into a column of cavalry advancing in 
his rear. The section under Lieut. Norcom was detached, took position on the 
left of the Conrad House, and fired into the enemy until directed to cease by 
Gen. Stuart, his object having been accomplished. 

The remaining section of the battery, under Lieut. Battles, was then ordered 
by Captain Bshleman across the Sudley road, fir ng as it advanced, into the 
retreating enemy. At this time. Captain Eshleman's only support was one com- 
pany of sixty men of Gen. Jackson's sharpshooters, under Capt. Lee. 

After a short interval, the enemy again appeared in force near the edge of the 
wood. Capt. E. immediately changed his tront to the left, and poured into the 
enemy's ranks two rounds of canister, with deadly effect. Those not killed or 
wounded ran in disorder. After throwing a few shells into the woods, Captain 
E. retired about two hundred yards to the rear, being unwilling to risk his sec- 
tion with such meagre support. In a few minutes an order was brought from 
Gen. Stuatt directing the section to be brought again to the vicinity of the 
Conrad House. 

It was now dark, and Capt. E. kept up from this last position, a moderate fire 
until nine o'clock, in the direction of the Centreville road, when he was directed 
to retire, with Lieut. Norcom's section, that had joined him on the field, and 
rest his men. Capt. E., in his report, applauds highly the conduct of his 
officers, non-commissioned officers and men, to whose coolness and judgment he 
was indebted for the rapid evolutions of his battery and precision of his fire. 

The next day, August 31, 1862, Lieut. Owen, with two guns of the first Com- 
pany, accompanied Gen. Stuart, commanding Cavalry in pursuit of the enemy 
to and beyond Germantown. They came up with the enemy at several points, 
driving him ahead of them and capturing five hundred prisoners. 

Capt. Squires on the same day, with one gun accompanied Col. Rosser, to 
Manassas, going, in rear of the enemy, capturing a large amount of stores, 
(Quartermasters and Surgical) ambulances, horses, etc. 

My casualties in this battle were one killed,jPrivate, H. N. White, of seqond 
Company, and nine wounded. 

Thus ended the operations of this batallion in this great second battle of 
Manassas, fought almost on the same ground and in sight of the field where our 
guns first pealed forth a little more than a year before. 

I have the satisfaction in conclusion, to say that all the officers and men gave 
in this important battle renewed evidence of their devotion, judgment and cool 
bravery, in most U-ying positions. No eulogy of mine can add to the reputation 
they so worthily enjoy, earned upon bloody battle fields. 

I am under obligations to Lieut. W, M. Owen, my always devoted and brave 
Adjutant, for distinguished services under fire. I have the honor to be your 
obedient servant, 

J. B. WALTON, 

Col. Commanding. 

Gen. Longstreet, in his official report, describes the 
excitement of battle as giving new life to the men — says 
that the Washington Artillery was placed midway between 
Jackson and his line, "and engaged the enemy for several 
hours in a severe and successful artillery duel." 



122 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE MARYLAND CAMPAIGN. 

To go a little more into detail, the turning point, on 
the 29th of August, of the battle on Jackson's flank was 
brought about by a heavy attack of Kearney upon that 
portion of the line, about 6 o'clock in the afternoon. For 
a while it was successful enough to double up Jackson's left 
upon his centre. Though the troops had been exhausted 
by many days previous fighting, by one attack after 
another during seven hours of struggle, and had hardly 
a round of ammunition, "Yet," says General Early in 
his report, "My brigade and the Eighth Louisiana 
advanced upon the enemy through a field, and drove him 
from the woods and out of the railroad cut, crossing the 
latter and following in pursuit several hundred yards 
beyond." 

The lines of the two armies, however, were but little 
affected on the 30th by the battle of the 29th, but the 
fight of the last day was renewed by Pope under the 
absurd error that Lee was seeking to escape. McDowell 
was ordered to " press the enemy vigoronsly the whole 
day." But once the pressing process was commenced, it 
was very quickly shown w r hat the supposed retreat 
amounted to. 

"Line after line," says Swinton, "was swept away by 
the enemy's artillery and infantry fire ; and so destruc- 
tive was its effect that Porter's troops finally were com- 
pelled to withdraw. Porter's attack had been directed 
against Jackson ; but Longstreet, on Jackson's right, 
found a commanding point of ground, whence he could 
rake the assaulting columns with an enfilading fire of 
Artillery " " From an eminence near by," says Gen. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 12?, 



Longstreet. '"one portion of the enemy's masses, attacking 
Gen. Jackson, were in easy range of batteries in that 
position. It gave me an advantage I had not expected to 
have, and I made haste to use it. Two batteries were 
ordered for the purpose, and one placed in position imme- 
diately and opened. 

"Just as this fire began, I received a message from the 
Commanding General informing me of Gen. Jackson's 
condition and his wants. As it was evident that the 
attack against Gen. Jackson could not be continued ten 
minutes under the fire of these batteries, I made no move- 
ments with my troops. Before the second battery could 
be placed in position, the enemy began to retire, and in 
less than ten minutes the ranks were broken, and that 
portion of his army put to flight." — Loiajxtrei-fs Report. 



BatdUhm Jon null ; "We silenced the enemy's guns at 
3 : • j p. M., and broke up a line of advancing infantry The 
practice Avas splendid — our batteries in time occupying 
the ground held previously during the day by the enemy 
Gen. Jackson who served in the Mexican war with great 
distinction as an artillery officer, remarked while standing 
near Longstreet: "General, your artillery is superior to 
mine." 

u The head of Longstreet's column having come upon 
the field, in the rear of the enemy's left, found the battle 
already opened with artillery on Jackson's right. Long- 
street immediately placed some of his batteries in position ; 
but before he could complete his dispositions to attack, the 
enemv withdrew ; not however without loss from our 
artillery. The enemy now changed his position — Col. 
Walton placed a part of his artillery upon a commanding 
position between Jackson and Longstreet, by order of the 



124 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



latter, and engaged the enemy vigorously for several 
hours." — Gen. Lees Report. 

Gen. Warren, one of the best of Pope's Generals, "held 
on stoutly against fearful loss, till the enemy had advanced 
so close as to fire in the very faces of his men." 

The rest of the day's work consisted of an advance and 
pursuit by Lee — the remainder of Pope's army being 
saved by the resistance of a body of Regulars who held 
the Henry House Hill till Pope could cross his men in 
the darkness to the further side of Bull Run. The dis- 
ordered masses of the Federal army presented the same 
scene that they did at the same river the year before ; 
and the victory was just as complete — Lee capturing 9000 
prisoner*, 30 pieces of artillery, and 20,000 stand of arms, 
besides putting 40,000 of Pope's army hors du combat. 
This victory however was like the first in a still more 
important respect — it was no more decisive than any 
that preceded it, and the fighting and marching had to be 
commenced on the morrow the same as if nothing had 
yet been done.* 

* Report of Colonel Stafford commanding Second Louisiana Brigade, of the Battles of the 

Second Manassas. 

"The Brigade, consisting of the first, second, ninth, tenth, fifteenth, and Cop- 
pens' bataillon Louisiana Volunteers, reported near Gordonsville, on or about 
the ]2th August, 1862, and was assigned to duty in the division of Major General 
T. J. Jackson. Being the senior Colonel in the Brigade, the command devolved 
upon me. I had command but one week, when Brigadier General W. E. Starke, 
reported for duty and took command. Shortly after lien. Starke's arriva', we 
took up the line of march and continued it until we reached the ford on the 
Itappahannock, near Brandy Station, on or about the 21st August, at whicli 
period we found the enemy strongly posted on the opposite bank. On the morn- 
ng of the 22d we resumed the march, and crossed the Rappahannock at Major's 
Mill, on Hazel fork on the 25th; passed through Thoroughfare Gap on the morning 
of the 27th, and reached Manassas the same day. That night we fell back, and 
took position near the little farm called Groveton. On the afternoon of the 28th, 
the enpmy appearing in sight, we formed our line of battle on the crest of the 
hill overlooking Groveton, and awaited his attack. The battle commenced at 
five o'clock, p. m. and lasted until nine o'clock, p. m. resulting in the repulse of 
the enemy, we holding the battle ground. In the engagement, the Brigadier 
General commanding the division, receiving a severe wound, the command 
devolved upon Brig. Gen. Starke, and the command of the brigade fell upon me. 
On the morning of the 2SHh being in reserve, we were not thrown forward until 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 125 



The marches of Jackson and Longstreet afforded during 
this week a good idea of what soldiering was. It was 
hard work with all, but with the Louisiana troops under 
Jackson, it was 35 miles forced marching, for two days, 
from the Rappahannock to Manassas, rounded off with a 
fight and railroad burning, two or three fights the day 
after, and the same work continued for ten days — all of 
the time with almost certain destruction awaiting the 
corps. 

It deserves also to be stated — with many members 
of the Washington Artillery, as soon as it was discovered 
that there was no immediate demand for their guns — from 
having exhausted their ammunition or other cause, that 
they went into the action with other batteries, and 
that their services were gladly received. At the second 
Manassas, some of the men were in action at three different 
points, and with three different batteries during the same 
day 

One of the horrors of such a system of ten days fighting, 
may be cited in what the troops suffered in the battles just 
alluded to. 

They were all day exposed to a broiling sun, and to 



about twelve o'clock, at which time we received an order to charge. Driving 
the enemy before us, we again fell back to our position, remaining in it during 
the night. On the morning of the 30th, Brig. Gen. Starke ordered me to send 
half of one of my regiments forward, and occupy the Rail Road ut cas a point 
of observation, to be held at all hazards. About eight o'clock in the morning, 
the enemy commenced throwing forward large bodies of skirmishers, into the 
woods on our left, who quickly formed themselves into regiments, and moved 
forward by brigade to the attack, and massing a large body of troops at this 
point, with the evident design of forcing us from our position. They made 
repeated charges on us while in this position ; but but were compelled to retire 
in confusion, sustaining heavy loss and gaining nothing. It was at this point 
that the ammunition gave out, the men procured some from the dead bodies of 
their comrades, but the supply was not sufficient, and in the absence of ammunition, 
the men fought with rocks and held their position. The enemy retreated, and we 
pressed forward to the turnpike road; then halted and camped for the night. Oil 
the 31st. we took up the line of march, and on the 1st of September at Chantilly, 
we again met the eaciny and repulsed them. 

16 



126 A Soldiers Story of the War. 



great suffering from scarcity of water. Added to this, 
-was the ghastly sight of the men slain in the previous 
day's fights, and, what was worse to a soldier, the intoler- 
able stink emanating from 10,000 bloated and festering 
corpses. 

On our march to the rescue of Jackson from Thorough- 
fare Gap, the men drank from stagnant pools, and their 
sufferings were so great, that Gen. Lee was heard to inquire 
of some of his officers, if there were no roads by which to 
save his poor soldiers in their forced marches, from so 
much dust and heat. 

As showing what the slaughter of such a battle field is, 
I may mention that being detailed as a driver, when our 
artillery moved across the field, it was found impossible 
for the drivers to prevent their wheels from passing over 
more than one prostrate corpse, particularly over those 
of the red legged Zouaves, nearly annihilated on this 
field, by the Texas Brigade. It was just such a scene 
as the old pictures in republican Geographies used to 
represent of the carriage of the Emperors of Austria or 
of Russia, passing over the cripples and beggars who stood 
in the way- 

Among other singularities of the First Manassas, was 
the fact that both armies were preparing to attack on 
their right at the same time. As the storm burst first 
upon the Confederate left flank, the consequence was that 
the battle was gained by the 7000 Confederate troops who 
could be brought to that wing — by their almost incredible 
stand against five times their superior force. In the 
Second Manassas, a year after, the two armies as if by 
mutual agreement had changed to opposite sides, as if to 
decide whether the first had been won owing to some 
advantage in the facings or the ground. In the first, the 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 127 



hottest portion of the fight had been around the house of 
Mrs. McHenry, who was there killed and buried. In the 
following year, two soldiers were found stretched over her 
grave — as if to show that they had fought over some Belle 
Helene, or rather over an old woman's quarrel, and by 
some sort of retribution, after marching always in oppo- 
sition over and around Virginia, had finally come back by 
a poetic coincidence, to die face to face over the grave of 
the first innocent victim of the war. 

Practically stated, the Second Manassas may be defined 
as the culminating effort of Pope to capture Jackson, who 
in the moment his prey was completely in the toils, 
removed himself, his men from the entrance to the trap, 
and allowed Lee to come through Thoroughfare Gap* to 
his assistance. The blunder here made, of which every 
battle affords instances on one side or the other, culminated 
in Pope trying to flank the right wing of Jackson, and 
never being able to find the end of it, for the reason that 
Lee and Longstreet had in the very nick of time been added 
on to it. Failing in capturing Jackson, his last blunder was 
his attempted pursuit of Lee. 

-The following is from the JJiilnHion Journal, Aug. 29th : A little after the 
Texas and Georgia Brigades had taken possession of the cow paths of Bull Run 
Mountains, and driven the enemy therefrom, a squadron of horse emerged as we 
advanced, from the woods on our left, and caused a halt, and a momentary doubt 
was entertained as to whether it was friend or foe ; but soon the red banner with 
the blue cross was discerned through a glass, and a horseman with flowing beard, 
(who turned out to be Gen. Beverly Robinson) advanced rapidly. " What of Jack- 
son," said Lee. " He has fallen back and is holding the enemy at Sudley's Mills." 
'■Let us press on to his assistance, " said Lee ; and the booming of Jackson's guns 
told us that we would be none too soon : we went on the battlefield of the 29th 
on the right flank of Jackson, at 11:30 — six hours before Pope or Porter knew 
that Lee's army was present; the 3d Company being the first to be ordered in. 

If Pope who had the superiority of men had held the gap, and kept his troops 
on the road therefrom, everything else being equal, he ought to have succeeded 
in crushing Jackson. 



128 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE KILLED AND WOUNDED AT THE BATTLES OF THE 

SECOND MANASSAS, 29th and 30th of AUGUST, 1862. 

Wounded : — Third Company, Sergeant W. A. Collins. Private, E. Chapiaux, 
Driver, James Bloom. 

SECOND COMPANY. 

Killed .-—Private, Henry N. White. Wounded: — Privates, A. R. Blakely, 
Douglas Ware, II. D. Summers. 

FOURTH COMPANY, (Gl'OVetOn). 

Wounded: — Privates, Jos. W Lescene, B. S. Burke, Driver, Davis Nolan. 
Batallion horses killed in the three battles — 41. 

Meanwhile, the head of the column was again to the 
front — Jackson once more creeping around and behind 
Pope with a drawn sword, or rather fixed bayonet, and 
appearing, for many a Federal regiment and division pre- 
destined to Hades, as the executioner of the Fates — little 
occupied as to what particular body of men to smite first. 
Marching north by German town, he struck the enemy at 
Chantilly, during a tremendous thunder storm, and the 
roar of the elements and the fall of the rain on that 
chilly afternoon was so great that the men could scarcely 
handle their guns, nor could the armies, three miles dis- 
tant, distinguish the booming of the cannon. The number 
of killed and wounded was considerable upon both sides 
(among other dead was Gen. Kearney,* of the United 
States Army, whose body was brought into our lines;) 
but the move otherwise bore no fruit, Pope retiring with- 
out further struggle within the lines about Washington. 

Shortly after our army moved towards the Potomac, 
for which event w,e had been dreaming ever since the 
first Manassas. 

On the 3d of September we marched with three days 
rations and bivouacked at Dranesville, with the whole 

*Gen. Kearney was once asked by the colonel of a re-enforcing regiment in 
one of the battles of '62 where to go in? "Oh anywhere !" was the answer, 
" anywhere ! It's all the same. Lovely fighting along the whole line." 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 129 



army The order was given on the following day for 
Jackson to cross the Potomac, and the word was, " On to 
Maryland!" 

On the 5th we marched through Leesburg and bivouacked 
in a half a mile of the Potomac, which stream was next 
morning crossed. 

As full of hope as the soldiers of Hannibal going over 
the Alps — many of whose battles, by the way, those of 
Lee and Jackson resembled — the men splashed through 
the water, too happy to be moving forward to trouble 
themselves about wet clothing. The careful artillerists 
who were by the. side of their pieces, mounted the cais- 
sons — the laggards behind shouted frantically for a little 
delay, and in vain attempted to obviate a wet skin by 
extra speed. 

It was with a deep heaving of the chest and expansion 
of the lungs with us all that we stood at last upon the 
Maryland shore, and thought of the battle fields behind 
and before. At all of the farm houses near the river the 
people appeared hospitable and reb down to their boots, 
and crazy to see Lee. Adjutant Owen brought back a 
string of ladies, who overwhelmed the old man with 
kisses and welcomes. 

On the following day we crossed the Monocosy and 
camped near Frederick City Jackson's troops had pretty 
much swept the town; but the troops were paid in Mary- 
land, and grocers were found with sufficient sympathy to 
take Confederate money in return for a variety of eata- 
bles and drinkables. Our supplies were replenished and 
that night there was a Sardanapalan feast, on a limited 
scale, which effectually banished the memory of hard 
marches (however it might have been with headache) 
from every couch that night. 



130 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Our marches led us through Frederick City, Hagerstown, 
and Boonsboro. But little opportunity was afforded us 
for seeing the country, as hard fighting was evidently 
before us in the not remote perspective, and it was neces- 
sary that the men should stand close to their guns; besides 
Ave were in Maryland only two weeks. An advance after 
the First Manassas, (which there can be no question would 
have been made, if Gen. Lee had been in command) would 
have carried Maryland to the cause of the Confederacy, 
but it was now too late. Her refined population could 
only see as the result of long soldiering, rags and filth, 
and barefooted soldiers (totally indifferent or indisposed 
to the bright muskets,) and so the sentiment of " My 
Maryland" evaporated in poetry and paper. The number 
of recruits (300) did not begin to compensate for the heavy 
drain upon Lee's Regiments from forced marching; which 
cut the number of his men down one-half, and so there 
was to be no interest of any practical value felt in us — 
and but little enthusiasm ; that is with a few very noble 
exceptions. One of these I now remember, was that of a 
kind-hearted woman who offered one of our weary soldiers 
some fruit. Before she had ended in making this good 
natured evidence of friendship, a mob of her own sex 
invaded her house and overwhelmed her with every 
reproach. The intelligent soldier whom she tried to bene- 
fit, seeing how the land lay, pretended to have taken the 
fruit without asking, and hastened to relieve his well- 
Avisher of what must have been at the time embarrassing 
company 

To a soldier, Avhose pleasures like that of the clergy, 
are almost limited to eating and drinking, a rare oppor- 
tunity of this sort Avas viewed by our Generals Avith an 
indulgent eye, and the men Avere alloAved to forget, for at 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 131 



least one clay, wearisome marches, watches and privations, 
and the bloody tragedies which were looming up in the 
future. 

During the short time that we were camped about the 
towns of Maryland, the streets were full of soldiers, not 
to say the drinking saloons, which from time to time would 
mysteriously open and shut, though contrary to orders, 
and the jingling of spurs, sabres and glasses, and the faint 
aroma of tempting drinks, would be borne to the senses of 
the envious lookers on, compelled to remain upon the out- 
side. A hotel of limited accommodations was the great 
point of attraction. The guests, however, had only Con- 
federate money, and the unpatriotic landlord (though he 
affected the very reverse) was unwilling to accept this 
currency in payment. Besides, he was completely over- 
slaughed by the number of his guests, Avhose appetites 
more than corresponded to the contents of his larder. A 
party of our men went there one day, fully determined to 
eat a square meal before going into another fight ; but it 
soon became evident that if they did so, it would be with- 
out any assistance from our host, who affected the greatest 
pleasure in our company, but frankly told us that two 
hundred other guests stood a much better chance. 

He however, did not hesitate to sell us our dinner 
tickets, while good naturedly laughing and telling us at 
the same time that there was no chance. 

Once provided with these documents, there was only 
need for watchfulness and attention — the entrance of the 
select crowd beforehand, meaning of course no dinner for 
the balance of us. The danger was guarded against by 
dividing ourselves up into corps of observation, and keep- 
ing a bright look out, especially in the neighborhood of 
the kitchen. 



132 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Our vigilance met with its reward. We found out the 
precise moment for action — through the friendship of a 
French chef or waiter Ave discovered the secret entrance 
reserved for the favored few, and better than all the 
watchword that would permit us to pass the closely 
guarded door. To the infinite astonishment of our land- 
lord, the soldiers of the Louisiana regiments went in with 
the first move, and some of their acquaintances among 
the officers and generals were indebted to our ? timely 
discovery to getting anything to eat at all. 

I have alwa} ? s thought that the two hundred guests 
assembled that day, did the heaviest knife and fork work 
ever performed in that hotel, or indeed in the whole State. 

In the careless meetings which took place between the 
higher officers on such occasions, and the soldiers whom 
they had previously known, the conduct of the former was 
always manly and good-natured, and an evident disposition 
was shown to forget their rank; whether it was at a way 
side dinner, or when a train of provisions or army clothing 
was struck, and every one with great glee, would rig him- 
self out to his fancy, or according to the length of his 
arms or legs would cast the unsuitable clothing to his next 
friend, or some of his men. Some of us in the midst of 
one such toilette, were with Gen. Gordon, the most 
gallant and dauntless officer in the Confederate Army, and 
almost as popular with the Louisiana Brigades as Jackson; 
and a sudden alarm came very near causing him to lead 
his men into action, minus both his old costume and his 
new 

On one such occasion, Gen. Jackson had succeeded in 
getting hold of a rasher of bacon. One of his men who 
had bread, offered to divide with him, and the offer was 
accepted, on condition that he received half of the Gene- 
ral's slice of meat. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 133 



It must be confessed that the fields of fruit and grain 
in our marches Northward, were of invaluable assistance 
to our arm\-, as may be judged by a remark which I 
heard a soldier make when we afterwards invaded Penn- 
sylvania, that he could not understand how the move- 
ment at that time could succeed, as it was too late in the 
year for green apples or roasting ears, to live upon during 
the march. But in the Rappahannock and Maryland Cam- 
paign, the man who owned a frying pan, was possessed 
of no little influence, and various sorts of flattery were 
frequently resorted to, to gain temporary possession of it. 
With this, in a half an hour, and with the aid of a few 
sticks or splinters from rails, and a small cut of bacon, 
an impromptu meal could be hatched up whenever the 
line halted. The owner of so useful an article was 
allowed to assume a certain dignity and style, somewhat 
comparable to that of the chief officer of a regiment, 
so long as the corn remained tender; but as all human 
honors are fleeting, he was afterwards forced to yield to 
the messmate who discovered a way of manufacturing a 
grater out of a canteen, and of thus making out of an 
otherwise indigestible food, a dish of first-class hominy 



CHAPTER XIX. 

SHAEPSBURG. 



From that time until we had passed Boonsboro, we 
journeyed on quietly enough through a delightful moun- 
tain country, but finally halted about midday, as it seemed 
to us, in order to rest our horses. While we were quietly 
dozino - by the side of these, the faint sound of cannon was 



17 



134 A Soldiers Story of the War. 



heard, which gradually increased in loudness, and it now 
became evident that an attack by the enemy was being 
made upon our rear column — upon the men who were 
holding the passes; now, as it seemed, with much less 
success than we had at Thoroughfare Gap. We formed 
the impression without being able to learn much about 
the matter, that fortune had suddenly given the enemy 
the trump card; and that so far from advancing, that we 
would have to turn back. 

We subsequently learned that our success had been 
decided by an accident of the most trivial nature — by a 
scrap of paper, which falling in the mud and being left 
behind, had been picked up, after the Confederate army 
left Frederick city. The scrap contained the marching 
orders of Gen. Lee, and McClellan now knew the dis- 
position of all his corps. The most important information 
he in this way gained, was that Jackson had branched off 
to swoop down on a depot of supplies, and 12,000 Federal 
troops who had been left behind, in spite of all the rules 
of war, at Harper's Ferry, and that Lee's forces were 
divided in the enemy's country. 

By this time almost every soldier had acquired suffi- 
cient experience to know what the heavy prolonged firing 
to the rear meant. We did not hear of the captured letter, 
or the precise cause of our check, until years afterwards, 
but our faculties were sufficiently keen to couple the 
booming of the guns with the absence of Jackson, and to 
know what it meant. 

If at that juncture McClellan had done what Jackson 
was doing, without any chance assistance from fortune — 
had pressed forward his troops through the passes or over 
the mountains, Gen. Lee's army would have been in a bad 
way But instead, Lee held the Thermopylae — time 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 135 



was lost in making a wrong flanking movement by his 
enemies, and the few hours thus gained (at the cost of 
some desperate fighting by the small divisions left behind,) 
enabled Lee to regain the mastery of the situation. While 
the rear was holding its ground, Jackson, who conquered 
as much by the legs of his troops as by their arms, was 
returning. 

Meanwhile, our retreat towards the Potomac had com- 
menced a little after midnight — (on the loth,) and part of 
our duties was to guard the rear of the army, by taking 
positions upon every commanding eminence, and prepar- 
ing for an attack until the remainder of the troops had 
filed by- This operation was kept up till mid-day, at 
which time we took position definitely at Sharpsburg. 

A little while after, while the men were cooking or 
sleeping, as we happened to be suffering most with hunger 
or lack of sleep, we were called to our guns and ordered 
to reply to some of the guns of position,* in which we were 
always excelled by the enemy It is needless to say that 
our firing was for the same object with which Lee had 
made an ostentatious display of his infantry — with a view 
of deterring the enemy, and gaining time until the arrival 
of Jackson. The firing did not amount to much, or rather 
was a sheer farce as Gen. Hill called it, and we were soon 
permitted to go back and prepare for the serious work 
before us. McClellan meanwhile lost his opportunity by 
postponing bis attack until the 17th, though his fire 
continued during the loth, and the following day 

"Guns of position — viz those of larjre calibre and long range. The enemy's 
plan of operations, as it was with the Russians in the Crimean War, who had 
confessedly the same superiority over the English and French, was to plant a num- 
ber of guns upon some commanding forts or hills, and then open a converging 
fire to which from lack of sufficient range and calibre, the Confederate Army 
could make no adequate reply. As to what our Artillery could do in a pitched 
battle, at Sharpsburg or elsewhere, even with badly made guns and ammunition, 
all of the reports are sufficient evidence. 



136 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Our line was about a mile from Sharpsburg. then under- 
going shelling, and though a battle was obviously to be 
fought on the 17th, we were willing to visit the town 
in order to add to the scanty rations of camp. Soldiers 
being naturally of an indolent turn, it was easier to find 
volunteers who would encounter the danger, than those 
who were ready about bringing water, cooking, borrowing 
and washing our limited number of cooking utensils. 
Those who went into Sharpsburg, found much difficulty 
in coming across a store-keeper, sufficiently daring to do 
business under the circumstances, and only threats of 
helping ourselves, induced traders to return and receive 
our greenbacks. 

Most of us wanted sugar, coffee, and similar supplies ; 
but there was more than the average number, who hang 
around corner-groceries, ready to stand an unlimited 
quantity of shelling, provided they could thereby gratify 
what most soldiers acquire, a craving for liquor. But by 
this time we had all of us became so indifferent to balls, 
that the men of the two armies when picketed in sight of 
each other, and exposed to fire, would not only pay but 
little attention to the shots, but frequently be kind enough 
to point out to the enemy where their balls had gone to, 
and tell them to fire more to the right or left. 

The duty of having the coffee now purchased ground at 
an adjacent house, brought me in company with an elderly 
Maryland lady, whose nature seemed to have become as 
much absorbed in the war, as that of Flora Mclvor in the 
hopes of the Scottish Pretender. She sat softly singing 
before the fire as I entered, rocking herself to and fro in 
her chair, and apparently heedless of the shells which were 
passing over her house. When she ceased, it would be to 
launch out in fond praises of her son, whom she thought 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 13 7 



the bravest man in Stonewall's army, and Avhose death 
she apparently regarded as certain — something to which 
she had long since made up her mind. While having a 
look of fixed despair and resignation at his probable fate, 
she never seemed to admit to herself that this only son 
and relative could be any where but in a soldier's place. 
No entreaties could induce her to accept any of the coffee, 
though she was evidently much affected by the smell, and 
if she had possessed any would have probably sent it off 
to her son. 

The intensity of the devotion of this poor woman, was 
painfully brought to mind the next day, by the fate of a 
soldier who was killed before the battle had fairly com- 
menced, and who from her description, might have been 
her son. This man was shot down right by the side of a 
surgeon, who was behind the crest of the hill to avoid the 
enemy's fire, and in the presence of a number of soldiers, 
this medical officer refused to dress the man's wounds, or 
give him a chance for his life because he did not belong to 
his regiment. The old woman and the Doctor were pretty 
good types of the noble class upon one side, and those 
whose cowardly or selfish instincts were always coming to 
the surface. 

The principal battle of Sharpsburg, next to Gettysburg 
the hardest fought battle of the war, occurred the next 
day, Sept. 17th. 

The following taken from Gen. Early's, report of the 
Battle of Sharpsburg, will, show how it fared with the 
Louisiana Infantry : 

"About sunrise, the enemy advanced in line, driving in our skirmishers, and 
advancing to the edge of the woods. About this time, batteries opened in front 
from the woods with shell and canister, and these brigades were exposed to a 
terrible carnage. After a short time, Gen. Hays advanced with his brigade, to the 
support of Col. Douglas, under a terrific fire and passed to the front. About this 
time Gen. Lawton, who had been superintending the operation, received a very 



735 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



severe wound and was borne from the field. Col. Walker by moving two of his re- 
giments, 21st Georgia and 21st North Carolina, and concentrating their fire and 
that of the 12th Georgia upon a part of the enemy's line in front of the latter, suc- 
ceeded in breaking it and as a brigade of fresh troops came up to the support of 
Lawton's and Hays' brigades just in time, Walker ordered an advance; but the 
brigade which came up having fallen back, he was compelled to halt, and finally to 
fall back to his first position. His brigade. (Trimble's,) had suffered terribly, his 
own horse was killed under hyn, and he had himself been struck by a piece of shell. 
Col. Douglas, whose brigade had been hotly engaged during the whole time, was 
killed, and about half the men had been killed and wounded. Hays' brigade, 
which had advanced to Col. Douglas' support, had also suffered terribly, having 
more, than half killed and wounded, (both Gen. Hays and Staff being disabled); 
and Gen. Hood having come up to their relief, these three brigades which were 
reduced to mere fragments, their ammunition being exhausted, retired to the 
rear. The terrible nature of the conflict in which these three brigades had been 
engaged, and the steadiness with which they maintained their position, is shown 
by the losses they sustained. They did not retire from the field, until General 
Lawton had been wounded and borne from the field ; Col. Douglas, commanding 
Lawton's brigade had been killed, and the brigade had sustained a loss of five 
hundred and fifty-four killed and wounded out of eleven-hundred and fifty, 
losing five Regimental Commanders out of six. Hays' brigade had sustained a 
loss of three hundred and twenty-three out of five hundred and fifty, including 
every Regimental Commander, and all of his Staff; and Col. Walker and one of 
his Staff had been disabled, and the brigade he was commanding had sustained 
a loss of two-hundred and twenty-eight, out of less than seven hundred pre- 
sent, including three out of four Regimental Commanders. I am sorry that I 
am not able to do justice to the individual cases of gallantry displayed in this 
terrible conflict. 

" I deem it proper to state that all the killed and wounded of my own brigade 
were inside of my lines, as I established them after the fight, and that the killed 
and wounded of the enemy on this part of the field, were also within the same 
lines. All my killed were buried, and all my wounded were carried to the hos- 
pital in the rear." 

One line of the enemy's infantry came so near us, that 
we could see their Colonel on horseback waiving his men 
on, and then even the stripes on the Corporal's arms. 
How it made our blood dance and nerves quiver as we 
saw their colors floating steadily forward, and how he- 
roically and madly we toiled at and double-shotted our 
guns. Our men worked that clay desperately, almost 
despairingly, because it looked for a time as if we could not' 
stop the blue wave from coming forward, although we 
were tearing it to pieces with canister and shell. Long- 
street was on horseback at our side, sitting side-saddle 
fashion, and occasionally making some practical remark 
about the situation. Pie talked earnestly and gesticulated 
to encourage us, as the men of the detachments began to fall 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 139 



around our guns, and told us he would have given us a 
lift if he had not that day crippled his hand. But crip- 
pled or not, we noticed that he had strength enough left 
to carry his flask to his mouth, as probably everybody else 
did on that terribly hot day, who had any supplies at 
command, to bring to a carry * 

Finally the blue line disappeared from our front, and 
we managed to hobble off with our pieces, though with 
the loss of a good many men, horses, and some wheels to 
our gun carriages. Then we loaded our chests with 



*Gen. Longstreet says in his report, that the enemy on the lTth, renewed an 
attack commenced the night before on Hood's brigade — a handful compared 
with those before him. Hood fought desperately until Jackson and Walker 
came to his relief — the former soon moving off to flank the enemy's right. The 
enemy " now threw forward his masses against my left : met by Walker, two pieces 
of Captain Miller's battery of the Washington Artillery, and two of Birce's 
battery. The enemy was driven back in some confusion; an effort was made to 
pursue, but our line was too weak. From this moment our centre was extremely 
weak. The enemy's masses again moved forward, and Cook's regiment stood 
with empty guns, moving his colors to show his regiment was in position. The 
artillery played upon the enemy with canister — their lines hesitated and after 
an hour and a half retired. 

" Another attack was quickly made a little to the right of the last, Capt. Miller 
turning his pieces upon these lines, and playing upon them with round shot 
(over the heads of R. H. Anderson's men) checked the advance, and Anderson's 
division, with the artillery, held the enemy in check until night. This attack 
was followed by the final assault, about four o'clock p. m., when the enemy 
crossed the bridge in front of Sharpsburg, and made his desperate attack upon 
my right. He drove back our right several times, and was himseif made to 
retire several times — badly crippled ; but his strong reinforcements finally 
enabled him to drive in my right, and occupy this part of my ground. 

" Thus advanced, the enemy's line was placed in such position as to enable Gen. 
Toombs to move his brigade directly against their flank. Gen. Jones seized the 
opportunity and threw Toombs against the enemy's flank, drove him back and 
recovered our lost ground. Two of the brigades of Major Gen. A. P Hill's 
division advanced against the enemy's front as Gen. Toombs made his flank 
attack. The enemy took shelter behind a stone wall, and another line was, 
advanced to the crest of a hill in support of his first line. Capt. Richardson's, 
Browns, and Moody's batteries, were placed in position to play upon the second 
line, and both lines were eventually driven back by their batteries. 

" Before it was entirely dark, the hundred thousand men that had been threat- 
ening our destruction for twelve hours, had melted away into a few stragglers. 

'■In one month, these troops had marched over two hundred miles upon little 
more than half rations, and fought nine battles and skirmishes, killed, wounded 
and captured nearly as many men as we had in our ranks, besides taking arms 
and other ammunition of war in large quantities. " 

Gen. Toombs in his report, gives a very laudatory aceount of Richardson's 
battery of the Washington Artillery at Sharpsburg. 



140 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



ammunition, and reappeared at two or three different points 
of the fray during the day Atone time about dusk, the 
hostile lines became so blended that no one could tell 
friend from foe, and we were afraid of firing for fear of 
doing harm to our friends. 

The following is from Gen. Lee's report of the battle 
of Sharpsburg : 

"The advance of the enemy [on the 15th,] was delayed by the brave opposi- 
tion he encountered from Fitz Lee's cavalry. During the afternoon the batteries 
were slightly engaged. 

" [On the 17th,] the firm front presented by the 2"7th N. C. standing boldly in 
line without a cartridge, and the well directed fire of the artillery under Capt. 
Miller of the Washington Artillery, and Capt. Bryce's S. C. Battery, checked the 
progress of the enemy. Another attack was made soon afterwards, a little fur- 
ther to the right, but was' repulsed by Miller's guns of the Washington Artillery. 

"Our artillery though much inferior to that of the enemy in the number of guns 
and weight of metal, rendered efficient and most gallant service throughout the 
day, and contributed greatly to the repulse of the attacks upon every part of 
the line." 

"We held our ground until darkness put an end to the 
fight ; but the army had been hardly pressed, and we 
were not sorry when the night after, the order came for 
the army to recross the Potomac. 

Now followed some of the most tiresome and fatiguing 
work it was ever the lot of an army to do — the getting 
across the immense train of commissary wagons, needlessly 
and perilously large, as was shown in the fact that it 
ultimately led to the capture of Lee's army itself, in the 
retreat to Appomattox Courthouse. Some overloaded 
wagon or leatherheaded mule driver (the M. D.'s as they 
were called,) was everlastingly blocking the road, until 
these conveyances would be compelled by impatient 
cursing from behind, to vomit up their contents. To see 
the road strewed with heavy old trunks and useless 
plunder belonging to a favored few, was very exasper- 
ating, and at the same time much enjoyed by every one, 
except the owners, especially when every one knew that 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 143 



the critical position of the army was embarrassed by an 
already too long wagon train. 

The scene on the Maryland side on the night of the 
crossing rivaled Bedlam. The wagon train had to go 
down a very high and almost perpendicular bank, and 
except for the still greater danger from behind, was such 
a descent as no prudent wagoner would ever have 
attempted to make. Although it was as precipitous as 
the road to perdition, the teamsters had to make an elbow 
halfway down, at the imminent risk of an overturn — some 
of the wagons actually meeting with such a calamity - 
These were set fire to, partly for warmth, partly for the 
purpose of seeing ; and these and the flaring torches held 
about by different hands, gave a weird Rembrandt touch to 
the scene. Then there was a large number of officers and 
men who had come forward from behind, and who had to 
stand around all night — the ground being too muddy to 
admit of seats. 

Some who were mounted went to sleep in their saddles 
All of this time there would be a confused shouting 
among the wagoners, and the cry of " Pull around to the 
right and then swing to the left," was to be heard with 
each descent. 

One of the men who was holding a torch, who shouted out 
this explanation, was almost ridden down by an angry Gen- 
eral who wanted to know who commanded that regiment 
— himself or some one else. The General was afterwards 
just enough to ride back and thank the soldier for saving his 
baggage. Then there were two batteries that approached 
the bank at the same moment, and who actually kept the 
army, worn down and in danger, as it was for some time, 
delayed, because neither would yield the precedence to 
the other. One rash headstrong General took possession 

18 



144 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



of the only wagon road, for his infantry men, who could 
have got down to the water's edge, any where else, and 
when the instructions were that they should cross at a 
ford a little below. 

The strangest feature of the whole affair, was the gro- 
tesque appearance of our army who had stripped off most 
of their clothes, and who went shuddering and shivering 
in the cold water. Altogether, it was a torch-light pro- 
cession of the most fantastic sort. Some hints were 
thrown out to the brass band to strike up a lively air as 
they marched through ; but the musicians were very 
little in .the humor for joking that night. Indeed, this was 
the case with most of us. 

By daylight the next morning, we were all pretty well 
stove up and fagged out, and most of us felt that we had 
our belly-full of fighting for some time to come. That 
campaign certainly added pretty largely to the army of 
stragglers, (one-half of Lee's army in Maryland, though 
there the men had been simply marched to death,) who 
never cared about getting nearer than the baggage wagons 
to the front. 

We marched through Bunkerhill to Winchester, Vir- 
ginia, where we stayed forty days (to Oct. 30th, 1862.) 
The place must have been a delightful town, full of fine 
shade trees, tasteful gardens, old stone buildings, and with 
a very hospitable, easy going population. It came though, 
in course of time, with Jackson and Milroy always 
changing ownership, or with Lee marching through it, to 
have the hard, tarnished and jaded look which military 
quarters generally have. Fair faces were more meditative 
in the second year, than sympathetic — and thought rather 
of the probability of losing their spoons, or the price of a 
square meal, than over the pleasure inspired by soldiers' 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 141 



compliments. There was one noble exception however, 
(though exception is not the word, as the residents were 
after all right) ; this was a lady who came near to being 
a heroine in her way : nearer than any other whose name 
has yet been in print. I allude to Miss Josephine Carson, 
a lad}" of fine social position and many attractions, who 
merits mention on account of her devotion to the sick 
and wounded, who had been sent back from Sharpsburg, 
and who deserved the reputation of having won the admi- 
ration and good-will of our soldiers as much as any lady 
whom we met in Virginia ; a reputation to which she was 
entitled, from her dignity of demeanor, and from a good 
nature and natural largeness of heart which interested 
her in every soldier who passed by her. 

The truth is, the same might be said of a very large 
number of Virginia women, who almost every one of them 
did an incredible number of kindnesses to soldiers. The 
soldiers from Louisiana were ready to dispute the palm 
on the battle-field, with the troops from Virginia or any 
other State ; but we all of us became infatuated with the 
patience and devotion of the ladies of that State — as well 
as of those who claimed no pretensions to that title; and I 
never heard a soldier worthy of that name, speak in other 
than tones of the highest commendation of the mothers 
and daughters of that State. None of us ever met with 
any other reception from the women of the South, who 
were always our best friends, and who would always realize 
and pity a soldier's misery a long time before it would occur 
to their male relatives or friends, and who when they did 
a kindness, did so in such a way as to mollify many proud 
spirits, who were unwilling to accept any evidences ol 
good- will for doing only what they considered their duty. 

Let us now return, while the soldiers and battery horses 



146 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



of Gen. Lee's army are resting, after the fatigues of their 
past battles and long marches, to New Orleans, and relate 
what has meanwhile transpired at the old Washington 
Artillery Armory For the chapter which follows, this 
work is indebted to the pen of one of the officers high 
in command of the Fifth Company. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

BATALLION WASHINGTON ABTILLEKY— FIFTH COMPANY. 

On the departure for the seat of war in Virginia, of the 
first four companies of the Batallion, on the 27th of April, 
1861, the following order was promulgated by the Major 
Commanding, the last issued by him previous to mustering 
into the service of the Confederate States. 



Headquarters Batallion Washington Artillery. 
New Orleans, April, 1 
****** 



n 



VII — 1st Lieut. W I. Hodgson, of the 4th Company, is hereby specially detailed 
to remain in New Orleans on recruiting service, and will forward from time to 
time, to the seat of war, such recruits as may be required, and hold himself 
subject to any further orders from these headquarters. 

* * ' * * * * * * * 

By order, J. B. WALTON, 

Wm. M. Owen, Adjutant. Major Commanding, 

A reserve force of about twenty men was all left behind 
of the original command, and Lieut. Hodgson, with their 
assistance, rapidly organized a Fifth Company; and in one 
month from the day of the departure of the Batallion, held 
an election for officers, casting over 150 votes, with the fol- 
lowing result : 

Captain — W Irving Hodgson; 

Senior First Lieutenant — Theo. A. James; 

Junior First Lieutenant — Rinaldo Banister; 

Senior Second Lieutenant — Jerry G. Pierson ; 

Junior Second Lieutenant — E. L. Hews. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 147 



When the batallion left for Virginia, they left the arsenal 
on Girod Street, in an unfinished condition, the roof not 
yet put on, the floors torn up, and everything in the way 
of camp and garrison equipage, artillery and ordinance 
stores taken with them. Yet in order to supply their 
place, the reserves went to work with a will. They sent 
special committees to Baton Kouge to the Legislature, to 
the City Council of New Orleans, and the merchants and 
capitalists of the City and State. Through handsome 
donations from the former, a generous appropriation from 
the Council, and the unbounded liberality of the latter, (in- 
cluding the present of a piece of artillery and caisson 
complete from Governor Thos. Overton Moore, and a simi- 
lar gift from John I. Adams, a prominent merchant of 
New Orleans.) they were able within ninety days to com- 
plete the arsenal, and pay for it. 

The}* besides perfected the organization of six handsome 
brass field pieces, with limbers, caissons and harness all 
complete, with a serviceable and complete stock of camp 
and garrison equipage for 160 men; all this without owing 
a dollar. 

From time to time during the first year of the war, they 
sent to their comrades in Virginia, reinforcements* of men 
and drivers, artificers, etc., always forwarding under the 
command of an officer of the Fifth Company, and always 
sending them off fully clothed and equipped, free of expense 
to the batallion. 

A semi-weekly mail was regularly sent also to the com- 
mand in the field, the cases being packed not only with 
mail matter, but with clothing, edibles and everything 
intended for any member of the command, sent him by 

*Lieut. J. G. Pierson, came on in charge of two detachments consisting of 
about fifteen men each during the first year of the war. 



148 A Soldier's Story of tlie War. 



his family or friends, and with no expense to the soldier 
of transportation. 

Early in the year 1862, the members of the 5th Company 
exhibited much military ardor, and felt unwilling to 
remain longer at home, while their comrades, friends and 
brothers were sharing the dangers and toils of camp life. 

In February of that year, Captain Hodgson addressed 
a communication to Brig. Gen. E. L. Tracy, commanding 
the 1st brigade, 1st division Louisiana State Militia, to 
which his battery was attached, asking for a new election 
of officers, intended for active service in field ; in con- 
formity to which, Gen. Tracy ordered an election on the 
21th day of that month ; and under the supervision and 
direction of Majors Ignatius Caulfield, and John B. Prados, 
of his staff, the election took place as directed. There 
were 185 votes cast, with the following result : 

Captain — W Irving Hodgson ; 

Senior First Lieutenant — Cuthbert H. Slocomb ; 

Junior Lirst Lieutenant — Wm. C. D. Vaught ; 

Senior Second Lieutenant — Edson L. Hews ; 

Junior Second Lieutenant — J A. Chalaron. 

On the 1st day of March 1862, the following dispatch 
from Gen. G. T. Beauregard, was published in all of the 
New Orleans daily papers : 

DISPATCH FROM GEN. BEAUREGARD. 

Jackson, Tenn., February 28, 1862. 
To Gov. Thos. 0. Moore: 

Will accept all good equipped troops under the act of 21st August that will 
offer, and for ninety days. 

Let the people of Louisiana understand that here is the proper place to de- 
fend Louisiana. 

G. T. BEAUREGARD. 

Captain Hodgson immediately called a meeting of his 
command, which was held on the 2nd day of the month, 
when it was shown that there was one unanimous voice 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 149 



to at once offer their services for ninety days, or the war. 
All necessary arrangements having been made for 
their immediate departure for the field, the following 
order was issued and published in the daily papers :* 

Headquarters 5th Co., Bat. Washington Artillery, 1 
New Orleans, March 5th, '62. / 
[Order No. 44.] 

I — The officers and members of this corps are hereby ordered to appear at 
their Arsenal on Thursday morning, the 6th inst., at 10 o'clock, punctually, 
fully equipped, with knapsacks packed, for the purpose of being mustered into 
the Confederate States service. 

II — Every member of the command is expected to be present. Those failing 
to appear will not be allowed to leave with the command. 

By order of 

W IRVING HODGSON, Captain. 
A. Gordon Bakewell, O. S. 

On Thursday morning, March 6th, 1862, at 11 o'clock, 
the Fifth Company were regularly mustered into the ser- 
vice by the enrolling officer of Gen. Mansfield Lovell's 
staff, in Lafayette Square, with 166 men, rank and file; 
they left New Orleans for the seat of war in Mississippi 
and Tennessee via the N. 0. J & G. N R. R. on Saturday 
March 8th, 1862, carrying with them their six guns, with 
everything perfect and complete, including their camp 

* Among the many nattering comments of the press, .was the following, taken 
from the Picayune of March 3rd, 1862. 

The Washington Artillery — The 5th Company of this fine battalion,, Capt. 
W. Irving Hodgson, have with extreme unanimity determined on responding 
forthwith to the call of Gen. Beauregard, whom they go to "join on Thursday 
next. The company is in perfect order for immediate and efficient service, and 
will take the field with their battery of six guns, with full ranks, and with every 
thing necessary in the way of equipment. 

The Battalion of Washington Artillery, Major J. B. Walton, consisting of four 
companies, have been in the Confederate service from the commencement of the 
war, and have done good service in Virginia where they are still encamped, 
ready to do more, when called upon. The 5th Company, which, when the 
battalion left, was composed of some thirty members, now numbers in its ranks 
over a hundred young, vigorous and enthusiastic men, who have been sedulous- 
ly fitting themselves for active duty. Emulating the zeal and promptitude of 
the four first companies, in responding to the call made upon them for their 
services, Company No. 5 have also entered the Confederate army, for ninety 
days, to "fight the battle of New Orleans,'' in the place where Beauregard tells 
us it is to be fought. 

We doubt not they will prove worthy of their membership of a battalion 
which has been mentioned in Beauregard's general orders in terms of the 
highest eulogium. 



150 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



and garrison equipage, and without the cost of one dollar 
to the general government.* 

The following is the "Roster" of the Fifth Company, as 
mustered, into service : 

Officers — Capt. W Irving Hodgson ; Senior 1st Lieut., C. H. Slocomb; Junior 
1st Lieut., W C. D. Vaught; Senior 2d Lieut. Edson L. Hews; Junior 2d Lieut., J. 
A. Chalaron ; Assistant Surgeon J. Cecil LeGare. 

Non- Commissioned Staff— Orderly Sergeant, A. Gordon Bakewell ; Ordnance 
Sergeant, J. H. H. Hedges ; Quartermaster's Sergeant, J. B. Wolfe ; Commissary 
Sergeant, W A. Barstow. 

1st Sergeant J. W De Merritt, 2d Sergeant B. H. Green Jr., 3d Sergeant A. J. 
Leverich, 4th Sergeant W B. Giffen, 5th Sergeant John Bartley, 6th Sergeant 
Thos. M. Blair. 

1st Corporal John J. Jamison, 2d Corporal S. Higgins, 3d Coporal W. N. 
Calmes, 4th Corporal R. W Frazer, 5th Corporal Emmet Putnam, 6th Corporal 
N. L. Bruce. 

1st Caisson Corporal D. W. Smith, 2d Caisson Corporal E. J. O'Brien, 3d 
Caisson Corporal A. S. Winston, 4th Caisson Corporal L. Macready, 5th Caisson 
Corporal Alt'. Bellanger, 6th Caisson Corporal E. Charles. 

Sergeant Drivers J. H. Smith, Corporal Drivers F. N. Thayer. 

1st Artificer W. A. Freret, 2d Artificer J. F. Spearing, 3d Artificer W A. 
Jourdan, 4th Artificer John Beggs, 5th Artificer John Davidson, 6th Artificer 
Fred. Holmes. 

Privates — Alex. Allain, V F. Allain, T. C. Allenn, C. A. Adams, N. Buckner, 
Jos. Banfil, Ben Bridge, A. T. Bennett, Jr.. B. Boyden, A. J. Blaffer, John 
Boardmau, Marcus J. Beebe, C. B. Broadwell, T. L. Bayne, Jas. Clarke, J. T. 
Crawford, W W. Clayton, Joseph Denegre, J. H. Duggan. J. M. Davidson, A. M. 
Fahenstock, E. C. Feinour, E. Fehrenbach, John Fraser, Charles W. Fox, Robert 
Gibson, James F. Giffen, C. J. Hartnett, C. M. Harvey, W D. Henderson, H. L. 
Henderson, Curtis Holmes, John B. Humphreys, Charles G. Johnson, C. B. 
Jones, Gabriel Kaiser, W B. Krumbharr, Minor Kenner, Jr., H. H. Lonsdale, H. 
Leckie, L. L. Levy, Martin Mathis, Lewis Mathis, H. G. Mather, E. Mussina, 
Eugene May, E. S. Mcllhenny, Milton McKnight, H. D. McCown, J. C. Miller, 
W R. Murphy, F. Maillieu, G. W- Palfrey, Robert Pugh. Richard L. Pugh, E. F. 
Reichert, S. F. Russell, E. Rickett, J. M. Seixas, W. W. Sewell, G. W. Skidmore, 
L. Seicbrecht, George H. Shotwell, R. P Salter, W. B. Stuart, Robert Strong, 
W Steven, J. H. Scott, J. T. Skillman, John Slaymaker, Warren Stone, Jr., J. 
H. Simmons, R. W. Simmons, A. Sambola, E. K. Tisdale, Hiram Tomlin, C. 
Weingart, T. B. Winston, James White, John W. Watson, C. S. Wing, J. A. 
Walsh, Charles B. Watt, Charles Withan, Willis P. Williams. 

Drivers — Byrnes Joseph, Bale James, Clayton John, Farrell Richard, Dooly 
William, Lynch Thomas, Long Patrick, Leary John, Moore Daniel, Jordan 
James, Davis Sam. J., Kelly Pat., Norris Robert, Turner Geo. A., White William, 
Williams Thomas, Young John, Farrel Michel, Abbott John, Leary Thomas. 

Bugler — Carl Valanconi. 

* The following is from the Picayune of March 7th, 1862. 

The Washington Artillery, Company 5. — -This fine company, under Capt. 
W Irving Hodgson, was mustered into the service of the Confederate States, 
yesterday, for ninety days. There were 160 men all told. They made, as usual, 
a most admirable appearance. 

On Saturday next, (to-morrow) they leave for Jackson., Tenn., and will attend 
divine service to-day, at 11 o'clock, a. m., at the First Presbyterian Church, Dr. 
Palmer's, where they will be addressed by the eloquent pastor. 

We have heard it suggested that on their arrival at the seat of war they will 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 151 

The following was the organization of the other troops 
who left New Orleans under the same call : 

Orescent Regiment. — Colonel, M. J. Smith; Lieut. Col., G. P. McPheeters; Major, 
A. W. Bosworth: Adjutant, Richard S. Venables; Surgeon, B. Stille; Assistant 
Surgeon, S. R. Chambers; Quartermaster, R. D. Gribble. 

Crescent City Guards, Company B. — Captain, George Soule; 1st Lieut., H. B. 
Stevens; 2d Lieut., B. E. Handy; Junior 2d Lieut., L.N. LeGay. Crescent Rifles, 
Company D. — Captain, A. F. Haynes; 1st Lieut., W C. C. Claiborne, Jr.; 2d Lieut., 
C. G. Southmayd; Junior 2d Lieut., W. F. Howell. Company C, Louisiana 
Guards. — Captain, G. H. Graham; 1st Lieut., Wm. Bullit; 2d Lieut. Alex. Trelford; 
Junior 2d Lieut., C. A. Wood. Beauregard Rangers. — Captain, Jules Vienne;' 

1st Lieut., E. G. Meslier: 2d Lieut., ; Junior 2d Lieut., N. C. Forstall. 

Twiggs' Guards. — Captain, M. A. Tarleton; 1st Lieut., Thos. L. Airey; 2d Lieut., 
E. F. L'Hoste; Junior 2d Lieut., Eugene Holmes. Crescent City Guards, Com- 
pany C. — Captain, W S. Austin; 1st Lieut., Chas. Guillet; 2d Lieut., R. Green, 
Jr.; Junior 2d Lieut.. A. H. F. Smith. Ruggles Guards. — Captain, Geo. W. 
Helme; 1st Lieut., G. H. Braughn; 2d Lieut., J. J. Mellon; Junior 2d Lieut., W 
C Shepperd. Orleans Cadets, Company E. — Captain, S. F. Parmele; 1st Lieut., 
H. Perry, Jr.; 2d Lieut., S. Fisher, Jr.; Junior 2d Lieut., T. A. Enderle. Crescent 

Blues. — Captain, John Knight; 1st Lieut., ; 2d Lieut., W H. Mackay; 

Junior 2d Lieut., W H. Seaman. Sumpter Rifles. — Captain, C. C. Campbell; 1st 
Lieut., M. McDougale; 2d Lieut., J. E. Garretson; Junior 2d Lieut., David Collie. 
Alexandria Rifles. — Captain, J. P Davidson; 1st Lieut., A. D. Lewis; 2d Lieut., 
R. Legras; Junior 2d. Lieut., Jos Fellows. — Total, 945. 

Batallion Orleans Guards. — Major, Leon Querouse. Company A. — Captain, 
Charles Roman; 1st Lieut., J. B. Sorapuru; 2d Lieut., Francis Moreno; Junior 
2d Lieut. F 0. Trepagnier. Company B. — Captain, Eugene Staes; 1st Lieut., 
Eniile DeBuys; 2d Lieut., 0. Carriere; Junior 2d Lieut., P. 0. Labatut. Com- 
pany C. — Captain, August Roche; 1st Lieut., Fred. Thomas; 2d Lieut., Eug. 

be divided into two companies, while, as we understand, there is material here 
almost sufficient for the formation of a third. 

Also the following remarks from the same paper : 

The Fifth Company of the Batallion of Washington Artillery attended 
divine service yesterday, at 11 o'clock, A. M., in the First Presbyterian Church, 
on Lafayette Square, where a very impressive and eloquent address was deliv- 
ered to them by Rev. Dr. Palmer, the pastor of that church. 

He vindicated, in the most able and convincing manner, the justness and 
righteousness of the cause in which this Confederacy in arms is now engaged. 
It is a war purely defensive, in resistance to an invasion by a foe that would 
subjugate us to his despotic will, and deprive us of all our dearest rights. 
Should the war, on our part, be hereafter aggressive, it would be equally a just 
and righteous one, as a means of depriving our enemy of the means of carrying 
into effect his hostile purposes. In this confidence of the rectitude of the cause 
in whose defence they are engaged, the reverend speaker bade the members of 
the Artillery to go torth in the trust of God. He bade them rely, too, on the 
fidelity with which the people of this city would care for their interests, as well 
as pray for their success, and contribute Jto their support and comfort while 
absent. He told them that they were going forth to discharge for Louisiana 
and this city the debt that, for nearly fifty years, has been due to Tennessee, for 
the prompt and efficient aid she rendered to both, on the plains of Chalmette. 
He concluded his eloquent address with an invitation to the corps and the 
congregation to unite with him in prayer, which being concluded, he dismissed 
them with a solemn benediction. 

The services were exceedingly interesting, and were participated in by a large 
assemblage. 

19 



152 A Soldier's Story of the War, 



Tourne; Junior 2d Lieut., L. Charvet. Company D. — Captain. Charles Tertron; 
1st Lieut., Paul Declouet; 2d Lieut., Alfred Voorhies; Junior 2d Lieut.. B. St. 
Clair, (from Parish of St. Martin.) — Total, 411. 

Batallion Confederate Guards. — Major, F. H. Clack; Captains, D. H. Fowler; G. 
P. McMurdo; 1st Lieuts., W- R. Macbeth, A. W. H. Hyatt; 2d Lieuts. H. H. 
Price, J. W Bonner ; Junior 2d Lieuts., R. H. Browne, J. W Hardie. — Total, 201. 

Cavalry — Jefferson Mounted Guards. — Captain, Guy. Dreux; Lieuts., B. Toledano, 
H. P Janvier; Cornet, J. Chambers. Orleans Light Horse. — Captain, T. L. Leeds; 
Lieuts. W A. Gordon and Geo. Foster; Cornet, Greenleaf. — Total, 150. 

Orleans Guards Battery — Captain, H. Ducatel; 1st Lieut., F. Livaudais; Jr. 1st 
Lieut., M. A. Calogne; 2d Lieut., G. Legardeur, Jr.; Jr. 2d Lieut., F. Lange. 

Total number of soldiers who left New Orleans, under the 90 days' call, 1948. 

The following notice of the departure of the command, 
appeared in the Picayune of Sunday, March 9th, 1862 : 

" Off for the Seat of War. — The vicinity of the Jackson Railroad Depot 
was yesterday afternoon the scene of intense interest. The 5th Company of 
the Washington Artillery, Capt. Hodgson, and feur companies, forming the left 
wing of the Crescent Regiment, Col. Smith, left in a special train, and thousands 
of men, women and children literally thronged the streets on their march to the 
depot, and swarmed around the cars at the station to take leave of their friends 
and relatives and acquaintances. The scene was interesting beyond description. 
The brave fellows went off with buoyant spirits, though occasionally could be 
seen the starting tear in their eyes, as they took a farewell of some loved one, 
or some dearly attached friend. They looked in fine order, and will doubtless 
make a good report of themselves within a short time. Good luck, health, 
prosperity, victory and a safe and glorious return to them, one and all ! " 

Arriving at Grand Junction, Tennessee, on Monday 
evening, March 10th, 1862, the battery immediately 
went into camp, under the instructions of Gen. John K. 
Jackson, Commander of the Post. They were here sup- 
plied with their battery horses, and began drilling, and 
otherwise actively preparing for service. On the 27th 
day of March, the tents were struck, and the command 
started over land for Corinth, Mississippi, arriving there 
on the 1st day of April, 1862, and were immediately 
assigned to the Brigade of Brig. Gen. Patton Anderson, 
of Ruggles' Division, Bragg's (2d) Army Corps, and went 
into camp the same day 

On Thursday, the 3d day of April, the battery filed out 
through the fortifications with its brigade, and the army, 
destined for the battle field of Shiloh. 

For the full details of this battle, reference can be 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 153 



made to the " Confederate Reports of Battles," officially 
published by order of Congress, a few extracts from 
which are herewith appended, having special reference 
to the part taken by 4he Fifth Company Washington 
Artillery, and to the official report of Captain Hodgson, 
with reference to the same subject matter : 

OFFICIAL REPORT OF CAPTAIN HODGSON. 

[Page 323 to 327.] 

Headquarters 5th Co., Bat. Washington Artillery, "| 
Camp Moore, Corinth, Miss., April 9th, '62. j 
To Brig. Gen. Patton Anderson, 

Commanding Second Brigade, Ruggles' Division, Army Miss. 

General: — In accordance with usage, I hereby report to you the "action" 
of my battery, in the battles of the 6th and 7th instant. 

My battery, consisting of two 6-pounder smooth bore guns, two 6-pounder 
rifled guns, and two 12-pounder howitzers, — total 6 pieces, fully equipped with 
ammunition, horses, and men, entered the field, just in the rear of the 20th Loui- 
siana regiment, (the right regiment of your brigade,) on Sunday morning, the 
6th inst., on the hill, overlooking from the Southwest, the encampments of the 
enemy immediately to the front of it, and to the Northeast, being the first camp 
attacked, and taken by our army. 

At 7 o'clock, a. m., we opened fire on their camp, with our full battery of six 
guns, firing shell and spherical case shot, soon silencing one of their batteries, 
and filling the enemy with consternation. After firing some forty (40) rounds 
thus, we were directed by General Ruggles, to shell a camp immediately upon 
the left of the one mentioned, and in which there was a battery, from which the 
shot and shell were thrown on all sides of us. 

With two howitzers and two rifled guns, under Lieuts. Slocomb and Vaught", 
assisted by two pieces from Capt. Sharp's battery, we soon silenced their guns, 
and had the gratification of seeing our brave and gallant troops charge through 
these two camps, running the enemy before them at the point of the bayonet. 

At this point I lost your command, and on the order of General Ruggles to 
"go where I heard most firing" I passed over the first camp captured, through 
a third, and on to a fourth, in which your troops were doing sad havoc to the 
enemy. 

I formed in battery, on your extreme left, in the avenue of the camp, and com- 
menced firing with canister from four (4) guns, into the tents of the enemy, only 
fifty (50) yards off. It was at this point, I suffered most. The skirmishers of 
the enemy lying in their tents, only a stone's throw from us, cut holes through 
their tents near the ground, and with "white powder" or some preparation 
which discharged their arms without report, played a deadly fire in among my 
cannoniers, killing three men, wounding seven or eight, besides killing some of 
our most valuable horses, mine among the rest. As soon as we were well formed 
in battery, aud got well to work, we saw them creeping from their tents, and 
making for the woods, and immediately afterwards saw your.column charge the 
whole of them in ambush, and put them to flight. 

A visit through that portion of their camp, at a subsequent hour, satisfied 
me from the number of the dead, and the nature of their wounds, that my battery 
had done its duty. 



154 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Losing you again at this point, on account of the heavy brushwood through 
which you charged, I was requested by Gen. Trudeau, to plant two guns further 
down the avenue, say two hundred yards off, to shell a fifth camp further on, 
which I did, and after firing a dozen or more shells, had the satisfaction of seeing 
the cavalry charge the camp, putting the enemy to flight — killing many, and 
capturing many wounded prisoners. _ 

Being again without a commanding General, and not knowing your exact 
position, I received and executed orders from General Hardee and his aid, Col. 
Kearney, also from Col. Chisholm of Gen. Beauregard's Staff, and in fact from 
other aids, whose names I do not know, going to points threatened and exposed, 
and where firing was continual, rendering cheerfully all the assistance I could 
with my battery, now reduced in men and horses — all fatigued and hungry. 

At about 2 o'clock, p. m., at the instance of Gen. Hardee, I opened from the 
fifth camp we had entered, firing upon a sixth camp, due north. Silencing the. 
batteiy and driving the enemy from their tents — said portion of the army of the 
enemy, were charged and their batter} 7 " captured — afterwards lost again — by the 
Guard Orleans and other troops on our left, under Col. Preston Pond, Jr. 

This was about the last firing of my battery on the 6th instant. Taking the 
main road to Pittsburg Landing, we followed, on the heels of our men, after a 
retreating and badly whipped army, until within three fourths of a mile of the 
Tennessee Paver, when the enemy began to shell the woods from their Gunboats. 
General Ruggles ordered us to the enemy's camp, where we bivouacked for the 
night. 

I received orders on the morning of the 7th, at about half-past five o'clock to 
follow your command with my battery, and at six o'clock being ready to move, 
could not ascertain your position — so took position on the extreme right of our 
army, supported by the Crescent Regiment, of Col. Pond's Brigade, in our rear, 
and an Arkansas Regiment on my front, and I think the 21st Tennessee Regi- 
ment on my left flank ; all under Gen. Hardee, for in fact, he seemed to be the 
master spirit, giving all orders and seeing that they were properly executed. 

At about 9 o'clock, Gen. Breckenridge's command, on our extreme front had 
pushed the enemy up and on, to within several hundred yards of our front, when 
we opened fire with shell and shot with our full battery; after firing some (70) 
seventy rounds, we took position further on, just on the edge of the open space 
ahead, and with our full battery, assisted by two pieces from McClung's battery, 
we poured some sixty (60) rounds into the enemy, who continued to advance 
upon us, until within some (20) twenty yards of us, when Col. Marshall J. 
Smith, of the Crescent Regiment, gallantly came to our rescue, charging the 
enemy at the point of the bayonet, putting them to flight, and saving our three 
extreme right pieces, which would have been captured but for them. 

It was at this point, I again met with some losses. Lieut. Slocomb, Sergt. 
Green, several privates, and many horses fell at this point, either killed or badly 
wounded. 

After the enemy had retreated well in the woods, I had my guns limbered and 
taken from the field. Jly men broken down, my horses nearly all slain, ammuni- 
tion out, and sponges all broken and gone, I was in the act of making repairs, 
and preparing for another attack, when I was ordered by Gen. Beauregard to 
retire in order, to Monterey, which I did that evening — and afterwards to 
this point, arriving last evening, with my battery all complete, with the excep- 
tion of three (i!) caissons, a battery wagon, and forge, which I had to abandon 
on the road, for want of fresh horses to draw them in. 

At the request of Gen. Beauregard, I detailed from my command, twelve men, 
under a non-commissioned officer, to remain and act with Capt. Byrne's (or 
Burns') battery, on a prominent hill on the Pea Ridge road, overlooking the 
battle field, to cover the retirement of our army. They all came in to-day, safe 
and sound. 

We captured two stands of United States colors, which were handed over to 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 155 



Gen. Beauregard; we also captured several U. S. horses and mules, some of 
which we have now, others we have lost. 

1 cannot close this report, without again calling to your favorable notice, 
the names of my Lieuts. Slocomb, Vaught and Chalaron, for their coolness and 
bravery on the field. Their conduct was daring and gallant, and worthy of your 
consideration. 

I have the honor to be, 

Yours, very truly, 

W. IRVING HODGSON, Captain. 



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF CAPTAIN HODGSON. 

[Page 326 and 321.] 

Headquarters 5th Co., Bat. Washington Artillery, 1 
Camp Moore, Corinth Miss., April 11th, '62. j 
To Capt. Wm. G. Berth, 

Acting Asst. Adjutant General : 

Captain : — I herewith tender to you a supplemental report, in regard to mat- 
ters connected with the battles of the 6th and 7th inst. 

My battery fired during said actions, from the six guns, seven hundred and 
twenty-three (723) rounds, mostly from the smooth bore guns and the howitzers, 
a large proportion of which was canister. Some of our ammunition chests, 
being repacked from a captured caisson, and other canister borrowed from 
Captain Robertson's battery, which he kindly loaned. 

The badly torn wheels and carriages of my battery from minie balls, will 
convince any one of the close proximity to the enemy in which we were. I had 
twenty-eight (28) horses slain in the battery, exclusive of officers' horses. 

I cannot refrain from applauding to you, the gallant actions of I he rank and 
file of my command, all of whom behaved so gallantly on these occasions, that 
it would be invidious to mention names, suffice it, they all remained at their 
posts during the action, and behaved most gallantly, many of them, for the first 
time under fire, conducted themselves as veterans. 

I have the honor to be, 

Yours, very truly, 

W IRVING HODGSON, Capt. 

In connection with the battle of Shiloh. the following 
extracts are taken from the same work : 

Extract from official report of Col. Marshall J. Smith, Commanding Orescent Regiment of La. — page 344. 
***** 

As the army advanced, the forces in front of us retired, and the Washington 
Artillery, Captain Hodgson, forming his battery in front of us, we supported 
him. This battery gallantly maintained their position, dealing destruction upon 
the foe, until the artillery on their left retired, leaving them alone. 

At this moment, the enemy advanced in heavy force, and the artillery properly 

fearing such odds, limbered up and filed off to our left. Wc then advanced, 

covering the movement of the artillery, saving several of their pieces, and 

driving the enemy before us. 

***** 

Extract from official report of Col. W. A. Stanley, Commanding 9th Texas Infantry— page 312. 
***** 

On the morning of the 6th, we advanced in line of battle, under a heavy fire 



156 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



of artillery and musketrj', from the enemy's first encampment. Being ordered 
to charge the enemy with our bayonets, we made two successive attempts, but 
finding as well as our comrades in arms on our right and left, it almost impossible 
to withstand the heavy fire directed at our ranks, we were compelled to with- 
draw for a short time, with considerable loss. Being then ordered, we proceeded 
immediately to the support of the Washington Artillery which, from their 
battery's well directed fire, soon silenced the battery of the enemy. 

***** 

Extract from official report of Col. Daniel W. Adams, Commanding 1st Regiment La. Infantry — page 213. 
***** 

During this time, the enemy opened upon us again with their artillery, when 
I directed Captain Robertson to return their fire, which he did with great effect. 
Capt. Hodgson's battery of artillery also came up and rendered valuable services 
and assistance. 

* * * * * 

Extract from official report of Brig. Gen. Patton Anderson, Commanding 2nd Brigade, Ruggles 1 Division, 2nd 
Corps, Army of the Mississippi — page 300. 

***** 

The 5th Company Washington Artillery, 155 men, commanded by Captain W 
Irving Hodgson, following the centre, as neaily as the nature of the ground 
would permit, ready to occupy an interval, either between the Florida Battailon 
and the 9th Texas, or between the 9th Texas and 20th Louisiana, as necessity or 
convenience might require ; the whole composing a force of 1634 men. 

* * * * * 

The most favorable position attainable by our field pieces, was selected, and 
Capt. Hodgson was directed to open fire upon the enemy's battery, (now playing 
vigorously upon us) with solid shot and shrapnel, and when occasion offered 
without danger to our own troops, to use canister upon his infantry. This order 
was obeyed with alacrity. Taking advantage of this diversion |in our favor, the 
infantry was directed to pass through the swamp and drive the enemy before it, 
until Capt. Hodgson could either silence his battery, or an opportunity be pre- 
sented of taking it with the bayonet. 

The movement was made with spirit and vigor. 

***** 

Page 302. The perceptibly diminishing fire from the enemy's battery, was 
soon, by Capt. Hodgson's superior practice, entirely silenced. 

***** 

Page 304. Gen. Ruggles had now placed our battery in position. Col. Smith, 
of the Crescent Regiment, had driven the enemy's sharpshooters from the cover 
of a log cabin, and a few cotton bales on the extreme left and near the road, and 
the enemy was being sorely pressed upon the extreme right by our columns upon 
that flank, and I felt the importance of pressing forward at this point. The 
troops too seemed to be inspired with the same feeling. Our battery opened 
rapidly, but every shot told. To the command " Forward, " the infantry res- 
ponded with a shout, and in less than five minutes after our artillery commenced 
playing, and before the infantry had advanced within shot range of the enemy's 
lines, we had the satisfaction of seeing his proud banner lowered, and a white 
one hoisted in its stead. 

* * * * * 

Page 309. Captain W Irving Hodgson, commanding the Fifth Company 
Washington Artillery, added fresh lustre to the fame of this already renowned 
corps. It was his fine practice from the brow of the hill overlooking the 
enemy's first camp, that enabled our infantry to rout them in the outset, thus 
giving confidence to our troops, which was never afterwards once shaken. 

Although the nature of the ground, over which my infantry fought, was such 
as frequently to preclude the use of artillery, yet Captain Hodgson was not idle. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 157 



I could hear of his battery whenever artillery was needed. On several occasions 
I witnessed the effect which his canister and round shot produced upon the 
enemy's masses, and once saw his cannoniers stand to their pieces under a 
deadly fire, when there was no support at hand, and when to have retired, 
would have left that part of the field to the enemy. 

When a full history of the battles of Shiloh shall have been written, the heroic 
deeds of the Washington Artillery will illustrate one of its brightest pages, and 
the names of Hodgson and Slocomb, will be held in grateful remembrance 
by a free people, long after the sod has grown green, upon the bloody hills of 
Shiloh. 

***** 

Extract from official report of Brig Gen. Daniel Buggies, Commanding Buggies' Division, 2nd Corps. 
* * „ * * * 

Page 281. The Washington Artillery, under Captain Hodgson, was then 
brought forward, and two howitzers and two rifled guns commanded by Lieut. 
Slocomb, and two guns under Major Hoop were put in position on the crest of a 
ridge near an almost impenetrable boggy thicket, ranging along our front, and 
opened a destructive fire in response to the enemy's batteries then sweeping our 
lines at long range. I also sent orders to Brig Gen. Anderson to advance 
rapidly with his 2nd brigade, and as soon as he came up, I directed a charge 
against the enemy, in which some of the 6th Mississippi and 2nd Tennessee 
joined; at the same time I directed other troops to move rapidly by the right to 
turn the enemy's position beyond the swamp, and that the field artillery follow, 
as soon as masked by the movement of the infantry. 

Under these movements, vigorously executed, after a spirited contest, the 
enemy's whole line gave way, and our advance took possession of the camp 
and batteries against which the charge was made. 

***** 

Page 282. The enemy's camps on our left, being apparently cleared, I 
endeavored to concentrate forces on his right flank in this new position, and 
directed Captain Hodgson's Battery into action there ; the fire of his battery and 
a charge from the 2nd brigade, put the enemy to flight. Even after having been 
driven back from this position, the enemy rallied and disputed the ground with 
remarkable tenacity for some two or three hours, against our forces in front 
and his right flank, where cavalry, infantry and artillery mingled in the conflict. 
» * « * « 

Extract from official report of Major General Braxton Bragg, Commanding 2nd Corps, Army of the Missis- 
sippi — page 232. 
***** 

Brig. Gen. D. Ruggles, commanding second division, was conspicuous through- 
out both days, for the gallantry with which he led his troops. Brig. Gen. Patton 
Anderson, commanding a brigade of this division, was also among the foremost 
where the fighting was hardest, and never failed to overcome whatever resistance 
was opposed to him. 

With a brigade composed almost entirely of raw troops, his personal gallantry 

and soldierly bearing, supplied the place of instruction and discipline. 

* * * * * 

Extract from official report of Gen. G. T. Beauregard, Commanding Army of the Mississippi. 
» * * * * 

Page 215. For the services of their gallaat subordinate commanders, and their 
officers under them, as well as for the details of the battle-field, I must refer 
to the reports of corps, divisions and brigade commanders, which shall be for- 
warded as soon as received. 

***** 

List of killed and wounded at the battles of Shiloh, fought on the 6th and 1th days of 
April, 1862, in the Fifth Company Washington Artillery. 
Killed — 1st Sergeant, John W. Demerith ; 2nd Sergeant, Benj. H. Green, Jr.! 



158 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



4th Sergeant, Wm. B. GifFen ; wounded in leg, suffered amputation and died; 
Private, C. J. Hartnett; Drivers, John Leary, Patrick Long, John O'Donnell — 
total, 7 killed. 

Wounded — 1st Lieutenant, C. H. Slocomb, shot in breast; 2nd Corporal, S. 
Higgius, spent ball in neck ; 6th Corporal, W. L. Bruce, spent ball in side 
4th 0. Corporal, L. Macready, shot in the leg ; 5th C. Corporal, Alfred Bellanger, 
lost left hand ; Corporal Drivers, P. N. Thayer, injured in hand ; Privates, Thos 
L. Bayne, shot in right arm; J. M. Davidson, shot in thigh; Octave Hopkins 
Curtis Holmes, Milton McKnight, wounded; Robert Strong, William Steven 
John W Watson, John A. Walsh, wounded in leg ; Drivers, Jas. Byrnes, Wm 
Dooley, Samuel J. Davis, M. Campbell, John Clayton — total, 20. Killed, 7 
wounded, 20 — total casualties, 27. 

After the battle of Shiloh, the following men were 
honorably discharged from the service : 

Second Lieutenant, Edson L. Hews, resigned ; 6th Corporal, W L. Bruce, 
doctor's certificate ; 5th C. Corporal, Alfred Bellanger, wounds received; 5th C. 
Corporal, F. N. Thayer, doctor's certificate ; Privates, T. L. Bayne, wounds 
received ; W W Clayton, doctor's certificate ; J. M. Davidson, wounds received ; 
J. M. Seixas, by order Gen. Bragg ; Robert Strong, woujids received ; Middleton 
Eastman, by order Gen. Bragg; John A. Walsh, wounds received; C. S. Wing, 
H. H. Lonsdale, doctor's certificate. 

The resignation of Lieut, Ed. L. Hews, having been 
accepted, Gen. Bragg attached to the battery Mr. J M. 
Seixas, and appointed him Lieut, in the 5th Company, to 
fill vacancy 

The following names were added to the roll of the bat- 
tery, after it left the City of New Orleans, and previous 
to the battle of Shiloh, and were regularly mustered into 
service : 

Privates: Middleton Eastman, Octave Hopkins, Wallace Ogden, Henry V. 
Ogden, Dr. John Pugh, George Pugh, William Pugh. 
Drivers : M. Campbell, and John O'Donnell. 

EVACUATION OF CORINTH, MISS. 

On the 30th day of May, 1802, the army of the Mis- 
sissippi evacuated Corinth, the 5th Company Washington 
Artillery, with its brigade, covering the retreat of the 
army. 

The retrograde movement began at about 8 o'clock, p. 
m., continuing during that night, and by 3 o'clock, a. m. 
the last of the troops had passed through the town, on 



A Soldier's Story of the War, 159 



their way to Tupelo, Miss., via Clear Creek, a point about 
40 miles south of Corinth, which latter place they reached 
on the morning of June the 1st, and immediately went 
into temporary camp. 

The enemy did not pursue the retreating Confederate 
army more than 10 or 1-3 miles south of Corinth, and 
finding the Confederate forces ready to give battle, they 
returned to Corinth and went into camp. 

On the -3th day of June, ascertaining the Federal army 
would not pursue or risk a further engagement in this 
vicinity, the Confederate army, now under the command 
of Gen. Braxton Bragg, determined to change their base 
to Chattanooga, Tennessee, for a resumption of hostilities, 
resulting in the famous Kentucky campaign — with a view 
to a long overland march. The army fell back to Tupelo, 
where there was an abundance of good water and forage, 
and went into regular camp, preparatory to said grand 
movement. 

On the eve of the departure from Clear Creek, an order 
was issued from the Headquarters of the Army, that all 
officers and men, who were unable to inarch 20 miles a 
day, would go to Okalona, Miss., on surgeon's certificate, 
into the general hospital at that point by a special train, 
at -3 o'clock the following morning. 

It was at this point, that Captain Hodgson, who had 
been sick and confined to his bed for some days, turned 
over the command to Lieut. Vaught, as Senior Lieut., 
(1st Lieut. Slocomb, being absent on sick leave, from 
wounds received at the battle of Shiloh,) and went to 
Okalona. 

It was while the battery was in camp at Tupelo, (June 
6th, 1862,) Capt. Hodgson, then in hospital at Okalona, 
forwarded his resignation to Gen. Bragg, commanding the 
20 



160 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



arm}-, which was accepted, and Lieut. C. H. Slocomb, was 
appointed Captain in his stead. 



CHAPTER XXII 

THE BATTLE OF FREDEKICKSBtJRG. 

We spent a pleasant month and over at Winchester, 
during the period of the Indian summer, living on bacon 
and autumn corn, getting new clothing — reading books 
aloud, or telling camp-fire stories, and generally enjoying 
the superb climate of Virginia, as much as if there were 
no bloody battle-fields to dream of in the future. But the 
boots-and-saddle call came at last ; and having welcomed 
the bugle blast with a shout, and packed up, there was 
nothing to be done but stretch out, Oct. 30th, in the 
direction of the Richmond Capitol. The most singular 
event that happened at this camp, was the killing of two 
of the 3rd, Company, who had escaped all of the perils 
of battle, by the falling of a tree. 

The move southward ended at Culpepper C. H., and 
was intended to meet a feint made in that direction by the 
Federal army ; but their real intention having soon after 
been discovered, we continued our march, (Nov 19th,) 
down the plank road to Fredericksburg, and appeared upon 
the south bank simultaneously with their arrival upon the 
right. 

Adjutant's Journal. — Xov. 20. Cold rain all day. Forded Rapidan, at Racoon 
Ford. Camped on Mine Run, at Bartelys Mill. Dreadful night and impossible 
for the men to sleep dry. 

21. Rained in torrents all night. Camp at Chancellorsville. 

22. Reached Fredericksburg. 

As we moved down the dreary plank road — past the 
old Chancellor Hotel or Mansion-house, around which 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 161 



only wounded guests linger — past the gloomy wilderness 
in whose depths the Federal army will soon be entangled 
and leave behind half its number for corpses or spectres, 
we met the inhabitants of Fredericksburg pouring out, 
and each one bearing in his or her arms, what was con- 
sidered most valuable. The advances of the two armies 
already confronted the doomed city, and the inhabitants 
tied from it as if stricken with the plague. Delicate 
women who had been frightened from their homes, half 
clothed and badly shod, were trudging along, wondering 
where they would find shelter for themselves and little 
ones for the coming winter. The men gazed at them 
with great pity, and doubtless the same feeling was enter- 
tained by them for us ; seeing that many times their num- 
ber of soldiers would take their places in the town — that 
is in the cemeteries. 

On our arrival there, I mean at Fredericksburg, many 
stores and houses were found abandoned — one of them 
containing fruit, fish, and barrels of oysters, which some 
of us felt ourselves after a long march, and under the cir- 
cumstances justified in consuming. An occasional shell 
from the enemy which came crashing in, gave some little 
interest to the scene ; but otherwise the sight of the 
crowded resorts of business abandoned and unoccupied, 
awoke a very melancholy feeling. The place seemed 
enchanted or cursed by a spell, and reminded us of Hood's 
Haunted House. We conversed in low tones while we 
remained inside of the town, and curious sight-seers did 
not think it worth risking their lives to prolong the visit. 

Our appearance, it is now proper to state, in this neigh- 
borhood, was accounted for by the fact that McClellan had 
been removed as too slow a coach, and Burnside assigned 
the duty of trying to wriggle into Richmond, by some new 



162 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



and unguarded route. With great secrecy, he had trans- 
ported his army to Fredericksburg, to cross at that point 
before Lee could discover his profound strategy. His 
feelings may be imagined, when after many days hard 
marching, he found his old enemy quietly on hand, on the 
opposite heights, with the air of having come there by 
appointment. This air of quiet expectation was suffi- 
ciently exasperating, to cause Burnside to open on us a 
few shots, very much as if inquiring through the cannon's 
mouth — " Who in the deuce would have ever thought you 
were there ? " 

Still as Lee would not go away, and something was 
expected to be done, Burnside finally resolved to cross the 
river, and either persuade Lee to change his mind, or go 
to Richmond without his consent. It was an unfortunate 
conclusion, as the result turned out, for the Federal General, 
and still more for some 20,000 of his troops, who in con- 
sequence of this decision were soon after left behind, dead 
or wounded, on the battle plain. 

Blundering along with this idea, Burnside spent a day 
and a half, (the 11th,) in trying to get down his pontoon 
boats, and when the Confederate sharpshooters picked oft" 
his engineer corps, he bombarded Fredericksburg with one 
hundred guns, and set it on fire, though without incom- 
moding the skirmishers on the river banks, or effecting 
much else than give warning and concentration to the 
Confederate army. A subordinate Federal General at night- 
fall, finally suggested the happy idea of crossing a regi- 
ment in boats, and thus capturing or driving in the picket 
line. This plan was carried out a little before day-break, 
on the 12th, after his design in crossing had become known, 
and there was no earthly chance of executing it. 
Both armies bivouacked on the cold ground — preparatory 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 163 



to the final and eternal rest on the morrow At 3 o'clock, 
p. M., Stafford's heights were seen to be covered with troops, 
who moved to the pontoons under our heavy fire. Our 
batteries dispersed a mass of troops near the gas works.* 

On the 13th Burnside had thrown over Franklin still 
lower down, who with one half of the Federal army 
attacked Lee's right, under Jackson, and at the time resting 
on Massaponax Creek. 

Here the enemy had at first borne back a part of our 
lines; but he was met further back by a withering fire from 
Gregg's S. C. Brigade, and by a double quick charge from 
Early with the La. troops, which according to Northern 
historians "instantly turned the tide.'' "Early pursued 
with great slaughter," says the Federal General Birney, 
'•to within -30 yards of my guns." The Federal army 
lost 40 per cent, of its men in this portion of the battle. 

But meanwhile through a dense fog their advance also 
is on the loth made — 12:31) p. M. — upon Longstreet, up 
the steep plain upon whose top rested the Confederate bat- 
teries. The advance was made in fine style, the walls 
and fences falling before it like paper or frostwork. 

'•The AVashington Artillery," says Gen. Lee "under 
Col. AValton. occupied the redoubts on the crest of Maryes 
Hill — the heights to the right and left being held by the 
reserve. The AVashington Artillery here sustained the 
heavy fire of artillery and infantry with unshaken steadi- 
ness." About 11 A. m. says Gen. Longstreet, "I sent 
orders for the Washington Artillery to play upon the 
streets and bridges beyond the city, by way of a 
diversion to our right. The batteries had hardly opened 
when the enemy began to move out towards my line. 
Our pickets, in front of the Marye house were soon driven 

*ricrgeant Woods was wounded by this fire. 



164 A Soldier s Story of the War. 



in, and the enemy began to deploy his forces in front of 
that point. Our artillery opened fire upon them as soon 
as the masses became dense enough to warrant it. This 
fire was very destructive and demoralizing in its effects, 
and frequently made gaps in the enemy's ranks that could 
be seen at the distance of a mile. The attack was again 
renewed and again repulsed. Col. Walton was particu- 
larly distinguished." Conspicuous among the enemy 
were the green flag of Meagher's Irish Brigade and the 
red bag breeches of the Zouaves. We hammered away at 
them as fast as we could load and fire, but on they came. 
They became confused as they advanced and when in 
range of the Georgians and Mississippians under Gen. 
Cobb, wheeled about and fled in confusion to the 
town. The attack lasted an hour. At 2 p. m. another 
line came on with deafening firing ; line after line was 
pushed forward only to be mown down. We remained 
firing at our guns until 5 p.m. A note from Longstreet 
declared the firing of the batallion to be splendid. 

Loss during the day, three killed and twenty-four 
wounded. The position was a very hot one, the minies 
flying around like hail. A brick house which was white 
at the commencement of the fight was red at its end. 
Ruggles received his mortal wound while ramming his 
piece. He exposed his body at the embrasure in spite of 
caution, and soon fell. Out of eight men at that embra- 
sure, six were killed or wounded: infantry volunteers 
then assisted in manning the guns. 

Maj. Gen. Ransom, says in his report, that " the gal- 
lantry and efficacy of the famous Washington Artillery* 

*The report of Col. Cabell and several other Confederate officers, not to men- 
tion those published at the time in leading journals, assign equal importance to 
the work done by the Washington Artillery, or as Col. Cabell expressed it "the 
yallaiit corps who occupied the crest of Marye's Hill." 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 165 



who drove back the enemy in triple lines, fighting hero- 
ically and under a heavy fire, is worthy of all praise."* 
The force of the enemy at Marye's Hill was 30,000. 
There were only two brigades of 1500 men, who can be 
said to have taken part in this battle — on the Confederate 
side—that of R. R. Cobb, (the brother of Howell and a noble 
representative of Georgia in every Avay, who here lost his 
life) and Ransom's. These, placed behind a stone wall 
on the Telegraph road, constituted the advanced line. 
The honor of the fi°lit on Marve s Heights, or what was 
the principal part of the battle of Fredericksburg, were 
yielded without any dissent to the artillery The first 
who came under their fire, was French's Federal Division, 
who went down under a frightful fire, and close behind 
came Hancock, who left two men behind of every three ; 
and then three other divisions. Lastly, about nightfall, 
Hooker led his men up the same avenue of death — only 
suspending his attack when he " had lost as many men 
as he was required to lose." 

The Federal loss (by actual count there were 1-300 
bodies immediately around our pieces,) was more than 
12,000 ; on the part of the Confederates on both wings, it 
was a little more than a third of that number. 

In this battle Lieut. W J Behan, who had won his spurs 
at Sharpsburg. and who had since commanded one of the 
fine volunteer regiments of the city, first assisted in the 
command of the fourth company. Besides being a good 
officer, lie enjoyed the honor of never having missed a 
roll call, or battle during the war. 

*Lieut. Landry, of Capt. Maurin's battery, (the Donelson (La.) Artillery) took 
his piece from behind the epaulment to dislodge a body ot the enemy. Most 
effectually he performed this service; but in doing so, lost several of his men, 
and had his piece disabled. His conduct was admirable, for during the time he 
was exposed to a direct fire of six and an enfilade fire of four guns. Ransom's 
Kfpurt. 



166 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Ail/'ulant's Journal — December 16. Enemy abandoned the town, leaving their 
dead in our hands. Prisoners estimate their entire loss as 20,000. An Irishman 
of Meagher's Brigade fell nearest to our line. 

17th. To-day a detailed Federal regiment came over from the enemy to bury 
the dead. The 1500 bodies were all thrown into a long trench with no more 
ceremonies than to so many brutes. The ice house on the edge of town was 
full of dead. These were temporarily laid in rows and covered with earth. 

19th. Big jollification over captured supplies ; all hands jolly; war dance, and 
songs. 

31st. Batallion goes to Pole Cat Creek. Ordered with Col. Walton, to go to 
Mobile to recruit. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

WINTER-QUARTER AMUSEMENTS— INCIDENTS OF A VISIT TO RICHMOND. 

We went into winter-quarters — always a terrible drag 
to the men, a short distance from Chesterfield Station, in 
Caroline County, most of us having no other shelter 
than canvass or tarpaulin tents (with fire places at one 
end) affording the best of ventilation, and a rather too 
free an entrance for rain and snow There was a charm 
about living under canvass which made them preferable 
with many to occupying a badly lighted log house, with 
a dozen others, which in reality were but little superior 
to negro quarters on a plantation. 

We would have been happier if the talents of the men 
had been employed, as was the case with the Roman, and 
is to-day with the Spanish armies, in some sort of way 
where skill would have increased our scanty rations. 
Failing however in this, the men who did not contrive, 
under some excuse or leave of absence to get to Richmond, 
a not very difficult affair, were mostly occupied in building 
a theatre. The walls of this were composed of pine tree 
branches, and in representing on the stage some of the 
popular farces and dramas, every one was suited to his 
bent, and was detailed to some appropriate duty- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 167 



Dempsy, one of our Artificers, who had previously had 
some experience as a stage carpenter, and Nugent, who 
is now regarded as the best blacksmith in the city, made 
what was under the circumstances an admirable stage, 
and the accessories of light, scenery and artificial thunder, 
were all ingeniously provided for. The audiences from 
surrounding corps, including in many cases distinguished 
Generals and their staff, were as large as those gathered 
together in a city theatre on a benefit night, and probably 
more delighted.* 

*We had in this camp but little to do or talk of, except of the eccentricities 
which soldiering had begun to develop, peculiarities to which every one was 
keenly alive, except their possessor. The musical genius for instance, was Otto 
Frank — the traditional German professor in every respect — gold spectacles, a 
touch of sentiment and bad English, a fondness for ladies' society, and a general 
impatience (though a good soldier,) of the harsh outlines of camp life. Otto 
was constantly falling into the hands of the tormentors, who would beguile him 
into an artless recital of his impressions of war by the show of a grave and 
melancholy interest which awoke no suspicion of treachery in his manly bosom. 
Another victim was a nave'i soldier who became vain of his talents for shav- 
ing. His vanity was still further stimulated one day by bets as to the number 
of chins he could scrape in a given time. The consequence was that he had 
the batallion on his hands. It was not a little amusing to hear him bawling out 
the name of every one to " Come and get shaved — vims done." A young lawyer 
was one day overheard relating some curious facts about the only client he had 
ever probably had — Joins, or (as he called him) .Tines. The boys betrayed great 
interest in the history of this wonderful suitor, and the point or pint would be 
to make him pronounce Jines' name and words with similar dipthongs, as often 
as possible. A young soldier was detected later along, writing verses — which 
were highly complimented by some of our generals, but at the same time would 
perhaps have been improved by fuller rations and the burning sky of Louisiana. 
The poetic spirit had long since died out in camp. What increased the enormity 
of the offence of a poetical description was, that the author read some of his 
lines — he, a young recruit — to old veterans, about patriotism and glory. The 
thing could not be passed by. A court-martial was convened with John Porter, 
presiding judge, Sam Bland, as prosecutor, (representing an old farmer, whose 
chickens had been stolen,) and severe jurors, sheriffs officers and clerks, in pro- 
portion. 

The poet in vain endeavored to. prove that he was meditating about and 
gazing at, the stars, and not chickens, and it was not until he had consented to 
buy up the jury with a promise to pay for the "incidental expenses" that a 
verdict was found of " not guilty." Previous to Fredericksburg, the fancy 
seized us to make all the talking men step forward on a given night and say what 
they had got to say before a formal audience. Noble (afterwards of the Legis- 
lature,) was in this way embarked in a metaphysical lecture on the Diaphanous 
Properties of Mud, or something similar, and no one at its conclusion could 
tell whether the joke was on the speaker or the audience. They gave him a 
historic cane with a flourish. Cleveland, (one of the men who captured the 
battery and worked it on their own hook, but who had the least conception of 

21 



168 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



I succeeded in escaping most of the monotony which 
attended the long months in winter and the opening 
of spring, by a short detail from the medical board to 
Richmond. The order from the Department came at 
night, just as we had concluded a march of thirty miles, 
and while the men were lying in front of their bivouac 
fires, awaiting supper. But as no soldier cares to lie rot- 
ting around camp, where dysentery and weariness carried 
off more men than battle, or when he knew the dangers 
to which such furloughs were liable, I lost no time the 
night the order from, the Secretary was handed to me, in 
immediately rolling up my blankets and limping over the 
same wearisome thirty miles at night, in the direction of 
the Gordonsville R. R. that I had just passed over. I might 
have taken the cars at Fredericksburg, the next morning ; 
but the travel on a terribly cold frosty night was nothing 
to the happiness of feeling a little sooner, that you were 
your own master, and of knowing that a military order 
could scarcely reach you. As showing how such instruc- 
tions were respected in Bragg' s army, an order from the 
Secretary was repeated three times, and the messenger was 
then recommended to keep out of the way if he did not 
wish to be shot. 

My journey back, therefore, though I would frequently 
fall down with fatigue, hunger and weakness, and I might 
too have perhaps frozen, but for the way side bivouac 
camp fires, was under the actual circumstances, the hap- 

a joke of any man in the batallion) was suddenly confronted with a long series 
of adventures, which could not have happened inside of a hundred years, and 
was offered a discharge, as too old for military service. The bores, after the 
musicians and humorous talkers had been disposed of, were summoned forward 
for judgment, and not allowed to go unpunished. 

The success of this impromptu gathering, led to the organization of a theat- 
rical corps, which first performed a little before the battle of Fredericksburg 
— one of the leading characters (Spearing,) losing his life in the battle which 
followed shortly after. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 169 



piest march I ever made. No ceremony would be used 
in stepping in between the sleepers and the burnt down 
tires of glowing coals. The only objections in such cases 
raised by the courtesy of camps, was when the sleeper 
turning over uneasily, and becoming indignant at the cold- 
ness of his feet, would complain that you were outstaying 
your welcome. It would then be necessary to trudge on 
to the next glowing log fire, and so on through the night 
and following morning. There were several similar adven- 
tures — one that of traveling, Mazeppa-like, on one of a 
body of horse, (without bridle or saddle,) which was being 
carried back to the rear at a slapping pace. When I reached 
the train, I had to rely more upon my skill in elbowing 
past sentinels, than upon the order of the Secretary of War; 
and before entering Richmond, preferred, with other sol- 
diers, to be shot at rather than be marched off to some rough 
camp or hospital, where you would be placed with bounty 
jumpers, or small-pox patients, and be pulled and jerked 
around by any idle officer who had nothing else to do. 

Once in the city, I proceeded with a very serious fear 
about quarters to the room of a friend from the army, 
already mentioned, but had scarcely entered and com- 
menced undressing, which I did very quickly, before a 
feminine scream warned me of my error. My next attempt 
was something more successful. After getting confused in 
marching about in a blinding snow storm, and mistaking 
a statue of Washington, for an evil-disposed sentinel, I at 
length entered my friend's room. But this was full of 
beds, in each of which there was a couple of immense 
soldiers from Hood's Brigade, I believe, with arms, legs, 
and mouths spread open to their widest extent, and with 
bowie knives and revolvers half concealed by the pillows. 
[ struck a match, but the light went out — the prospect 



170 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



did not look encouraging. I determined to grope my 
way out as silently as I came in. Unfortunately a chair 
was knocked over. 

•'Who's there?" shouted a voice. "What in the h — 1 
are you doing with them clothes ?" Before I could ex- 
plain a pistol was discharged. 

"Kill 'em as you catch 'em!" cried another voice, and 
off went another barrel. 

Supposing that these might be, followed by others, I 
took the prudential step of crawling under a bed and 
awaiting till the barrels were all emptied. 

Another startled inmate, thinking the Federals had 
reached the city, jumped out of a window — I believe into 
a cistern. When the firing had at length ceased I made an 
explanation which was accepted without gainsaying. 

Half of the inmates were now sitting up in bed; a 
light was again struck. There were the remains of a fire 
still burning in the fire place, and two or three getting 
out of bed in their night blouses, stirred up the chunks, 
and resting their tremendous limbs upon the mantle-piece, 
began to meditatively squirt tobacco juice at the flames. 
It struck me at the time as being a queer crowd alto- 
gether, although I had become so accustomed to new sights, 
and ways of thinking and acting, that I was prepared for 
almost anything. 

"I wish yon d — d fellers would quit your foolishness 
and go to bed," here sung out a petulant voice ; "I always 
save one or two barrels in case of accident, and if you 
don't dry up and go to bed, hang me, if I don't blaze 
away right in the crowd." 

But the complaint was unheeded. One of the watchers 
gave me permission, or rather ordered me off to his bed. 
perhaps as occupying too much of the fire. A pack of 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 171 



cards was produced, a bottle of liquor and a plug of 
tobacco, the table was covered with corns for counters — 
and I dozed off into an uneasy slumber. The game, how- 
ever, I imagined, was fiercely contested; and each player. 
as he led a strong card, would bring his fist down with a 
blow which would make the glasses jingle. When the 
hands were particularly good, they fell thick and fast. I 
could not help regarding the table in the morning, and 
was not surprised to see its leg looking rickety. 

About day-break I woke up with a sudden start caused 
by a tremendous thump. The tobacco had almost dis- 
appeared, the bottle was empty, and one of the players 
was sweeping up a pile of Confederate bills into his hand- 
kerchief. The rest of the inmates now commenced dress- 
ing, or gazed from beneath the bed clothes with a half 
sleepy, half sullen expression, preparatory to doing the 
same. They were all soldiers on furlough, and I need not 
say we had a pretty wild, rattling set in that room ; even- 
body was on the hurrah-style, and lived as recklessly as if 
pay daj' in greenbacks came every day, and there was to 
be no to-morrow Especially was this the case with a 
brave captain from North Louisiana, who had just bought 
a $000 coat, as gorgeous as gold lace could make it. He 
played on a guitar, and affected a pensive style of singing, 
which was somewhat interfered with by the loudness of 
his voice and the prominence of his jaw, and he told all 
manner of impossible and fearful stories. At breakfast 
he made love to the landlady's daughter, and would have 
been helped doubtless to the best dishes, if there had been 
anything to eat but fried bacon and corn coffee. 

At the same table, was another lady who came from 
New Orleans, and after getting sent out of the city by 
Butler, was equally unfortunate in beinf taken for a 



172 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Federal spy However, she had been allowed to go to 
Richmond on parole, and had become not a little soured 
at the number of visits necessary to be made before 
obtaining her release. She gave the Captain who condoled 
with her, a beautiful lace handkerchief to bathe in some- 
body's blood, on the battle-field. The Captain, however, 
never got much closer to the enemy, than the nearest 
faro-bank, and in that classic quarter, boasted of the gift 
in a manner which would hardly have pleased its fair 
donor had she heard it. 

My first day in town brought me in contact with the 
Provost Marshal, who treated me with American civility, 
but allowed his eyes to droop when speaking of the 
necessity of reporting for detail duty, and the sentinels 
too, began to find fault with my pass. 

Under such pressure, I soon found myself making out 
pay rolls, or following rather humbly behind a paymaster 
with bundles of Confederate shinplasters, and assisting 
him in paying off the various hospitals about Richmond. 

This brought me acquainted with the matrons, who at 
that day represented as much address, experience of the 
world, knowledge of human nature, personal attraction, 
and kind-heartedness, as any other class of southern 
women who came to the surface. They were by no means 
the ideal of the domestic woman, and sometimes were pos- 
sessed of much more wit and liveliness of manner than 
refinement ; but they were better adapted to taking care 
of soldiers, than ladies with less restlessness, vanity, 
jealousy, and love of power ; a class with which every 
i-oldier during his time of sickness or wounds became 
familiar. As an illustration of this, I may mention what 
happened at my boarding house, to the brave Captain. 
He had bee iv going about a good deal, boasting of his 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 173 



handkerchief, and generally carried things with rather 
a high hand in the parlor. 

One day as I passed by the door, I found him talking 
in his usual loud, hectoring, pleasant manner to two ladies. 
By way of giving animation to the scene, he would walk 
up and down the floor, singing "I'm the boy that's gay 
and happy " One of the ladies had once traveled in our 
ambulance wagon, and as the principal part of my costume 
was an old blanket with a hole, cut in the middle, (except 
about dinner time when it was a dressing gown,) it was 
with much distress, that I saw that I could not escape 
bowing and speaking. I arrived just in time to see that 
the Captain was not received with much favor — that he 
had encountered a Tartar in the second of the two ladies. 
She had become weary with his freedom of manners, and 
was now turning on him a very handsome, satirical face, 
vicious black eyes, and the keenest tongue that any camp 
absentee had ever heard wagged at his expense. She 
snubbed him still further, after a dubious glance at my 
costume, by inviting me. instead of the Captain, to escort 
her home ; and to add still more to his discomfiture during 
a momentary absence, I contrived to become possessed 
of one of his beautiful blue and gold coats which he 
had rashly left in our room unguarded. My new acquaint- 
ance after a rather liberal abuse of the Captain, whom 
she thought not worthy to look a lady of education in 
the face, allowed me to assist her in an ambulance 
which was in waiting. Entering after her she proceeded 
to inform me that there was but one thing that ladies 
in the South could do who were not of a domestic turn 
— become officers of the government — devote them- 
selves to wounded soldiers, learning how to command 
in their departments and to defend themselves from 



174 A Soldier's Story of the War. 

imposition. She thought there was especial danger from 
the Doctors, whom she maintained could boast of but 
little more knowledge than that of knowing how to 
potter at simple pills, and whose services were counter- 
balanced by drinking up most of the medical supplies when 
so permitted. She had lived very gaily in New Orleans 
society, she told me ; but a hospital and soldiers was 
now the thing for a lady who had always been accustomed to 
a stirring and exciting life— books, society, dancing being 
out of the question. However the denial on her part did 
not prevent her from showing by her gestures that her 
arms were still finely shaped, that her back hair, which 
she moved, grew on her head as in the antique models, 
and that her shoe, which she took off (probably from 
pride at that day in having a new pair) was of the 
smallest pattern. She now took a philosophical tack, 
and told me her character grew out of the war 
like everything else — that the soldiers she met were fre- 
quently the first gentlemen in the land, and having no 
competition they admired her as much, if not more, than 
she had been in ten years previous. She couldn't be a 
rirandiere as they had in French armies, or ride about 
from one line in male attire like Bell Boyd, or fight with 
a musket in a soldier's uniform, as some heroines were 
doing — so long as they behaved themselves ; or do as 
Gen. Gordon's wife did, rally his brigade when her hus- 
band was absent; but she had traveled hundreds of miles 
as a refugee through the lines, without money and friends; 
sometimes in a soldier train where she would be concealed 
in the mail car and surrounded with mail matter for days 
and so on. The ambulance stopped at the house of one 
of the secretaries with whom she was staying, and as the 
ground was covered with snow. 1 had the courage, instead 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 175 



of putting her on the ground, to carry her to the door- 
steps. The result was that it fared worse with me in the 
way of epithets and abuse, than it had with the Captain. 
However, when I went with the paymaster, she gave me 
a laughing invitation to take dinner with her, to the great 
indignation of the local doctors, whom she wanted to 
feel miserable — in the very room that contained the envied 
stores. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

CHANCELLORVILLE. 

The spring of '63 has meanwhile passed, and the roads 
have commenced to harden. The men absent from camp 
have grown weary of cities, and the old soldiers about 
winter-quarters, shout lustily when a popular general passes 
by — a sure sign that they have regained their old com- 
bative feeling, and a sign, too, that they will soon be 
called upon, to make use of it. The battery forges are 
kept constantly busy, and the ringing of Callahan's black- 
smith's hammer in his labors, for the benefit of the bat- 
tery horses, and the flying sparks which gayly shoot 
upward, begin to intoxicate the blood of men. 

During the close of April, the rumbling of the artillery 
wheels, and the weary tramp of the infantry are once 
more heard. Hooker has daringly thrown his army 
across the Rappahannock, and waded them through the 
Rapidan, a deep tributary, and has made a move which 
causes Lee rather to open his eyes. However, the advan- 
tage lasts but a moment. The Confederate troops are 
promptly gathered up, and boldly moved forward — Jack- 
son being thrust out in the same way, on the enemy's 



176 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



flank, as the one-armed Captain Cuttle would his hook — 
to drag the enemy in. Hooker, meanwhile, has occupied 
the ground, which, if he only knew it, and would hold on to 
it, would gain him the battle ; but he becomes timid, with 
a greatly superior force, as Lee becomes daring, and 
meanwhile, his army is like one of those read of in the 
classic page, which gets bogged up in a swamp, or trem- 
bling prairie, or overwhelmed by the Lybian or Arabian 
sands ; or as in the "Shipwreck," where the whole of the 
Duke's Court are wandering about on an unknown land, 
encountering enemies, and coming across friends — in all 
manner of fantastic ways. At one end of the line — 
Hooker's left, which faces towards Richmond, is the old 
Chancellor House. It will soon be dripping with more 
blood than ever was put in a sensational tragedy or novel. 
Against one of its pillars Hooker is leaning in the 
battle, when stunned by the concussion against it of a 
shell. 

On Friday morning, (May 1st,) the opposing columns 
began to jostle each other, and Hooker now can emerge 
from the tangled thicket in which he has been so far grop- 
ing ; but it is his last chance. It is one thing to mark 
out a campaign brilliantly, and to execute it unflinchingly, 
with new difficulties to be provided for on the battle field, 
at every step. As the Irish duelist explained it, to hit 
the stem of a wine glass with a bullet, is not difficult — 
provided the wine glass has no pistol. 

Hooker once had emerged from his dangerous position, 
where his army could not manoeuvre, but was either 
driven back, or took up from choice, according to Northern 
accounts, a line with rising ground in front, and with 
impenetrable thickets behind, from which the Confederate 
attacks could readily be formed. The night which fol- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 177 



lowed, passed silently in both armies — silently, so far as 
the guns were concerned; but faint noises told of the 
shoveling up of rifle pits; thousands of midnight wood- 
cutters, as if suddenly possessed with a superstitious fancy 
for making a clearing, were causing the Wilderness, on 
both sides, to resound with their blows, or bringing to the 
ground some of the huge trunks, with a noise equal to 
cannon. 

The falling of these trees meant for Hooker, that he 
would await an attack ; for Lee that he knew Hooker's 
plan, and would go off and make an attack some- 
where else. He will act upon Jackson's last and most 
brilliant idea, and send the latter around by an obscure 
farm road on Hooker's right, between him and his river 
communications. This move of Jackson, thought to be 
a retreat to Richmond — strikes the Federal right at 5 
o'clock on the afternoon of May 2nd, and by dark it 
has put a whole corps to utter route. Jackson has got on 
the reverse side of the enemy, to within half a mile of 
headquarters. He is now about to deal his finishing blow, 
and while anxiously seeking the precise situation of 
the enemy, gets his death wound in the dark, at the hands 
of some of his own pickets. His loss left the battle incom- 
plete, in spite of its stunning blow, and the melancholy 
news affected the Confederates in the same way that the 
fulfillment of the various omens predicted, before Troy 
could be captured, affected that city's defenders. On the 
other hand, if Jackson had not been wounded, as he said 
on his dying bed, "the enemy would have been obliged to 
surrender or cut his way out." 

On the next day, Stuart, in Jackson's place, bore down 
and pressed back the Federal right wing, while Lee on the 
opposite side, hammered away at Hooker's centre and 



178 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



left — forcing back two corps ; or as a Northern* historian 
expresses it, "the line melted away, and the front appeared 
to pass out." Hancock, who alone held out, began to 
waver at 10 a. m., w r hen "the Confederates sprang forward, 
and seized Chancellorville." 

Fredericksburg during this time had been left with a 
small force of five brigades, including the 1st and 2d La., 
and three companies of the Washington Artillery, who 
had been ordered from Chesterfield three days before, to 
the crest of Marye's Hill — their old battle ground. Barks- 
dale was still with us. The latter, Sunday morning, in 
view of a movement by Sedgwick's corps, on this part of 
the line, were reinforced by Hays' Brigade. After three 
failures in other directions, a powerful assaulting column 
was formed to carry the hill by storm, which feat was 
finally achieved, though "under a very severe fire that 
cost Sedgwick a thousand men. The Confederates made 
a savage hand-to-hand fight on the crest, and over the 8 
guns." As there was only in reality two regiments, (less 
than 2000 men) assigned to the support of our artillery, 
and the attack was made by twenty-two thousand of the 
enemy, (according to Sedgwick's report,) it will not appear 
surprising that the works were finally captured. The 
guns were worked desperately to the last, and were faith- 
fully manned by their cannoniers, when six pieces 
were surrounded, and the guns and cannoniers made pris- 
oners — most of them under the command of Capt. Squires 
and Lieut. E. Owen. A large proportion of the gallant 
18th and a part of the 21st Miss., were taken prisoners at 
the same time. 

Sedgwick now commenced moving on the slender bri- 
gades who had been retained here by Lee to make up a show 

*S\vinton's History of the Army of the Potomac. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 179 



before the enemy, and retain his line of communications 
•with Richmond — Early meanwhile retreating slowly 
towards Lee. He did not do so long — before the day was 
over, a sufficient force, McLaw's and Anderson, were 
promptly sent back to Early's support. The shock occurred 
at Salem Chapel, and all that need be said about it, was 
that Sedgwick was checked that day, "with a total loss of 
5000 men.'* Marye s Hill was re-occupied the nextxlay 
without any difficulty by its former possessors. 

On Monday night, May 4th, Sedgwick being surrounded 
on three sides, and hard pressed as to his communications 
with the river, took advantage of the darkness, and was 
fortunate enough to safely withdraw his troops. 

Lee having cleared, as it were, the brushwood from his 
path, was now (May 6th) with the troops whom he had 
recalled, prepared to attend to the case of Hooker ; but 
that General was found to have lost all stomach for a fight, 
and had put the Rappahannock between himself and the 
enemy. 

The result of the matter, and this was about the whole 
result, except that new material for powder had to be 
provided — was that the Union loss was 17,197, and 
the Confederate, 10,281. All of the spoils in the way of 
artillery, prisoners, and 20,000 stand of arms, fell to the 
Confederate army The victory in short, was a glorious 
one, but really amounted to nothing, as Jackson disap- 
peared from the scene, at the moment when most needed, 
and the result was incomplete. 

*Swinton, page 209. 



ISO A Soldier's Story of the War. 



CHAPTER XXV 

THE STORMING OF WINCHESTER BY GEN. HAYS' BRIGADE. 

There being no other work before him, the army of 
Gen. Lee began to stretch out and lengthen towards the 
Potomac. Longstreet came up from the James. 

A dim suspicion of some move on foot led to an attack 
on Stuart's cavalry, which was in the advance, at Brandy 
Station, and led to one of the few regular cavalry engage- 
ments which took place during the Confederate war — the 
loss being something between five and eight hundred on a 
side. This engagement, where the men remained on horse- 
back, and used their sabres, instead of dismounting and 
"grabbing hold of roots," as the infantry would sometimes 
derisively speak of what they called the "Butter-milk 
Rangers," did much to raise the popularity of the cavalry, 
though it waned afterwards in spite of hard and arduous 
service, with the wearing out of horseflesh and the 
increase of Company Q. 

Our line having meanwhile lengthened until it reached 
from Fredericksburg to the Valley, Ewell suddenly 
pounced down on Winchester and stormed its heights, 
taking 4000 prisoners, and a large amount of war 
material. 

The way in which this was accomplished, according to 
Gen. Early's report, was by an assault made on a hill to 
the Northwest of the enemy's works. A position having 
been selected — that is, the side from which the attack 
should be made, Early led his guns and infantry by 
obscure paths to within a short distance of the hill to be 
stormed. His movements thus far had been concealed by 
the woods, and he had been fortunate enough to miss 
meeting any of the enemy's scouts. Meanwhile Gordon 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 181 



had been making an advance from the opposite side of 
the town. 

Jones' Artilleiy (twenty guns) were now put in 
readiness to support the charge on the storming side, 
and Gen. Hays' Louisiana Brigade, which had many times 
before enjoyed the honor of being selected for similar 
work, was put under cover, and allowed to gaze at the 
hill in front, covered with recently felled timber, at 
the bastion works with which the fort was crowned, and 
at the two lines of breast work further bevond. 

It was now an hour by sun, and the men were burning 
with impatience. Twice Gen. Hays made ready to move, 
and was detained by Early's orders; a third time the 
detaining order was sent to him by Early, who could 
not believe but what the enemy were keeping a better 
look out than they did. But finally the twenty guns 
opened simultaneously, which was the laisscr /aire for 
action, and the next moment, before the enemy had 
recovered from his astonishment at seeing troops in this 
direction, and in spite of orders, Plays and his men were 
crawling through the brushwood, and up the steep slope. 
" He drove, says Gen. Early, the enemy from his fortifi- 
cations in fine style," and with some of his infantry who 
had been purposely for such occasions, trained as cannon- 
iers, he opened with the enemy's own rifled pieces, thus 
preventing all efforts at recapture. The enemy aban- 
doned the whole town the next morning — Gordon's Ga. 
brigade being the first to reach the main fort, and pull 
down the flag flying over it. The infamous Milroy fled 
towards the Potomac, but too late to save his infantry, 
who now found themselves intercepted by Johnson's divi- 
sion. Twenty-five guns were captured, and only a few 
horsemen, who were with Milroy, succeeded in reaching 



182 A Soldier's Story of the War, 



the opposite side of the Potomac. Gen. Early justly 
speaks of it, as " a most brilliant exploit." 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE GETTYSBUKG CAMPAIGN. 

Meanwhile, our batteries remained a few days at Stan- 
nard's Farm, grazing the horses. We then marched (5th,) 
past the old Wilderness Tavern, and crossed the Rapidan 
at Racoon Ford, with Gen. Longstreet's corps. Our road 
led us on towards Woodville and Winchester, and through 
Sperryville and Little Washington. After then crossing 
the Blue Ridge at Chester Gap, we passed through Front 
Royal, to the banks of the Shenandoah. Meanwhile, 
rumors of another invasion campaign were daily increas- 
ing in probability, which the victory at Winchester 
tended to confirm. After crossing at Morgan's Ford, 
we remained at Millwood, which was with the sur- 
rounding scenery the paradise of all camps, and soon after 
took up the line of march through Bunker Hill, and 
again into Maryland. The move north of the Potomac, 
was regarded with much questioning by the army, though 
its danger gave it a risk that soldiering on a worn out soil, 
did not possess. At any rate, we crossed the river in sans 
calotte style, like so many King Dagoberts, and then 
marched through Hagerstown, to Greencastle, Penn. 

It was difficult to say which was the most surprised, 
the farmers who scarcely knew of the war, or the Southern 
army, at the worldly thrift, agricultural comfort, and at 
the same time thoroughly Boeotian spirit of these (as we 
then called them,) "Pennsylvania Dutchmen." There 
was nothing of course to correspond with the magnifi- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 183 



cent cotton and sugar plantations of the South, which 
sometimes were tilled by a thousand hands before the 
war; nor, with those old plantation chateaux, which the 
traveler on the Mississippi sees nestling among orange 
groves and tropical foliage. But the farmers we now saw, 
though not possessed of great means, had excellent habi- 
tations. Their ignorance of anything but tilling the soil, 
to a soldier appeared astonishing; it was however exceeded 
by their prejudice and bitterness. 

Lee's orders, much to the disgust of the army, were not 
to plunder or in any way destroy private property, and 
passes when we reached the neighborhood of Chambers- 
burg, which we did the next day, were now not easy to 
obtain. It need not however be stated that all of the 
cheese, whiskey, and other articles with which the country 
abounded, were not entirely left behind. For several days 
indeed, our commissaries tolerably well supplied us with 
food. 

It was raining torrents all day, on the 30th, as we 
marched over splendid roads, and through fine moun- 
tain scenery ; but on the first of July, we followed Hill 
and Ewell towards Gettysburg, who were then driving the 
enemy through the town, and while awaiting orders, our 
men watched with great anxiety the battle, which we 
could partially see, in front of us.* 

•^Extract from the note book of one of our men : " Part of the time during 
our halt, I was talking to a scowling farmer. He asked me in response to some 
remark about climate or health, if I knew anything of medicine, and when 
I shook my head, he attributed my denial to unwillingness to do him any service. 
I then, observing his disappointment, told him what was the truth, that I had 
read medicine to some extent, but was no practitioner, and asked him what he 
wanted done. He led the way silently to a room where a young lady was reclin- 
ing, and asked me to assist her, if I knew how. Both the young girl and the old 
man himself were obviously only half dead with terror, and I thought it most 
good-natured to assume all the dignity of an experienced M. D., and in this way 
endeavor to alleviate her terror. I accordingly examined her tongue with great 
importance felt of her pulse, and talked learnedly about valerian and diyitalii, 



&■ 



1$4. A Soldier's Story of the War. 



CHAPTER XXVII 

THE DECISIVE STRUGGLE. 

'The battle of Gettysburg was brought on without being 
m 1 1 ricipated by either of the contending Generals. It was 
like an accidental fight which starts at a street corner, and 
which becomes "free" all around. It was decided oppor- 
tunely, though with but little in the way of result, by the 
lifky arrival of Hays' and Gordon's Brigades, under 
h'well, from Yorktown, when affairs were in a very critical 
condition. By their desperate charge, and by the pene- 
r ration of a weak point in the Federal line, they with 
Kb odes' Division captured or totally routed all the Federal 
i loops on hand. Those who escaped, were driven back 
;n»<j huddled together on the heights, north of Gettys- 
burg.* This was the first feature of the fight. The most 
important consequences, the fruits of most value, which 
should have been gathered, were lost by a neglect to seize 
rli« Cemetery Ridge, which commanded the situation, and 
u-hich was the turning point of the battle. 

either of which I knew was in the house; and as a last resource I suggested, 
likr David Copperfield's housekeeper, to restore her forces, with a little 
«-»k brandy and water. The old man hunted up the brandy with alacrity, 
« hiK I meanwhile showed the young lady that she was in no danger, either 
'•m: the balls or the rebels themselves. I think I proved to both that I was an 
o>llent physician, and to show that I had confidence in my remedy, I very 
(»w4Uy consented to drinking myself what remained. 

*"'l'he following is from Gen. Bwell 

The enemy were moving large bodies of troops from the town, and affairs 
*ere in a very critical condition, when Maj. Gen. Early coming up, ordered 
(.<!•» Lrd Gordon, who broke Barlow's Division, captured Gen. Barlow, and drove 
ih^ *vhole back in a second line, when it was halted. Gen. Early now ordered 
i'.|> Ways' and Hokes' Brigades, on Gordon's left, and then drove the enemy 
: >:''>i pitately towards and through the town, just as Ransom broke those in his 
.ronr Three hundred dead were left on the ground, passed over by Gordon's 
!'• i ij-i.de. Early and Rhodes together, captured 4000 prisoners; two pieces of 
• j i illery fell in the hands of Early's Division. No other troops than those of this 
■ ■••I ]■-. entered the town at all. [See Gen. Ewell's report of the second army corps. 
i;*»u\sburg Campaign.] His statement about Cemetery Hill, and the reason 
^Tiy rhe attack was delayed, is substautially the same as is here given further on, 
•<'-'i>ting in not mentioning the earnest appeal made by Hays, for a prompt 
.tt.,.-l>. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 7*5 



This halt and neglect to take the afterwards so famous 
crescent-shaped ridge, after Hays had marched straight 
into the town, when fifteen minutes further of ad van*.* 
would have finished the business at a blow, is thn- 
explained : 

Hays had received orders through Early from Ew.-ll 
(though Lee's general instructions subsequently were t !>• 
reverse,) to halt at Gettysburg and advance no further 
than that point, in case he should be successful in captur- 
ing the place. But Hays now saw that the enemy w*n- 
coming around by what was known as the Baltimore 
road, and were obviously making for the strong Cemet^rv 
ridge, immediately north of Gettysburg. The ridge in 
question meant life or death, and for the mastery of it. i \i>- 
battles of the 2nd and 3rd of July, the days following 
will have to be fought. The Baltimore road referral 
to ran at the foot of the hill for several miles. Con.— - 
quently, owing to the long detour which the enemy \,*-v 
compelled to make, it was obvious that they wouM 
not be able to get their artillery in position on Cemetp.rv 
Hill for one or two hours. The immediate occupation 
of the hill by the Confederate army, who were in a posi- 
tion to get there at the time referred to, without ran. -ti 
opposition, was a matter of vital importance. B;>,vs 
recognized it as such, and promptly sent word to Earl v. 
The latter thought as Hays, but declined to disol«-\- 
orders. At the urgent solicitation of Gen. Hays, how 
ever, he sent for Gen. Ewell : when the latter arrive I. 
many precious moments had been lost. But the enem \ 
who did not see its value until the arrival of Hancock ..n. 
the scene, had not yet appeared in force. 

If Gen. Ewell will now act, the Confederates will Jr:t.v- 
the frowning hills, against which brave men may tbro\. 



186 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



away their lives by the thousands without success, for 
their own fortifications, and the two days of bloody fight- 
ing, will either take place at Philadelphia or Harris- 
burg, the Capital of Pennsylvania ; or the result will be 
on the Gettysburg ground a certain victory. If Ewell 
makes the right decision, there will be an overwhelming 
feeling in favor of allowing the Southern States separa- 
tion, without further war. 

Unfortunately, Gen. Ewell, while sharing Hays' con- 
victions, thought it better to wait a little, until Johnson 
came up, and meantime the precious moments, whose 
value Jackson knew better than any man, are Hying. 

Johnson gets up finally, and Lee is pressing for an 
attack. But now, there is a new delay : the enemy appear 
to be making a demonstration, to one side or the other. 
At last, this is discovered to amount to nothing. Still 
the evening has come, and so the attack must be post- 
poned until to-morrow 

Ewell laughed at Hays, when he appeared so anxious 
to make the attack, and wanted to know if his men 
would never have their bellyful of fighting — if they 
could not wait a day. Hays' answer was, that it was 
with a view to prevent the slaughter of his men, that he 
wanted to make the attack at once — and was unwilling 
to throw away their lives if the heights were allowed 
to be defended by guns and breastworks. But so it was 
to be. That very night, the Louisiana Brigade, as the 
men threw themselves despondingly on the ground, (for 
soldiers know now as well as their generals, when a point 
is lost or made,) were startled by a rumbling noise, 
faint at first, but which comes nearer. The heavy guns 
are being dragged up to the crest of the hill, and will tell 
their own tale on the morrow The sound of the pick- 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 187 



axe and spade are heard — the enemy are shoveling up 
breastworks and trenches, which will protect those who 
are to live. Still useful, when the battle is over, these 
trenches will answer equally well for the graves of those 
who are to be left behind. 

The following day, (July 2d.) dragged on : it was the 
last for many thousands, and they waited impatiently to 
know their fate. An unbroken stillness prevailed until 
late in the afternoon. But the loss of opportunity' 
yesterday, must now be replaced, and great masses of 
men are to be put in motion. 

The result of this day's struggle, (the 2d.) was an 
attempt to repair the mistakes made the day before, by a 
desperate charge of the whole of Longstreet's line. The 
Texas brigade, sweeping back from Peach Orchard to 
Round Top, succeeded by a quick movement, in wedging 
itself in between the Federal left and the latter mountain 
— thus cutting oif the Federal line of retreat, and enfilad- 
ing the enemy's line, if the brigade could have been 
sustained. The position was however saved to the 
Federal army, by a bayonet struggle, led on by Warren. 
Hood who did not see that Round Top itself was unoccu- 
pied, was forced to give back. Longstreet wedged into 
every crack and crevice of the enemy's ranks, and gained 
ground ; but the result was unsatisfactory Meanwhile. 
at the opposite end of the line, the same attack and 
repulse were being repeated by Hays' brigade, as will now 
be shown in detail : 

The attack on this wing commenced about dusk, Hays 
and Hokes' Brigades being assigned to the work in hand, 
and moving directly forward against Cemetery Hill in 
their front. 

Hays thereupon charged over a hill, into a ravine. 



188 -A Soldier's Story of the War. 



where they broke a line of the enemy's infantry, posted 
behind a stone wall — up the steep face of another hill, and 
over two lines of breastworks, capturing several batteries of 
artillery These works were held until finding that no 
attack was made on the right, and heavy masses of the 
enemy advancing, they reluctantly fell back, bringing 
away with them, 75 to 100 prisoners, and four stands of 
captured colors. 

Gen. Lane, commanding Pender's Division on the right, 
was asked by EwelL at this juncture, to co-operate, but 
made no reply Maj. Gen. Rhodes "did not advance 
for reasons given in his report." Had it been other- 
wise, from the eminent success attending the assault 
of Hays and Avery, (though that latter gallant com- 
mander of Hokes' Brigade, was the only one of his 
command, according to his own statement, who went into 
the enemy's works,) the enemy's lines would have been 
carried. The above statements are from Ewell's report. 

The truth about the charge on Cemetery Hill, on this 
part of the line, was that Hokes' Brigade advanced only a 
few hundred j^ards, breaking on the first hill under an 
almost infernal fire, in spite of the gallant efforts of Col. 
Avery to lead them on. Avery himself went into the 
enemy's lines and said to Gen. Hays : "I am here without 
my command. I wish you to remember that I at least 
have reported in person." 

This position was finally yielded to superior numbers. 

About the hour this attack was made, a little after dusk, 
the batteries of the Washington Artillery were sent for 
in hot haste, and as soon as the order was received, we 
went tearing to the front, over trees and stumps, and with 
imminent risk to the cannoniers, mounted on the seats, 
of beimr crushed. We were not. however, ordered 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 189 



to open fire. Although the enemy had been taught 
his weak points, and had shown unusual readiness in get- 
ting to the point assailed, which was in reality easy 
to be done with a line of only two miles in length to six 
on the part of the assailant, yet as the Confederates had 
driven back the enemy and all the trophies of victory 
were with them, it was resolved to make one more final 
throw of the die, and to renew the fearful assaults of the 
two preceding days. The point aimed at now — the 
attack on the wings having failed of decided results — 
was to pierce the enemy's centre. 

At two o'clock on the morning of the eventful day, 
(July 3d) our batteries were ordered to take what 
proved to be our final position for the great battle. The 
ground was covered with the slain of the preceding days' 
fights, who had been left behind in the forcing back of 
the Federal army, and their groans would have been 
enough to have disturbed the consciences of even those 
who had no risks themselves on the morrow to encounter. 

One of the statements made to me afterwards, by Lieu- 
tenant H — , of the way in which he passed the night, was 
that having no blanket, he had concluded to crawl, as 
was frequently done, under the covering of another sol- 
dier. He remarked during the night, that the man seemed 
very cold blooded, and the next morning when he woke 
up and looked around, he thought so more than ever. He 
understood the situation at a glance. He had been sleeping- 
all night with a corpse. 

The fight commenced in the morning, at an early hour, 
with the roar of artillery from the enemy's guns, and was 
as hot as any we had ever previously encountered — the 
more so because our own guns meanwhile remained silent. 

In a few moments, two of the Third company's finest 



190 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



horses, and Smith, their driver, were killed.* Joe Norcomb 
of the Fourth, was wounded. The fence behind us was 
finally torn down, and the internals of the caissons and 
pieces widened. At a given signal, it was arranged 
about 1 o'clock p. m., that all the guns of Longstreet's 
corps, (135) should open, and that Pickett's Virginia Divi- 
sion, supported by Heath Wilcox, and Pettigrew en echelon, 
were to storm the enemy's work, while the latter, mean- 
while, would be demoralized by our artillery fire. 

At 1:30 Longstreet ordered Col. Walton (now chief of 
his artillery,-) "to open fire with all the guns from right 
to left." The signal guns previously agreed upon — " two 
fired in rapid succession by the Washington Artillery," 
were now discharged, and were promptly answered by 
the roar of 220 others — one of the greatest cannonades 
ever made in the world's history, and the greatest on this 
continent. The enemy's fire slackened after thirty minutes 
from the number, as officially reported, of caissons and 
ammunition wagons we exploded ; but shells still ploughed 
through our ranks with terrible effect, one of them set- 
ting fire to a hospital and burning up in the flames a 
great many wounded. Many of their guns were disabled, 
and soon the blinding battle-smoke gave place to the 
.stillness of death. Now had come the decisive moment 
when the gloomy presentiments which had been pressing 
upon Gen. Lee's men were to become facts, ©t be dissipated 
like the sulphurous wreaths above us. ,,-> 

I speak of presentiments, because the night before, when 
we had taken our place for bivouac on, the corpse-covered 
battle field, there rose before us, what we at first • thought 
was a cloud, black and threatening, but which we s'oon 

*Later in the day Adolphe Ouprc was cafried back' wounded, and the two 
cannouiers, who g;tve him their'places, were killed simultaneously by the same 
shell. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 191 



discovered were the mountains behind, or on which the 
Federal left was posted ; protected, we discovered, too, on 
the morrow, by breastworks. In regarding this we stared 
at each other in amazement. Still the men believed so 
much in themselves, that when the storming divisions 
moved off, we did not fear the treachery of fortune. 

As Pickett's Division pressed on by us, or rather along 
side of us part of the way, the men realizing the certain 
death that awaited them, and too proud to falter in doing 
what they considered their duty, were heard some of them, 
saying "good-bye" and the fixed look in their face, showed 
that they had steeled themselves to certain death. Then 
the flag station signaled, and the whole lined moved. 
McDonald at Wagram, was eclipsed. There was a mile 
of ground to get over, and the storm of lead from their 
enemies in the breastworks, laid them down by scores. 
Meanwhile what was the most extraordinary feat of the 
war, the third company battery charged as far as the 
ground admitted, with Pickett, finally maintaining a posi- 
tion far in advance of any other Confederate guns.* 

Heath's Division emerged from the woods, en echelon, as 
was ordered, just as we heard a yell which told that our 
colors had been successfully planted over the enemy's 
fortifications, and eleven captured cannons. At that 
moment, Pettigrew's men, who were raw troops, and soon 
after, Heath's Division, broke under a flank fire, and 
retreated in confusion. Pickett's position, which is now 
being charged by a fresh division of the enemy becoming 
critical, and his men being unable to hold their ground 
fell back by order. 

This settled the day, and the hopes of many of the 

*A batterv from another State moved with us, but soon left both the Third 
company, and their own guns. 



192 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Confederate army The crest of the hill soon became 
almost deserted — there being present only four pieces of 
cannon from the Washington Artillery which still retained 
their original position. These about dusk fired a shower 
of shots at what appeared to be an advance movement of 
the enemy — the last shots that were fired upon that fatal 
day. 



* 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

THE KETKEAT. 

During the whole of this memorable day, and part of 
the preceding, the men had nothing to eat, and were 
very often without water. I succeeded at one time, in 
satisfying the pangs of hunger, by eating the fruit from 
a cherry tree, which either hung close to the ground, 

*At 6 p. m., we heard a long and continuous Yankee cheer, which we at first 
imagined was an indication of an advance ; but it turned out to be their recep- 
tion of a general officer, whom we saw riding down the line, followed by about 
thirty horsemen. Soon afterwards I rode to the extreme front, where there 
were four pieces of rifled cannon, almost without any infantry support. To the 
non-withdrawal of these guns is to be attributed the otherwise surprising 
inactivity of the enemy. I was immediately surrounded by a sergeant, and about 
half-a-dozen gunners, who seemed in excellent spirits, and full of confidence, in 
spite of their exposed situation. The sergeant, [Corporal Coyle] expressed his 
ardent hope that the Yankees might have spirit enough to advance and receive 
the dose he had in readiness for them. 

Whilst we were talking, the enemy's skirmishers began to advance slowly, and 
several ominous sounds in quick succession told us that we were attracting their 
attention, and that it was necessary to break up the conclave. I therefore turned 
round and took leave of these cheery and plucky gunners. 

* * -;:- * * 

Tt was difficult to exaggerate the critical state of affairs as they appeared 
about this time. If the enemy or their general had shown any enterprise, there 
is no saying what might have happened. Gen. Lee and his officers were evi- 
dently fully impressed with a sense of the situation. 

* * * * -::- 

Gen. Longstreet said the mistake they had made, was in not concentrating the 
army more, and making the attack on the 2d, with 30,000 men instead of 15,000. 
The advance had been in three lines, and the troops of Hill's corps, who gave 
way, were young soldiers who had never been under fire before. The enemy 
would have attacked, had the guns been withdrawn. Had they done so at that 
particular moment. immediately after the repulse, it would have benn awkward. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 193 



or whose boughs had been struck off by the bullets and 
shell. The last bread we tasted was obtained by some of 
us who, to preserve the strength of the men, were de- 
tailed by Capt. Hero to gather food from the dead Federal 
infantry, whose haversacks were furnished with three 
day's ration. It was not the kind of food that fastidious 
stomachs could endure. But a soldier's first motto- is to 
take care of his material wants, and the men who reso- 
lutely satisfied the cravings of nature, probably did the 
best service in marching and fighting, and preserved 
longest their health. 

The day altogether, was productive of different emo- 
tions, from any ever experienced on any other battle 
field. The sight of the dying and wounded, who were 
lying by the thousand between the two lines, and com- 
pelled iimid their sufferings, to witness and be exposed to 
the cannonade of over 200 guns, and later in the day, 
the reckless charges, and the subsequent destruction or 
demoralization of Lees best corps — the fury, tears or savage 
irony of the commanders — the patient waiting, which 
would occasionally break out into sardonic laughter at 
the ruin of our hopes seen everywhere around us, and 
finally, the decisive moment, when the enemy seemed to 
be launching his cavalry to sweep the remaining handful 
of men from the face of the earth : These were all 
incidents which settled, and will forever remain in the 
memory We all remember Gettysburg, though we do 
not remember and do not care to remember many other 
of the remaining incidents of the war. Of this latter 
kind, were for instance, our marches a short time after- 
wards from the Potomac, the campaign on Mine Run, the 
battle of Bristow Station, (or the third Manassas, as it 
] night be more properly called.) 



194 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



But to return to the battle field, from which at a little 
distance we bivouacked that night. It is true that many 
of us shed tears at the way in which our dreams of liberty 
had ended, and then and there gave them a much more 
careful burial than most of the dead received; yet when 
we were permitted at length to lie down under the cais- 
sons, or in the fence corners, and realized that we had 
escaped the death that had snatched away so many others, 
we felt too well satisfied at our good fortune — in spite of 
the enemy still near us, not to sleep the soundest sleep it 
is permitted on earth for mortals to enjoy 

On the following day during a heavy and continuous 
rain, the army commenced its retreat to the Potomac* 

Gen. Imboden was put in the van, in charge of the 
immense amount of captured plunder, and the many 
thousand prisoners who had been taken, and our batteries 
were temporarily assigned to his command. His duty it 
need not be said, was a very arduous one, as it exposed us 
constantly to a sudden swooping down of the cavalry. 
Once they actually dashed down on us, and compelled us 

* July 4th. The army commence moving this evening from want of ammunition. 
It was hoped that the enemy might attack during the day, especially as this i« 
the 4th of July, and it was calculated that there was still ammunition for one 
day's fighting. The ordnance train had already commenced moving back 
towards Cashtown, and Bwell's immense train of plunder had been proceeding 
towards Hagerstown by the Fairfield road ever since an early hour this morning. 

July 5th, Sunday. — The night was very bad — thunder and lightning, torrents 
of rain — the road knee deep in mud and water, and often blocked up with 
wagons ''come to grief." I pitied the wretched plight of the unfortunate 
soldiers who were to follow us. Our progress was naturally very slow indeed. 
and we took eight hours to go as many miles. 

At 8 a. m. we halted a little beyond the village of Fairfield, near the entrance 
to a mountain pass. No sooner had we done so and lit a fire, than an alarm 
was spread that Yankee cavalry were upon us. Several shots flew over our 
heads, but we never could discover from whence they came. News also arrived 
of the capture of the whole of Ewell's beautiful wagons. At 6 o'clock we 
traveled on again (by the Hagerstown road). The road was full of soldiers 
marching in a particularly lively manner — the wet and mud seemed to have 
produced no effect whatever on their spirits, which were as boisterous as ever. 
The same old chaff was going on of "Come out of that hat— I know you're in 
: — 1 sees your legs a-dangling down," .tc. When we halted for the night. 
. 'drmishing was going on in front and rear — Stuart in front and Ewell in rear. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 195 



to get our pieces unlimbered. Never had the men and 
horses been so jaded, and stove up. One of our men 
who dropped at the foot of a tree in a sort of hollow, 
went to sleep, and continued sleeping until the water rose 
to his waist. It was only then that he could be 
awakened with the greatest difficulty Battery horses 
would drop down dead. So important was our movement 
that no halt for bivouac, though we marched scarcely 
two miles an hour, was made during the route from 
Gettysburg to Williamsport — a march of over 40 miles. 
The men and officers on horseback would go to sleep 
without knowing it. and at one time there was a halt 
occasioned by all of the drivers — or at least those whose 
business was to attend to it, being asleep in their saddles. 
In fact the whole of the army was dozing while marching 
and moved as if under enchantment or a spell — were 
asleep and at the same time walking. 

Over the rocky turnpike road some of us had to march 
barefooted, our shoes having been destroyed by the rough 
Macadamized road, or the heavy mud; and those were 
especially sufferers whose feet, my own among the number, 
were inconveniently larger than those of the passing 
Dutchmen whom we would meet on the road. 

Scarcely had we arrived at Williamsport, before we 
were attacked by Kirkpatrick with a body of Federal 
cavalry who had already harrassed us at Hagerstown, on 
our retreat, and captured some of our wagons. At Wil- 
liamsport, the morning alter our arrival, there was a sudden 
dash and hotly contested fight. These assailants were 
however, ultimately driven off, with the assistance of the 
wasi'oners, who now shouldered the muskets they had been 
hauling, and fought like Trojans. In this teamsters' fight, 
the enemv were driven away without doing any serious 
damage. 



196 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Lee's army a few days after reached the Potomac 
without opposition, and although his pontoons were de- 
stroyed, and the Potomac unfordable, a bridge was con- 
structed, and the army on the 13th of July, passed over 
very quietly — the bridges having been covered with bushes 
to prevent the rumbling of the wheels. Swell's corps by 
this time had managed to ford the river. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

CAPUA. 

The events that now need only be glanced at in this 
narrative, are, that large detachments were taken from the 
Federal army of the Potomac, to reinforce those of the 
West, and to assist in the North, in making the draft. 
On the other hand, the climate of Virginia, not allowing 
a very active campaign, induced Lee, following this exam- 
ple, to send Longstreet South. This general took part in 
the battle of Chickamauga, with our 5th Company of 
Washington Artillery, and his troops greatly contributed 
to the victory at that time gained. The strategical move- 
ment that followed in Virginia, resulted only in showing 
either that none of Jackson's brilliant flank movements 
could now be aimed at, or that the times and the hopes 
of the Southern people had changed, and that Lee's army 
never replenished, and always decreasing, could, hence- 
forth, hope for but little, in the way of an aggressive 
movement. Lee's subsequent defense of Richmond, 
formed the brightest part of his military reputation, but 
it differed essentially in its character, from that of the 
preceding campaigns. 

With the coming of Grant into power, it became 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 197 



obvious that some new movement to Richmond would be 
attempted, and the defence of that city and of Peters- 
burg, from attack by way of the James, became a matter 
of increasing importance. It was with a view to this, 
and to the preservation of our horses that our Batallion 
was ordered to Richmond, and subsequently to Petersburg. 
Our .campaigning, henceforth, until the following June, 
alternated from one side of the James to the other — 
from Richmond to Petersburg, and finally to the various 
forts or breastworks of that closely guarded town. Pre- 
vious to going to the Cockade City, we were detailed 
around Richmond a few days, not for the purpose of 
refreshing the men, but of resting the battery horses, 
which became appreciated with their scarcity, and whose 
2,ood condition was a matter of much more consideration 
than that of a private. In spite of this depreciation, the 
old soldiers improved what little opportunity was afforded 
them to renew their friendships, and to affect as much style 
in eating, living and dressing, as their somewhat limited 
opportunities admitted. To show how times changed 
men's conduct, I may mention an incident which hap- 
pened to an old soldier, whose courage was only exceeded 
by his vanity He cared us little for being complimented 
for the former quality, as Richelieu, or Frederick the Great 
did, for being flattered as statesmen. When it came 
however, to his dress, he was vulnerable as Achilles. 
What pleased him best of all, was to be promenading 
the streets with a neat walking cane, and to be reproached 
as a hanger-on about Richmond, who had not sufficient 
manhood to do his duty The more he was cursed by 
sentinels or mud-covered soldiers, who did not know him. 
the more he was delighted. :;: 

*A . one of the recruits who had recently joined 115 and who came to the surface 



198 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



Our camp life at Petersburg was a new revelation to 
nearly all of us. The place had not yet seen soldiering, 
and we were so many Telemaques welcomed by Calypsos. 
One of the latter, a tall fine-looking young lady of Peters- 
burg, was enthusiastic enough to take the baggage from 
the weary back of a poor soldier, and to insist upon 
carrying it upon her own ivory shoulders. It was thought 
among us for a little while that this romantic acquaintance 
would terminate in marriage ; but perhaps it was just as 
well that she married instead one of the first Federal offi- 
cers who came into the city, after its capture. 

We were very advantageously placed, upon our arrival, 
in a camp a mile east of town, and which commanded a 
very large extent of turnip producing country The 
influence this fertile region and short rations exerted on 
the principles of some of the younger and less scrupulous 
members may be guessed at from the fact that one of them 
declined joining the church, during a religious revival, on 
account of the too great temptation exerted upon his 
morality by a neighboring vegetable garden.. 

The citizens all received us with great hospitality, not 
only at this camp but when we were moved four miles 

during this short stay, put in an equally magnificent appearance, and developed 
a different sort of talent. He dressed in what was considered gorgeous raiment 
at the time, and secured a table at the best restaurant in the town. At one time 
he was upon the point of marrying a beautiful girl who heard with rapture of his 
plantation, where the flavor of pork was improved by feeding a hog on oranges; 
so much so that she was ready to agree to live forever, upon such remarkable 
breakfast bacon. But the order for the batallion came to move to Petersburg 
— and the marriage was postponed, the fascinating recruit lingering so long in 
the lap of beauty that he scarcely had time to return his borrowed suit, much 
less pay his restaurant bill. He however lingered long enough for both parties to 
discover there was some mistake not only about the orange-fed hogs, and the 
plantation, but about the character of the lady. During the march to Peters- 
burg, he consumed his time in swearing he would get even with the wags 
of the batallion who had introduced him and let him so badly in, if it was the 
last military act of his life; and his excitement and the condition of the roads 
may be judged of when it is stated that, by actual count of time, he and two or 
three similar characters, shook the Richmond dust off their feet at the rate of 
in miles, for four hours marching. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 199 



further away — that is received those who had horses and 
could come frequently to town. Ultimately we were 
encamped at ''Model Farm," though it might have been 
the model of almost anything else, at the time we occu- 
pied it. 

Our life here in these winter quarters, barring short 
commons, was the pleasantest experience we had yet had 
of soldiering. Petersbui'g was large enough to admit of 
every variety of society, embracing, as Pierre Soule once 
declared, some of the most beautiful ladies he had ever 
seen anywhere. Richmond too was but a little ways off, 
and there was an excellent public library. Lastly, the ama- 
teur performers gave an entertainment — "Pocahontas" 
and "Toodles" in the theatre of the town, which drew a 
packed house, ladies not only from Petersburg, but Rich- 
mond ; and such was the preternatural splendor of the 
occasion, that one of the ushers refulged through the 
evening in a pair of $150 white kid gloves. 

What great places of resort were the two hotels and one 
or two coffee houses, the bridge and river bank; and 
towards the last, some of the noble residences richly fur- 
nished, which a few of us from time to time were permitted 
to roam through and enjoy — not in any wise to molest or 
disturb ; simply by staring very hard at the carved oak, 
carpet and curtains, to bring to our minds that we had 
once led some other life, than the one under canvass or in 
bunks. 

The winter months passed away, with some disagreeable 
work in the shape of guard mounting and wood cutting, 
and in the labor of getting the latter to the camp habita- 
tions. The men did not much like the idea of carrying 
great logs over steep or rugged ground on their shoulders, 
and besides were thinking of the pleasant times they might 
25 



200 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



have had in elegant society in Petersburg. Disagreeable 
contrasts were naturally enough instituted between the 
bruised muscles and blistered hands of one existence, and 
the refined drawing rooms, abounding with gay company, 
music and dancing on the other. We had become such 
sybarites before the winter passed, not only with our own 
batallion, but with Pickett's Division, and a few other old 
veterans who were thus afforded a month or so of rest, 
that what with church going, visiting or reading by the 
pleasant fires of winter-quarters, we began to imagine, 
(after one or two little interruptions towards North Caro- 
lina and Lynchburg) that our Capua would last forever. 
It was true that the rations from week to week became 
scarcer, and that anything like hospitality became from 
day to day of more difficult occurrence. 

One day there was what might be called, for the times, 
a grand carousal, a sort of one-horse Belshazzar's display, 
made up mostly of brilliant officers from the army, and 
at which the display of demijohns was as great as in 
the Irish hospitality described by Lever, A distinguished 
hospital surgeon from Georgia, was the worst victim ; so 
much so, that he was stretched upon the table, the cloth 
thrown over his motionless body, and the burial service 
read and chanted over him with great emphasis and cere- 
mony We had not seen enough of that sort of thing in 
reality, and had to do some of it as a joke, by way of 
refreshing our recollection. Besides, we were half inclined, 
on general principles, to send the doctor to keep company 
with a good many of his patients. However, nothing in 
the wav of reminders was needed long. Couriers, as the 
spring advanced, began to arrive in camp, and the men 
were put through, though not without loud growling and 
swearing, a regular course of inspection and drill. 



A Soldiers Story of the War. 201 



Suddenly, at all sorts of hours, we began to be called 
upon to " hitch up" to cross the Appomattox or the James. 
We could hear, too, the faint booming of the guns of Lee's 
and Grants armies, who were now starting up from their 
winter-quarters north of Richmond, and swinging around 
towards Petersburg — smiting and rending each other as 
they marched, and making ready for the final death grap- 
ple which was to be completed during the following year. 

With the first guns that were fired about Petersburg, 
the brilliant society which had hitherto remained about 
that city commenced to melt away. But it was not until 
the small trenches had become great mounds and had 
been lengthened into miles of fortifications — and until the 
shot from the enemy's guns began not only to deafen the 
population by their roar but to penetrate their houses, 
that the streets became altogether deserted by their former 
,i»-ay frequenters. The spurs of brilliant horsemen ceased 
to echo so frequently through fashionable church aisles; 
and about the only resort for which soldiers showed much 
predilection, was one of the old finely furnished saloons. 
The traditional coffee-house pictures, with their voluptuous 
and impossible beauties still hung on the walls; the glasses 
and bottles still glittered; and it is pleasant to reflect that 
during all of those long months of bombardment one man 
still remained behind the counter with neat cuffs and hair 
parted in the middle, ready to administer to the wants of 
his thirsty fellow-man. 

Nevertheless, the supply of stimulants was at a low 
ebb ; and it was only in the days when there did not seem 
to be a hundred people in the streets, or under circum- 
stances of the most mysterious secrecy, that one could 
penetrate into the spirituous twilight of the inner side, 
and only one or two at a time. It was like waiting at 



202 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



the pool for the troubling of the waters ; and once the 
visitor had paid his two or three dollars, and swallowed the 
moderate amount of Nepenthe allowed him, a door in the 
rear opened and he was expected to foot it back or gallop 
back to camp forthwith. It might perhaps be thought that 
the necessity of passing over a field a mile wide, in which 
shells and bombs were constantly exploding, would have 
some influence in keeping the men from having such 
longings. Such however was not the case. 

One of the most singular features about Petersburg, as 
month after month passed on, and the anaconda-folds of 
Grant's army hugged closer and closer the doomed city, 
was the way in which the hill-side embankments would 
be honeycombed into human dens and places of shelter 
and refuge. In one place it was like a glimpse of Petrea, 
with the houses excavated in rock ; in another the ground 
would be cut up with such a maze of alleys and streets of 
trench work, that as you went through them, crouching 
down and with bent shoulders, you could never tell at 
what end you would come out of this Daedalus labyrinth. 
What made the matter more difficult, was that a regiment 
of soldiers, with fireplaces and cooking utensils, would be 
sometimes encamped inside of these narrow avenues, 
whose heads, if they ever stood erect, were certain marks 
for the Federal sharpshooters. Stumbling or falling over 
men who were wasting away under a siege that was kept 
up more than a year, all of the finer and nobler traits of 
the old soldiers seemed to disappear, and their thoughts 
to be only occupied by their ever present misery and 
wretchedness. But the roll of the drum, or the order 
" Fall in men," would waken them, and as General Long- 
street recently told me in conversation, he believed they 
steadily improved in soldiering to the end of the war. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 203 



CHAPTER XXX. 

THE LAST TEAK. 

But notwithstanding the spirit of the men, it would 
have seemed, at first blush, after the decisive battle of 
Gettysburg, the loss of Vicksburg, with the South doomed 
to certain starvation, in a fixed time, and opposed by a 
pertinacious general having absolute power over 1,200,000 
troops, that the leaders of the South would have sought 
to hedge in or compromise, and preserve to the land some 
little vestige of property. Considering that the loss of the 
game was now absolutely certain in a given number of 
moves, the question was whether it was worth while to play 
it out and submit to the brutality of a checkmate; or to get 
at once the best terms the situation admitted. It is very 
probable that the latter was what Gen. Lee thought about 
the matter, and it is certain from his statements to Gen. 
Gordon, that he had ceased to see any hope, some time 
before retreating from Petersburg. 

But another year of hard fighting was to be gone 
through with, and Lee will now have to keep Grant's 
main army from Richmond by the overland route, and at 
the same time defend that city on the South from an 
approach of Butler in that direction with 30,000 men. 

The struggle between Lee and Grant opened with the 
battle of the Wilderness, which was fought on nearly the 
same ground as that of Chancellorville. In this, Lee 
attempted to shut up the Federal army, consisting of 
100,000 men, in the forest well described by its name, 
where movement was as difficult as in a cane brake. Lee 
succeeded to the extent of putting 30,000 of the enemy 
hor-s do comhat. 

It was here, where the enemy, by the suddenness of his 



204 A Soldier's Story of the War. 

attack, had broken the line of Hill, that Gen. Lee tempo- 
rarily closed up the breach by leading on the Texas 
Brigade in person, riding himself in front of the lines. It 
was not until the men dragged his horse back by the 
bridle, and until the brigade shouted that they would do 
the fighting if he would stay in the rear, that Lee con- 
sented to remain behind. The brigade was cut to pieces, 
but Longstreet now had time to get up, and the line was 
saved. The movements of both armies were thoroughly 
aggressive, and as the ground admitted of no manoeuvering, 
Grant's orders were substantially to fight it out as if in a 
promiscuous row, to strike at everything going. The log 
breastworks in front of Hancock caught fire, and the fight 
had to be continued through smoke and flame, the crippled 
and wounded being many of them burnt to death or suffo- 
cated before they could escape. The fight lasted two days 
and Lee's loss was 8,000. 

Grant's second encounter (May 12th, Spottsylvania) was 
still less fortunate for the Federal Commander. Its gen- 
eral character was the same, in the nature of the ground, 
as that of the Wilderness. Here too the woods caught 
fire, and the direction of advance through the forest 
could only be told by compass. One line of Lee's works 
having been taken, was in turn re-assaulted by him in 
five terrific charges. Confederate bodies bayoneted in 
these assaults, lay piled upon each other, so Federal 
accounts say, and the woods were black with corpses. 
The fight at Spottsylvania was of twelve days' duration, 
at the end of which time. Grant who had now lost 40,000 
men, gave it up in despair, of here making an impression on 
Lee, and commenced flanking towards Richmond. 

After thirty clays' marching, flanking, racing and fight- 
ing, Grant's army attempted to drive Lee back, June 3d, 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 205 



from the Chickahominy His plan was simply an attack 
along the whole line. His troops having lost 15,000 men 
in a short time at this battle, and his men remembering 
that thej' had now lost 60,000 by this free-fight system 
of tactics, stood still in ranks when ordered to advance. 
Grant's loss in this campaign was greater than what the 
whole force of Lee amounted to. Still Lee lost 18,000 
men, and there was no way of filling up his ranks. 

Our victories, brilliant as they were, did not deceive 
old soldiers. They were sometimes compared to the 
winnings of a poker player, who, in those days, was heard 
growling at his luck, because, after winning $3,000 in 
Confederate money, he lost twenty-five cents in silver. 

On the night of the 12th of June, the movement to 
the Southern side of the James was begun. 

Having said this much by way of general explanation, 
I shall here introduce the concise record of Lieut. Col. 
Miller Owen, (whose former place was supplied by Adju- 
tant E. J Kursheedt,) of the military movements made by 
the Washington Artillery, for the following year : 

Bittnl/ion Journal: April 15. The commaud has had no service since August 
last, and things have gotten a little loose and rusty. Winter quarters near such 
a pleasant place as Petersburg, has demoralized the boys a little. They are now., 
well clad in gray jackets and pants, and every one has at least one sweet-heart 
among the pretty girls of the city. Trust a W. A. for that. 

Horses and harness in miserable order ; drills and inspections have been 
neglected all winter. Too much leisure in camp will spoil the discipline of the 
best soldiers. The men are not disposed to have what they consider needlessly, 
their liberty restricted, but are all anxious to join Gen. Lee at Gordonsville — 
Lieut. Col. Eshleman in command, in place of Col. J. B. Walton, resigned. 

April 16. In camp at Model Farm, drilling commenced, bugle and roll call 
resumed. Tall swearing among the men who regard all this as an outrage. 

21. In Richmond. Hotel board $50 a day. A month's pay can be eaten up 
in three days. 

23. Mr. Davis will not let us go to Gordonsville, but suggests that we be 
placed in the works around Richmond. 

2"). Drilling and putting everything in order. 

Mav 4. Looking for the Yankees to begin operations every day. 

5. Action at last. Ordered by Gen. Pickett to move our guns to City Point 
road. All the horses in the city are pressed and sent to us to be converted into 



206 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



batterv horses ; buggy horses, express horses, in fact trotters and all are made to 
do service.* 

30. Transport full of Federals and five Monitors are reported at Bermudas 
Hundreds. Butler in command ; we can look for hot work now. After much 
trouble with our new horses, we go into position north of the Appomattox, as 
follows : 

3rd Company, in Battery No. 2, City Point Road. 

2nd Company, in Battery No. 5, City Point Road. 

1st Company, in Battery No. 8, City Point Road. 

The Fourth Company under Norcom and Behan were placed with the 2nd. 

May 6. Enemy reported coming up the City Point Road. 1st Company ordered 
back to Petersburg with his four guns. 

5 p. m. Firing heard North of the Appomattox river. Enemy have landed on 
the south bank of the James, pushed out to Walthal Junction on the Richmond 
Railroad, and have been attacked and repulsed. Six guns placed opposite them 
in position on the Prince George road and Lieut. McElroy in command. 

The enemy is in great force, and we have nothing to support our guns except 
the militia from the town of Petersburg, and a portion of the 31st Regiment, 
North Carolina troops. 

The militia are jolly cases and have plenty to eat and drink ; they seem to 
look upon the whole thing as a good joke. 

May 7. All quiet along the lines this morning. Grant is reported fighting- 
Gen. Lee somewhere near the Rappahannock. We are going to have it now 
"hot and heavy." Placed at 12 m. two guns under Lieut. Britton, on the Baxter 
road ; two under Richardson on Jerusalem road. 1 p. m. two Companies Militia 
sent to Batteries 9, 10, 11. N. C. troops to Baxter andJerusalem roads. 

May 8, 2 a. m. Two guns in battery 16, under Lieut. Britton, removed to bat- 
tery 40. 5 p. m. Go on reconnoissance towards Broadway. No signs of the 
enemy. 

Monday, May 9, 2 a. m. One section under Captain Hero of the 3rd Com- 
pany, is ordered to report to Capt. Sturtevant, to attack gunboats on the 
Appomattox River. 1 p. m. heavy firing in the direction of Fort Clifton. 

Col. Jones placed in command of the Washington Artillery and Reid's Ba- 
tallion, by order Gen. Beauregard. 

May 10. Gen. Beauregard arrives at Petersburg from battle Drury's Bluff. 

May 14, 2 a. m. Our whole force falls back to second line of works. 

Gen. Beauregard, with Colquitt's Brigade and Macon Battery, arrives from 
Petersburg. Heavy skirmishing all day along the lines, 4 cannoniers killed, 4 
wounded. 

May 14. President Davis rides down from Richmond this afternoon and visits 
Beauregard. 

May 15. Skirmishing all day along the lines. The enemy have occupied our 
outer abandoned works, and keep our lines completely swept with sharp- 
shooting. Assault made on 4th Company's position repulsed. 

May 16, 5 a. m. Artillery opens all along our lines. At 5:45 a. m. our 
infantry advance over our works and fall upon the enemy all along the line. 

May 16. The 1st Company, Capt. E. Owen, sent down the turnpike in rear 
of B. Johnson's Brigade, and engage the enemy's batteries in thr road. Enemy 
badly whipped. j- 

1 p. m. With horses belonging to 1st Company Washington Artillery, 1 
brought in the battery captured by Haygood's S. C. Brigade in the Turnpike, and 
presented by Gen. Haygood to Capt. Owen, three 20-pounder Parrotts, two 

: An ingenious lady of Petersburg who could not make up her mind to part with a fine pair of 
carriage horses had tliem liiil in her dining room or parlor until the danger had pissed. It was the 
first time probably since Nero — if then, that horses have been accommodated with Brussels carpets. 

tThe fi^ht here referred to was one of the hottest engagements of the war — the gunsbein^ sepa- 
rated by a very small interval, and the battery horses of the enemy killed in heaps. 



Soldier's Story of the War. 207 



12-pounder Xapoleons. General Beauregard commanded in person. 1600 pris- 
oners taken. 

Enemy retreat to Bermuda Hundreds, leaving their dead and wounded on the 
field, baggage wagons and arms. President Davis visits the field. 

[Losses at Drury's Bluff, on the I3tb. 14th and 15th of May : 1st Company, 
Killed — H. Peychaud, Geo. Chambers, T. G. Simmons. Wounded — Capt. B 
Owen, slightly ; Lieut. J. M. Galbrai-th, mortally; Coiporal S. Turner, Ed. Pey- 
chaud, J. J. Norment, C. Rossiter, T. J. Wilson, Jos. Myers, Captured— Sergt. 
P. 0. Fazende.* 2d Company, Wounded — M. J. Lapham, Geo. Gessner, J. N". 
Greenman. 3d Company, Killed — H. Madden. Wounded — G. Guillotte, A. Guil- 
lotte. A. Leefe, Jas. Crilly. 4th Company, Killed — R. G. McDonald, John 
Faulkes, E. A. Mallard, Ed. Condon. Wounded, Sergt. John B. Valentine, J. S. 
Hood, A. Xorcomb, Wm. Martin. — Total loss, 30. The above is the official 
report of Adjt. C. J. Kursheedt.] 

May 17, 8:30 a. m. Pursuit begins. We march towards Petersburg. Counted 
twenty-five dead horses in front of position occupied yesterday by the 1st 
Company Washington Artillery. Bivouacked eight miles from Petersburg; 
AVise and Martin's Brigade? join us to-day, commanded by D. H. Hill. 

May 18. Heavy skirmishing in front. 

May 19. Ordered to construct works, put guns in position, and shell out 
enemy's skirmish line. 

May 20. Assault made on enemy's line to-day. First line of fortification 
carried. 

May 21. The 2d, 3d and 4th Companies relieved from duty on the lines, and 
sent back to the rear. 

May 2:!, 10:30 a. m. Monitors shelling again. 

May 22, 5 p. m. Flag of truce to bring in the dead lying between the lines. 

28. Return to Petersburg. 

June 2. Reported that Grant was repulsed yesterday by Gen. Lee. 

1:15 p. m. Whole command ordered to Richmond by Secretary of War to 
report to Gen. Ransom. 

3. Ordered to Bottom's Bridge, Chickahominy. 

4. Third anniversary of our arrival in Virginia. All quiet on the lines. 

15. We apply to Mr. Davis to go over to Petersburg. 

16. Firing in the direction of Petersburg. Reported that the enemy carried 
the outer line of works last night. 

*The latter made his escape from a northern train, while in rapid motion. 

At that time in June, Gen. Wise was in command at 
Petersburg — 2200 troops. Bushrod Johnson was guarding 
Bermuda Hundreds' line from Howletts* on the James to 
the distance of four miles. The Petersburg line was then 
seven miles long. 

On the 10th of June, Gen. Baldy Smith attacked 
Petersburg from the south, and meeting but slight resist- 
ance would certainly have taken it, but for his lack of 
enterprise and loss of time. The attack was renewed the 
next day — 40,000 troops against 11,000, the latter com- 
manded by Gen. Beauregard. Petersburg could still have 
2<; 



208 A Soldier's Story of the War, 



been taken, if Smith had divided his troops and attacked 
on the unguarded Confederate right. The Federals now 
brought up a third corps and broke like an avalanche 
through Johnson's lines, which had been placed on the 
Confederate left. He was here met by Gen. Grade's Bri- 
gade who, by Beauregard's order, had left the Bermuda 
Hundreds line abandoned. It was while Grade's Brigade 
was forming about sundown, that they found the Federals 
sweeping down upon them, and Beauregard "now thought" 
according to his own statement "that the last hour of the 
Confederacy had arrived." But the orders of Grade "for- 
ward" and " charge," were never given to a braver set of 
men. They routed everything before them, and captured 
twice their own number of prisoners, which was 2300. The 
battle raged furiously until 12 o'clock at night, and mean- 
while the road to Richmond at Bermuda Hundreds was 
left unguarded. At that hour the three Federal corps, 
according to captured dispatches, were hors die combat. 
Beauregard had previously seized the opportunity to mark 
out a new line, 500 yards to the rear, with white stakes so 
that the brigades could find it, and this became the cele- 
brated line of fortifications which were defended to the 
end of the war. " The enemy in this days' fight," says 
Gen. Beauregard, "lost 13,000 men, or more than I had 
in my whole force." 

A fourth corps under Warren had arrived, when Gen. 
Lee started his whole army forward. Kershaw's Division 
coming up first, such a warm reception was given to the 
Federals, that they commence forthwith the siege of 
Petersburg. 

Beauregard then wanted to push Grant into a corner 
of the Appomattox and James; but Lee after almost con- 
senting to this plan, decided to let Grant wear himself out 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 209 



by a costly series of attacks. Grant's previous experience 
however prevented him from doing anything of the sort. 
His quickest method would have been to have continued 
his wheel around Richmond, destroying the railroads, by 
which, with the utmost difficulty, Lee's army obtained its 
supplies. But Grant who had not forgotten Lee's strategy, 
decided on the wearing out and attrition process, 
involving the construction of regular breastworks and 
forts, and a steady firing and bombardment which lasted 
a year.* 

A chance, which was lost at this time to the Con- 
federate arms, was the neglect of Early, who made a 
diversion into Maryland, to capture Washington. "Early 
had then," says Swinton " an opportunity to dash into the 
city, the works being very slightly defended. The hope 
at headquarters, that the capital could be saved from 
capture, were very slender. But his conduct was feeble. 
Lee founded his hopes on the menace he supposed this 
move to Washington would have." In spite of the 
opportune arrival of the 19th Corps at Washington, it 
required all of Grant's moral firmness to withstand the 
severe pressure brought upon him to remove his army to 
Washington. 



June 17. Nine Federals came into camp this morning — all German, French 
and Irish. 

18. Ordered to South side of the James. Reach Petersburg on 19th, and 
put in position in the works at batteries, 34 to 38, on the 20th. 

2o. 10 p. m. Enemy shelling the city; several women reported killed. Many 
buildings struck. No notice was given of the shelling of the city. 

27. Rain. Enemy continues shelling the city. 

June 28, to July 3. Sharp-shooting and shelling has been going on. Women 
and children nearly all left. Hospitals have been removed. Our horses have 
not had a feed of corn this week. 

July 4. Enemy in our front display all their flags along the lines, shelling the 
city at intervals. 

July 9. Morgan Harris, 1st Company, mortally wounded. 

* Letter of Gen. Beauregard to Gen. C. M. Wilcox. 



210 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



21. Kremelburg, 3d Company, killed last night while sleeping in the works.* 

30, 5 a. m. Mine sprung on the line, blowing up Pegram Battery, four guns, 
twenty men and eighteen of the S. C. Regiment. Enemy makes an assault and 
occupies our line. We took ten stands of colors and many prisoners, black and 
white. Whitcomb and Maines, 1st Company, and 0. J. Toledano, 3d Company, 
killed.f 

[The casualties along the line to the close of 1864, were: 1st Company, 
Killed — M. E. Harris, H. Whitcomb and W. Maines. 2nd Company — Wm Almin- 
dinger. 3d Company — Sergt. Kremelburg, 0. Toledano. Woun3ed — Corporal 
Grimmer, D. Kobleur 4th Company — Died. P. Mooney. 

Murville, the twin-brother of Lecestiere Labarre, (both of the 3rd.) died 
about this time. He was a good soldier, and his mental attainments made him 
charming company in spite of a slight impediment in his speech. Another 
young soldier greatly regretted, and of more than ordinary promise, was Henry 
Peychaud.] 

August 1st. Gen. Lee allows Gen. Grant an armistice of three hours to bury 
his dead, lying between the two armies. 

Estimated loss of the enemy 4000 ; walked over to the Crater, and met the flag 
of truce. The Federal officers bring out plenty of good wine and brandy, luxu- 
ries unknown to us poor Confederates in the trench. Negro prisoners bury the 
dead in the trench between the lines. 

Flag withdrawn and all retire to respective posts, and bang away again. 

August 3. W M. Owen, was shot in the face by sharpshooters, while directing 
the charging of a gun. 

Oct. 12. One-half our artillery drivers are armed with muskets, to put on duty 
at Fort Gregg. Our supernumeraries will help in the same way, defend the lines 
if attacked. 

Oct. 27. Fighting on our right; heavy fighting all day. At dark, a regiment 
of Federals, that our men on the lines took for our relief picket, entered — a 
bold move — the line at our left gun, nearest the Crater, and for a time created 
some little excitement. They were soon driven out. 

Oct. 28. The attack yesterday by the enemy was evidently intended as a 
coup de main to gain the Southside railroad and the Appomattox river. Northern 
newspaper correspondents say the troops carried six days' rations and plenty 
of ammunition. It proved a failure; so Grant of course calls it a " Reconnois- 
sance" ; dead and wounded Federals left on the field. 

March 29, 1865, 10 p. m. Heavy firing in front of Petersburg. Our lines are 
very weak, having a front of forty miles to cover ; our men in the trenches. 

*Kremelburg was one of the most honorable men and best soldiers we had. A short time before 
lying down for the last time, he had borrowed a spade from an infantryman. Without knowing of 
this circumstance, the same spade was taken to dig K.'s grave, and never afterwards came to hand. 
When the thick-headed owner came to inquire tor it, we never could, after two hours explanation, 
get it into his head that our dead comrade could have borrowed a spade for shoveling out his own 
grave, or why he or his ghost, after showing so much foresight in borrowing, could not have been 
equally thoughtful about returning. 

fOswald Toledano, was a mere stripling when he with his father, old Ben Toledano, joined the 
batailion — very amiable and faithful to his duties, as a messmate and soldier. On the morning of 
the crater explosion, the heat had been so great in the trenches, that some of the men though 
exposed to an enfilading fire, went back to get under shade. I was sitting down under a tent shelter 
when a shell tore through it, killing T. who was standing, almost instantaneously. He had but time 
to make the sign of the cross and utter a half finished word of a prayer, before falling lifeless into 
my arms. He was much attached to a lady of this city, of whom he was never tired of speaking, 
and whose ring he wore upon his finger. After his death, faithful to his memory, she ontered a 
religious order and died a few months after, in the performance of her new duties. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 211 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

THE GAME ENDED. 

The buoyant, hopeful tone of the army has now dis- 
appeared. Short rations and the conscript law have done 
their worst; most of the old leaders are dead, and no 
one could discover in Le*e's old veterans, more than the 
smouldering embers of their former fire.* 

The 2nd of April, 1865, virtually ended the Confederate 
war, though the surrender of Lee was not made until 
eight days after. 

The concluding battle had been brought on near Peters- 
burg, by a desperate and last effort on the part of Gen. 
Lee to assume the offensive. The movement was en- 
trusted at the time to Gen. Gordon, and was spoken of by 
both leaders as almost hopeless, and the last that could in 
any case be made without extraordinary success. It was 
probably a reconnoissance, or intended to open the road 
to North Carolina for a retreat, by causing Grant to with- 
draw from Lee's right flank.f 

*Gen. Longstreet says, the men improved in fighting qualities to the end of 
the war. My own observation was, that they were pretty well starved and 
fought out. The high strung young men who went out with picked companies, 
went into the fight with just as much determination to acquit themselves with 
credit, and do themselves justice, as in their maiden fight. 

f The account of Lee's last attack at Petersburg has been given so variously, 
that I cannot do better here than to record what Gen. Gordon once told me of 
an interview which passed between himself and Gen. Lee, some time pre- 
ceding the attack. 

Gordon having been sent for, was asked, when he reached Lee's quarters, what 
he thought of the chances for the Confederate cause. He told Gen. Lee frankly, 
that he could, see no chance at all. Lee admitted that he was equally hopeless. 
Gordon then inquired why, if he held these convictions, he did not urge them 
upon Mr. Davis. Gen. Lee replied that he was then about to visit Richmond, 
and left the impression that Mr. Davis would be made to understand what were 
the convictions of the army. When Gen. Lee returned, Gen. Gordon in his next 
interview, inquired if he had told Mr. Davis, of the true condition of affairs. 
Gen. Lee said no, and in further conversation, gave as an excuse — " You know 
what sort of man Mr. Davis is " — referring doubtless to the well known impossi- 
bility of shaking Mr. Davis in any of his convictions. Gen. Lee then inquired 
if he could see no loop-hole where an advantage could be gained, or a blow 



212 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



The move was attempted by a midnight attack with 
two divisions, who succeeded in capturing the abattis of 
the enemy, for the distance of a quarter of a mile with- 
out loss. This opportunity was not improved, either on 
account of the darkness and the difficulty, from the disap- 
pearance of scouts, the Confederates had of discovering 
their way, or from natural weakness. While the latter 
were hugging the captured picket line in disorder, the 
artillery in the forts to the right and left opened on them, 
fresh troops were brought up, and the storming party 
were compelled to take refuge under the breastworks they 
had captured. 

The decisive battle which followed two days after, was 
preluded with firing of cannon on the extreme right and 
left, and by the buzz and hum of arriving reinforcements, 
and a great addition to their drum corps and trumpeters. 
Every available man from the Confederate left and centre 
was hurried to the right, leaving only artillerymen in the 
trenches and pickets in front. The firing grew hotter — 
the water batteries on the left boomed incessantly, and 
the earth shook under the jar of the sound. This 
booming signified that Grant had opened his formal 
attack, March 27th, on our lines, and it caused Lee to 
send large bodies of troops to the aid of Gens. Pickett 
and Johnston. The old spirit of the men flamed up, and 
Lee now dealt Grant's Brigades, in their advanced positions 
on his left, a staggering blow, and at one moment there 
was " a great fear of another Chancellorville disaster in 
the Federal lines." :|: 

dealt. Gordon was more than ever convinced that any advantage gained would 
be only momentary, but at last entered into the spirit of leading the assault on 
the enemy's net work of entrenchments on the 29th. 

The object of this was doubtless, if it had succeeded, to cause Grant to 
leave a road open for Lee to concentrate with Johnson, in North Carolina. 

*CJroelev. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 213 



In the next, Lee was repulsed, and Sheridan* who had 
coveted Five Forks, and several times been repelled in try- 
ing to seize it, made the most of his opportunity Pickett 
and Johnston were now overwhelmed by double their 
force, losing heavily in killed, wounded and prisoners, 
when their flank was turned. 

The night which followed was made lurid with death- 
dealing missiles, and the earth shook under the jar. The 
next day (April 2d) decided the fate of Richmond and 
the Confederacy At 3:30 o'clock in the morning, the 
firing commenced from one end of the line to the other. 
Then ensued desperate charges from Grant's line. The 
attacking force here, Parkes' Dth Corps, succeeded in 
taking a portion of the breast-works to the right of the 
Crater; a capture which was really of no advantage as 
our men could retreat into a line of breastworks a few 
yards beyond, and an individual warfare was kept up 
until dark.f 

* Sheridan s presence at the time on Lee's right flank was one of the curious 
accidents of the war. In a fight in the Valley the Federal troops had been dis- 
persed by Early with a greatly inferior force with the exception of one corps ; 
just as Early began to lose ground and in turn be hard pressed, Sheridan arrived 
on the field by making the famous ride of which so much has been heard, and 
was just in time to receive the credit of Early's defeat. He continued a riding 
expedition towards Lynchburg which did not succeed, and having nothing else 
that he could well do, he came in by the only route open to him which was on 
Grant's left : the second time arriving just at the lucky moment which makes 
reputations. 

|The following is the narrative of the occurrences of April 2nd by a member 
of the Batallion : I was in bed about 9 o'clock when I heard the order given to 
the infantry to sleep on their arms, as there might be a fight at any moment. 
I became so much impressed by this, that I immediately folded up my blanket, 
and made preparations for what I regarded as certain, the evacuation of Peters- 
burg. I had scarcely done so, when a shot burst through my house, and the 
cry of 1: To arms — get to your pieces" was heard. The firing lasted from about 
midnight until next morning, our cannoniers replying. 

About day-break we began to see the enemy and their flag, the latter on our 
front and flanks waving unsteadily, as if the color sergeant found difficulty in 
advancing or getting into lines of breastworks. All the time the firing continued. 
By this time we had two pieces disabled in the third company, Lieut. Stocker 
was knocked senseless, and shortly after Capt. Hero had been shot from the top 
of the breastworks by a ball in his leg. A piece was now taken from the 
embrasure and fired at the enemy who had already penetrated our line, or were 



214 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



The Federal Army in advancing upon Petersburg found 
our artillery corps in the various places that had been 
assigned them, doing their duty probably a little more 
steadily, from the force of habit, in their last field fight, 
than ever before, repelling charges — arming their spare 
men with muskets, and each man working with the same 
pride and conviction as when first mustered in. But the 
time had now come for us to abandon the underground 
bomb-proofs that had been built ; or the tents and huts 
which would every night be filled with a new supply of 
bullets. 

The Federal right, as already stated, had struck the 
Confederate line on the western side of Petersburg. 
Meanwhile, the next corps (Wright's 6th,) swept, after a 
hard struggle, the scanty brigades before them, turning to 
the right, and then with Ord's Corps, who had also pene- 
trated, swung to the left nearly up to Fort Gregg, a half 
a mile in front of the main line of Petersburg entrench- 
ments. The small force towards Hatch's Run had been 
driven back and into the Appomattox. Besides the 
Federal Corps already mentioned, Humphrey entered 
still further to the Confederate right. There is some 
severe fighting in front until 2 o'clock p. m., at which time 

coming over the breastworks We had now become reduced to only two rounds 
of ammunition, and as the enemy were within fifty yards of us, our case seemed 
hopeless. Just then a fresh supply of ammunition arrived, which lasted until 
dark, at which time the firing gradually ceased. About that time, the order 
was given to leave the breastworks with as much secrecy as possible — which 
was done. The bodies of our dead, Coyle, and some others whose names are 
not now remembered, were placed upon the caissons, and as we passed through 
Petersburg interred in the Cemetery. The last rations I ever drew were cooked 
while the firing was going on, the latter being so long and continuous that the 
men would take turns, except when hotly pushed, and relieve each other at the 
guns. If anything else was given to us to eat until the surrender, I do not 
now remember it. A handful of corn, or a scrap of almost anything to eat that 
we found by the way was all I saw. The sheet-iron crackers that we found on 
the Yankee dead at Gettysburg, and which some of us then disdained to eat, I 
thought of with envy now, the more so, as, during the time when we were in the 
trenches, rations were so scarce that many of the men made themselves sick by 
swallowing tobacco, in order to experience nausea or indifference to food. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 215 



the enemy are seen to be advancing upon Fort Gregg and 
AVhitworth. There will now be no further opposition to 
their forward move than can be made by a very small 
body of men in these two fortifications. 



CHAPTER XXXII 

WHAT TWO HUNDRED MEN CAN DO. 

A dramatic interest attached to the defence of the forts, 
aside from the fact that here was to be the last stand for 
Petersburg. This was because of the necessity of here 
detaining the enemy, who were advancing, wave after wave 
around the works, until Lomi'street could get across the 
James; secondly, the attack on Gregg was followed by a 
lull along other portions of the line, and the men rested 
upon their weapons to witness, as at a spectacle of great 
national interest, the struggle of Seccssia, and the last angry 
glare of her guns on a formal field of battle. The number 
of men on the two sides. 214- in Fort Gregg, about the same 
in Whit worth, and -juitl) advancing against them, illustra- 
ted the comparative strength of the combatants. Fort 
Gregg was the Confederate LaTourgue. When it falls all 
of the old traditions and usages of the South fall with it; 
when the Federal standards wave over it, there is then to 
be centralization, negro government, and four times the 
ruin inflicted on the South, as was put by Germany on 
France. 

The two forts stand 250 yards in the rear of the 
captured line, and were built for precisely such an 
occasion as is suggested by the cheers of the advancing 
1'iiemv, namely, for use as an inner defence when disaster 
■diould overtake the Confederate line. Fronting Grea'ir. is 



216 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



a little fort, the last built by Lee, and called by the men 
Fort "Owen," after the Lieut. Col. of that name from the 
Washington Artillery, who was assigned to the command 
of Fort Gregg, and the surrounding works. Lieut. Battles 
of the W A. is in "Owen" with two guns, and Lieut. 
McElroy of the same batallion has charge of a company 
of 62 artillerymen who have been doing duty here most of 
the winter. 

The night had been strangely quiet upon this portion 
of the lines, but towards daybreak the silence gave place 
to a little touch of skirmishing to the right of Gregg — 
sufficient to cause the ordering of the infantry and artil- 
lerymen into Fort Owen, although it was then so dark, 
that scarcely anything could be seen. Our infantry there 
could be barely detected moving in the trenches, towards 
what seemed to be the picket firing. As the men peered 
into the darkness in the direction of the flashes, solid shots 
commenced to plough up the earth — the infantry began 
quitting the trenches and taking to the fields, leaving the 
cannoniers under the impression that the troops were 
chasing small game of some sort. 

Lieut. Col. Owen, in his report says he gave orders to 
withdraw to Fort Gregg, and hurried off to rally fugitives 
— a no easy matter — who had already been dispersed by 
the Federal attack. McElroy reached the latter with his 
men, but Battles not receiving his horses in time, found 
himself suddenly surrounded, and his command captured 
by the enemy McElroy immediately opened fire from 
Fort Gregg with his artillery-infantry, drove them away, 
and then turning his infantry once more back to artillery, 
ran down into Fort Owen and opened fire with the 
recaptured pieces on the enemy, two hundred yards to his 
right. Horses having been procured, the pieces by order 



A Soldier's Story of the War, 217 



were moved forward a mile, where the guns fired thirty- 
five rounds each, and were then retired to Fort Gregg. 
Lieut. McElroy says, in his report, there were two hun- 
dred men in the Fort, who were, with the exception of 
his command, of Harris' Miss. Brigade, 'and that his loss 
was six killed, two wounded and thirty-two prisoners. 
Col. Owen proceeds to say : 

At the time McElroy was put in position in " Gregg" some guns were placed in 
Fort Whitworth, a detached work like "Gregg" and to its right and rear. 

Major Gen. Wilcox, who was then in Gregg, seeing Harris' Brigade in what 
he thought a dangerous position in front, sent his Aid to the General to recall 
his men to the two forts, Harris himself going into Whitworth, and Lieut. Col. 
Jas. H. Duncan, of the 19th Mississippi, into Gregg. 

As the enemy advanced, McElroy was cautioned to have his ammunition as 
handy as possible upon the platform for quick work. Under orders, Oapt. Walker 
hurriedly withdrew the guns from Fort Whitworth. 

The enemy, a full corps of at least 5000 men, advanced in three lines of battle. 
Three times the little garrison repulsed them. The Fort seemed fringed with 
fire from the rifles of the Mississippians. 

The cannoniers bravely and skilfully used their guns. The enemy fell on 
the clear field around the Fort by scores. 

The capture of the work was but a question of time. The blue coats finally 
jumped into the ditch surrounding the Fort, and presently climbed over eaoh 
others backs to gain the summit of the Parapets. There was a weak point on 
the side of Gregg, where the ditch was incomplete, and over this a body of the 
enemy rushed. Presently six regimental standards were distinctly seen waving 
on the Parapet. 

* •::- « * * 

The part taken in the defence of Gregg, by the Mississippians, is thus described 
in the '' Vicksburg Times": 

"Fort Gregg was held by the 12th and 16th Mississippi Regiments, Harris' 
Brigade, numbering about 150 muskets, under command of Lieut. Col. Jas. H. 
Duncan, of the 19th Mississippi, who had been assigned by Gen. Harris, to the 
immediate command of that work. The artillery in the Fort was a section of 
3d Co. Washington Artillery, commanded by Lieut. Frank McElroy. General 
Harris, with his two other regiments, 19th and 48th Mississippi, occupied ' Fort 
Whitworth,' distant about 100 yards, and between that work and the South- 
side Railroad. " 

Gen. Harris, in a letter designed to be an official report, says, " Gen. Wilcox 
ordered me to take position in front of the enemy, and detain them as long as 
possible. With this object in view I advanced about 400 yards, and formed at 
right angles with the Boydton Plank Road. The ground being undulating, I 
threw both flanks behind the crest on which I formed, and exposed my center, 
in order that I might induce the enemy to believe that there was a continuous 
line of battle behind the ridge. I then advanced a line of skirmishers well to 
the front. The enemy being misled by this device, made the most careful dis- 
positions, two lines of battle, and advancing with the utmost caution, my position 
was held until the enemy was in close range, when a heavy fire was opened 
upon both sides. 

■' The enemy pressing me heavily and out-reaching me on my flanks. I fell 
back upon Fort Gregg and Whitworth, the 12th and 16th under Col. Duncau, 
being ordered to Fort Gregg, and to hold it at all hazards. 



218 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



" The 19th and 48th were placed in Whitworth. In Gregg there was a section 
of the 3d Company Washington Artillery, commanded by Lieut. Frank McElroy. 
Preparations were now made by the enemy for the assault, and this time Capt. 
Walker, A. and I. G. of Gen. Walker, Chief of Artillery, came with orders to 
withdraw the artillery, and against this I most earnestly protested. 

" The four guns were withdrawn from Whitworth under protest; but the enemy 
were too close to permit the withdrawal of the guns from Gregg. Perceiving 
the guns of Whitworth leaving, the enemy moved forward to assault us in both 
works. He assaulted in columns of brigades, completely enveloping Gregg, and 
approaching Whitworth only in front. Gregg repulsed assault after assault; 
the two remnants of regiments, which had won glorious honor on so many fields, 
fighting this, their last battle, with most terrible enthusiasm, as if feeling this to 
be the last act in the drama for them ; and the officers and men of the Washington 
Artillery fighting their guns to the last, preserved untarnished the brilliancy of 
reputation acquired by their Corps. Gregg raged like the crater of a volcano, 
emitting its flashes of deadly fires, enveloped in flame and cloud, wreathing our 
Flag as well in honor as in the smoke of death. It was a glorious struggle. 
Louisiana represented by these noble artillerists, and Mississippi by her shattered 
bands, stood there side by side, together, holding the last regularly fortified lines 
around Petersburg." 

While Gregg and Whitworth were holding out, Longstreet was hastening with 
Fields' Division, from the north side of the James, to form an inner line for the 
purpose of covering Gen. Lee's withdrawal that night. As soon as Harris heard 
of the formation of that line, he withdrew with his little band, cutting his way 
through. 

At 12 o'clock that night the last man and the last gun of the brave army that 
had defended the lines of Petersburg for one year, passed over the Pontoon 
Bridges, and the march commenced, that ended at Appomattox Court House. I 
have been induced to write the foregoing, of which I was an eye witness, in the 
hope of corrt'ctintj History. Many accounts have been published of the defence 
of Fort "Gregg,'' but all that I have seen have been generally far from the 
truth. Pollard, who showed but little disposition to waste compliments on the 
troops from the (lulf States, says, Capt. Chew of the fourth Maryland Battery 
of Artillery was in command of the work, and his account is reiterated by many 
others. If he was, it is strange we did not know it. A battery of Marylanders 
l.ad in realitj' been disbanded a short time before the fight, their time having 
expired, and they were awaiting their discharge papers to enable them to go to 
their homes. If Capt. Chew was in the fort at all, he was simply there as a 
volunteer or a spectator. 

We should give the hono:- to those who earned it in this fierce fight of three 
hours against such fearful odds. Swinton, in his " Army of the Potomac," in his 
description of the breaking through the lines on this historic Sunday, says: 

'• On reaching the lines immediately around Petersburg, a part of Ord's com- 
mand under Gibbon, began an assault directed against Fort Gregg and Whit- 
worth, two. strong enclosed works, the most salient and commanding south of 
Petersburg. The former of these redoubts was manned by Harris' Mississippi 
Brigade, numbering two hundred and fifty men, and this handful of skilled marks- 
men conducted the defence with such intrepidity, that Gibbons' force surging 
repeatedly against it, was each time thrown back; at length a renewed charge 
carried the work, but not till its two hundred and fifty defenders had been 
reduced to thirty. * * Gibbons' loss was four hundred men " 

Swinton does not mention the Washington Artillery in the fort: he also errs 
in putting the number of Mis.sissippians at 250. Gen. Harris says there were 150, 
these with the G4 artillerists make a total of 214 men, and these men put hor* 
i! 'i rrimhitt ">0u of the enemy, or an average of more than two men each. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 219 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

FIRING THE LAST GUN. 

The close of the day (April 2nd,) the most anxious 
that most of the men had ever passed, found Grant's 
lines touching on both sides of the Appomattox, and Lee 
completely hemmed in. * A retreat from Petersburg 
north of the Appomattox, which all feel is a foregone 
conclusion, is now necessary, and Longstreet's troops can 
only be useful in covering Lee's flank, while he withdraws 
from his breastworks. The firing meanwhile continues 
during the night from the Federal batteries. At 9 p. m. 
all of the guns were ordered to be moved across the 
Appomattox, f and this was done without any delay, and 
as quietly as if the skeleton arm}- had been one of spectres 
and phantoms. The whole of the night was spent in 
getting out wagons, artillery and infantry, and a large 

*As soon as Gregg was captured, the Federal signal corps were at work, and the 
cannonading and sharp-shooting, were renewed on the other part of the line. In 
a moment heavy bodies of cavalry were seen emerging from the Federal's former 
lines, moving rapidly over the captured works and galloping in squadrons 
towards the Appomattox, which was some four or five miles off. Their track 
could be traced by the heavy columns of black smoke that rose from the various 
farmhouses on their route, which had been set on fire. The infantry who had 
succeeded in capturing the fort formed line fronting the Confederates' right 
flank, and looked as if they intended marching by the rear into Petersburg. 
New dispositions were also made along the Confederate front. Regiments were 
detached from their positions along the line (whose place had to be filled by 
deployment of those remaining) and sent to the right flank and rear, confronting 
the new line of the Federals. Artillery galloped into position, and soon Fields' 
Division, with the Texans in the lead, joined the right flank and formed a 
defensive line in the rear towards the river. A narrow creek only divided the 
opposing forces, but the Federals seemed satisfied with their success now and 
did not advance. Lee's Last Campaign, Capt. J. C. Gorman. 

f Lieut. John R. McGaughey, of the first company, was captured while working 
away at his gun when our lines were broken. John was a strongly made, manly 
looking soldier, never absent from battle, and always popular with the men. 
Among some of our worthiest and most kindhearted officers, and whose con- 
sideration for their men deserve mention, before this narrative is concluded, 
were Lieut. Stocker, DeRussy, Apps, Britton, Battles, and Brown. During all of 
our long four years of fighting and hard marching, I do not remember the time 
when they did not show themselves more thoughtful for their men, than their 
own comfort. Britton was wounded at Sharpsburg, DeRussy at Chancellorville. 
and all received honorable mention in various battles. 



220 A Soldiers Story of the War. 



mass of array plunder, which as the result showed would 
have been much better left behind. 

The Washington Artillery crossed at midnight, Gordon 
bringing up the rear. The crossing of the bridge occupied 
three hours — quick time, and no delay was given to 
stragglers, before applying the torch. Petersburg had 
been previously almost abandoned ; but a few sad faces 
appeared at the windows, and sent out sorrowful adieus 
— to the men who had so long remained about the 
city, that seemed almost their home. To the despond- 
ent reflections which the midnight retreat suggested, the 
flame and smoke which hung over the depots and ware- 
houses, and the glare from the exploding magazine, gave 
an additional sombre tint. Still the men experienced a 
sense of relief — that of getting rid of some hideous dream, 
in leaving behind the trenches, and once more moving in 
column on the road. 

The most singular feature of the retreat, was the noise- 
less manner in which Lee's army moved from the 
works, and the fact that the withdrawal was not known 
until revealed, as it were, to the world, by the blowing 
up of tbe siege guns and batteries, which had protected 
Richmond, and which by innumerable explosions pro- 
claim, as with an Apocalyptic emphasis, that the Con- 
federate Capital was and is, but shall be no more.* 

-According to Pollard. Gorman, and "An Officer of the Rear-guard,'' a simi- 
lar scene was meanwhile transpiring at Richmond, which, so tranquil when Mr. 
Davis receives the fatal dispatch, and walks composedly out of Church, will 
in a feu moments be perturbed from top to bottom, and a few hours later be 
wrapped in flames. Late in the afternoon, wagon loads of Confederate boxes 
and trunks reach the Danville depot — hangers on imitating the example set them; 
$li>(.i for ii wagon, in gold. All over the city, hurrying fugitives. Confederate 
money is ilestro3 r ed — gold removed, the liquor is poured out as on board of a 
sinking ship — the gutters running with it. Still retreating stragglers, and roving 
pillagers get hold of it — open stores, and cover the side-walk with glass. 
Ewell is tiring the four principal quarters, or as might be said the four 
tnhacco warehouses — and the rains and shipping are blown up or scuttled; the 
bridges are burnt. Rioters are plundering, and despairing women shrieking, 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 221 

The army, now pushed through the darkness in the 
direction of Amelia C. H. — the different army corps 
making good progress by different roads, though the wagon 
loads of plunder when united on one road almost destroyed 
all movement. One ominous feature was, that there was 
nothing to eat for man or beast, and occasionally pieces of 
artillery showed that the horses were giving out. Another 
thing to be noted was. that upon our arrival at Amelia 
C. H., the enemy's cavalry commenced dashing upon our 
wagon trains, whoso canvass covers they readily ignited. 
Their plan of operation, was to strike the train, several 
miles long, fire a number of wagons, and then making a 
circuit, strike it again. Three hundred cavalrymen sup- 
ported by large bodies moving parallel, thus destroyed or 
confused the whole train. The 1 turning caissons which 
had been sent on in advance of the artillery, were any- 
thing but pleasant neigh burs.* 

while at the government store.-: sucli a break is made upon the provisions, a< 
causes the building to totter to its foundations. 

Then the Federal General Weitzel, who in addition to the other horrors of 
the situation, had been playing " Yankee Doodle '' and similar airs, was startled 
at last by the tremendous explosions of powder magazines ; and like Blue Beard 
and some other historical characters, made his sentinel ascend his seventy feet 
watch tower, to see what it was all about. A great light in the direction of 
Richmond, is the answer. A rebel picket was now captured who could tell 
nothing about his commander — then a contraband, and finally, after daybreak 
with a sharp lookout for torpedoes, and amid exploding shells, Weitzel, on the 3rd 
rode into Richmond, just as the last rebel soldiers were going, and Butler's 
flag, which he had planted over the St. Charles Hotel of New Orleans, was now 
placed over the Confederate Capitol. President Davis had left with the Con- 
federate Congress at 10 A. M., though why he thought it worth while to carry 
them off has never been ascertained; and meanwhile, as if to mark the com- 
mencement of a new regime, the fire is burning out the city, that is one-third 
of old Richmond. 

It was Babylon the Great fallen, tor the North, when the telegraph flashed the 
news. "No unmanly exultation was indulged in over those who had so nearly 
destroyed the Republic. " Greeley here paid a tribute to a noble touch of feeling 
• on the part of the North — one that he had not always previously been careful 
to observe. 

*The Falling Flag. "By the road-side was a lady from Mississippi, who had 
been in our ambulance wagon, and whose horses had been carried off. She was 
more mad than scared as she stood there in the mud — young, pretty, and 
o-esticulatinr;, and she made a picture striking and peculiar. As the advance 



222 A Soldier's Story of the War. 

Reaching Amelia, it was discovered that the provisions 
which should have been in readiness for the army, were 
missing. The} 7 had, by some accident, been carried on to 
Richmond, and the army was now without food. Besides, 
the great wagon train sent by a different road was des- 
troyed. Our doom was now staring us in the face. 
Instead of halting to give battle to Grant, there was 
nothing that could be done, but push on and try to reach 
Danville. 

Demoralization, which the accursed slow wagons were 
enough to have effected alone, had now begun ; the men 
straggled off to get something to eat at the farmhouses, 
and the commands had dwindled to hundreds ; * while at 
night as if to increase the desperation of the situation, 
the strains of triumphant music would float over from the 
enemy's brass bands. As we proceeded into the hilly 
country, it began to be hoped that the many fine military 
positions on either side, would afford us some chance of 
escape; and so (April 6th,) we marched all da)* and all 
night. It was a race for life, for men who were hungry, 
and for gaunt-looking horses who were dropping by the 
road side; but Ave had to push on. Still the enemy was 
all the time close behind. The rear guard commanded 
by Gen. Lee in person is attacked, while cavalry are 
formed in front and a few shots are fired. Gen. Rosser 



guard rounded the betid of the road, it was swept by the enemy who wheeled as 
soon as he delivered fire. Four out of five were hit — one of them, an approved 
scout, in the spine; throwing his arms over his head, with a yell of agony wrung 
from him by intense pain, he pitched backwards off his horse which was going 
at full speed. When I saw him again, years afterwards, he was a preacher." 
* At one of the burnt down bivouac fires, two men attracted by its warmth 
were discovered sitting, cold and weary. One was a colonel of Pickett's Division 
and another a lieutenant, and the destruction of this famous fighting command 
ma3 r be guessed at when a regimental officer did not know where to look for his 
standard. * * * When the troops passed on. a number of tender girls stood 
leathered in a pia/.za, and greeted us with waving handkerchiefs and moist vyn?, 
while cheer after cheer arose from the men. — Tin- Fullinn Flu;/. 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 223 



(one of our W A. captains of the first year,) who mean- 
while was ahead guarding Longbridge, at Farmville, here 
succeeded in capturing 800 men. 

The column had now to keep up a retreating fight to 
Farmville, impeded by wagons which hurried forward 
regardless of contents. Ewell was cut off. The roads 
were axle-deep with mud. A triste noclie for Lee's army 
was the night which followed. We reached Farmville 
early on the 7th, and bivouacked, after crossing the bridge 
with some show of provisions. But by some misfortune, 
the bridge over the Appomattox was not destroyed after 
us, and the enemy's cavalry followed closely We were 
soon ordered to get under way, and the Federal cavalry, 
who were now becoming rampant, were taught a lesson 
which they were in no haste to forget. The cavalry 
charged them at a double-quick and captured 200 prisoners. 
Gen. Lee took off his hat, at the spirit shown by the men 
as he passed, and was in turn welcomed with one of the 
rousing cheers of old. 

The wagons were then devoted to destruction, and the 
Chief Q. M. had the heart to apply the torch himself. 
The whole army were now marching by an out-of-the- 
way path, and fooling any longer with wagons was out of 
the question. If Gen. Lee had never sent his last dispatch 
to Richmond and given them timely notice, he would 
have succeeded in gaining the mountains. We made 
rapid progress; but matters were very blue indeed. 

Late in the afternoon, horsemen from the front an- 
nounced the rapid approach of the enemy We quickly 
threw the guns in position, and gave the enemy such a 
reception as induced him to wheel and not stand on the 
order of his going. Our cavalry gave chase, and Gen. 
Gregg, of the U. S. A., was brought in prisoner And 
28 



224 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



now comes the hour when our artillery fires the last gun. 
and ends its military record. The account which follows 
is substantially taken from the excellent narrative of a 
S. C. officer of the Rear Guard, entitled the " Falling 
Flag : " 

The army lay down to rest, and to watch — a very interesting process to a hun- 
gry man — a little modest cooking. Sleep was the great thing in view. We 
woke in a half hour, to eat what there was, and were about tumbling over 
again, when an officer came around, in a quiet way, and ordered us to be ready 
to move. Now for a weary march that ends only at Appomattox ! 

The line of retreat had been changed — a push was being made for the moun- 
tains at Lynchburg. On before us was a long line of wagons and artillery, 
splashing through ruts and mudholes. Pickets were posted under the imme- 
diate direction of Gen. R. E. Lee. When we moved again, time was lost in 
watering the horses — the wagons moved in double lines. The order now was, 
to get on past Appomattox, a little vilhage of three or four houses, a mile from the 
Lynchburg railroad. The regiments were closing up, when suddenly the scream 
of a shell developed artillery practice in the neighborhood of the depot. 

It was hammer and tongs down there — shell at short range. Custar was 
after the artillery train in advance, sixty pieces, and the three batteries left to 
hold it were the La. Washington Artillery ; the Donaldsonville cannoniers, 
Creoles, exclusively of La., and a Virginia battery attached to our brigade. 

The roar of the batteries was incessant. They were holding the dismounted 
cavalry in check. By the light of the moon there seemed to be a lull in the 
attack : but before our men could get to the guns, the enemy charged among 
them suddenly, but were driven back by the fire and rush, though taking some of 
our men prisoners — among others, Capt. Hankins of the Va Battery, who got 
away. Our men fell in between the guns, and then begun one of the closest 
artillery fights for the number engaged and the time it lasted, that occurred 
during the war. The, guns were fought literally to the muzzles. It was dark 
by this time, and every cannon was ablaze from touch hole to mouth, as well as 
the small arms of some three or four hundred men packed in among the guns, 
in a very confined space. It seemed like the very jaws of the lower regions. 
They made three distinct charges, preluding always with the bugle on the right, 
left and centre, and thus confusing the point of attack ; then a cheer and up 
they came. It was too dark to see anything under the shadows of the trees, 
but the long dark lines. They would get within thirty or forty yards from the 
gun and then roll back, under the deadly fire that was poured upon them from 
the artillery and small arms. Tn addition to the other extraordinary and infer- 
nal noises of the occasion, the scream of an engine was heard as a train rushed 
up almost among us, and sounded on the night air as if the devil himself had 
come up, and was about to join in what was going on. Then came a lull ; our 
friends in front seemed to have had the wire edge taken off. 

The great object that remained for us, was to draw off the guns, if possible, 
now night had set in, from the depot, and get them back with the rest of the 
train, in the line of retreat. 

The guns were limbered up and moved off at once, it. being but a few hundred 
yards to the main road. The silence of the guns soon told the enemy what was 
going on, and they were not long in following after; our men facing to the rear, 
delivered their fire steadily, effectually keeping off a rush ; they pressed us, but 
cautiously. The darkness concealed our numbers 

We were going through an open field, and came now to a road through a nar- 
row piece of wooes where we broke from line into column, and double quicked 



A Soldier's Story of the War. 225 



it through the woods, so as to get to the road beyond. Before we got to the. 
turnpike, we heard the bugles of the enemy down it, and as the head of our 
column came into the road, their cavalry charged the train, some two or three 
hundred yards below us. 

Sixty pieces of cannon (the remainder of Lee's guns,) were at the point when 
we came into the road. The drivers were attempting to turn back towards the 
Court House — had got entangled with one another, and presented a scene of 
utter confusion. 

In passing from the old field, where the guns had been at work, into the 
woods that separated it from the turnpike, two men were walking just in front 
of me, following their guns, which were on before. I heard one say, "Tout perdu." 
I asked at once "What battery do you belong to?" " Donaldsonville." It was the 
Creole Company : and they might well have added the other words of the great 
Francis, after the battle of Pavia, " Tout perdu fors I'honneur," all lost but honor ; 
for well had they done their work from sixty-one, when they came to Virginia 
until now, when all was lost, " Tout perdu." It was the motto of the occasion. 

The stag was in the toils, but the end was not yet: we would hear the rush, 
the shouts and pistol shots, when the enemy mounted and in force had attacked 
the train ; the artillerymen having no arms could make no fight, as they could 
not use their pieces. We could do nothing (being closely pressed by a superior 
force of their dismounted men,) but fall back upon the town toward our main 
body, making the best front we could, leaving the road and marching under 
cover of the timber on the side. Being on foot, gave us a better position to 
resist any attack that might be made upon us by the cavalry. 

The following, is from Lt. Col. W M. Owen's Journal 
from which much of the preceding details of the retreat, 
has already been drawn : 

On the 8th, we halted just before day, to rest an hour or two, near New 
Store — in road to Lynchburg. We resumed march at day light, and camped 
at night on Rocky Run, one mile from Appomattox, C. H. 

At Amelia Court House, most of the Army was sent off by another road, under 
charge of Gen. Walker, Chief of Artillery, to try to reach Danville to recruit 
horses. 

This afternoon, heavy firing heard in the direction of Appomattox Station. 
After bivouacking — Lieut. Norcomb, 4th Co. Washington Artillery, and other 
officers of same Battalion, rode up and reported the whole artillery reserve 
under Walker, cut off and destroyed near Appomattox Station. The Washington 
Artillery have buried and destroyed their guns, and gone to the mountains. No 
formal surrender of the men with Gen. Lee took place. Some of them succeeded 
in reaching President Davis, and acting as his body guard.* 

The names of the Louisiana Artillery, who acted as Presidential body- 
guard, were; C. H. C. Brown. Lieut. Commanding; Sergeant, W. G. Coyle, 
3rd Company ; Corporals, J. P. Lilly, 4th' Company ; W A. McRay. 1st Company : 
L. D. Porter, La. Guards Artillery ; W, R. Payne, C. A. Longue, La. Guard 
Artillery; G. A. Weber, 2nd Company; T. J. Lazzare, 4th Company; T. J 
Domerty. La. Guard Artillery; R. Wilkerson, J. B. McMullun, 1st Company; 
McDonald, Webster, Davis. 4th Company. 

* Washington, Ga., May 3rd, 1865. 
Lieut. Brown, Washington Artillery. 

My Dear Sir, 

The President direct* me to return to you his heartfelt thanks for the valuable services rendered 
him hy yourself and the gallant men uridi-r your common' 1 , as part of his escort. 
' Very Truly Yours. 

Wm. PKESTON JOHNSTON, 

Col. and A. D. C. 



226 A Soldier's Story of the War. 



We fired our last shot to day, after three years nine months service, since 
the first shot was fired at Bull-Run. 

Gen. Gordon is fighting the enemy in front. We are massed in a sort of 
natural basin. High land encircles us. 

Gordon captures two Napaleon Guns from the Federals. 

Gordon can't hold out any longer, and Lee orders the token of surrender, the 
•white flag," to be raised. 

The Army of Northern Virginia is no more.* 

Lee had but 8000 men with arms in their hands this morning. We are sur- 
rounded by more *han 100,000 of the enemy. 

*The Louisiana troops at the surrender, were extremely reduced in number, as indeed was the ease 
with every other brigade. This was owing partly to the many desperate charges whcli they had 
made, partly to having once neglected while oil picket duty on the ltapidan, the etiquette of 
retiring when confronted by the enemy in overwhelming force. The picket line was overrun, held 
by them and N. C. troops after they had been cut off from ihe pontoon bridge, and the men were 
all gobbled up who conld nut swim back. Hays who had been presiding at a court-martial, gal oped 
over the ] ontoon, under a heavy fire, just at the right mom -nt t > be regular y in for it. His hi.rse 
had become meanwhile so frantic, nom the bubets, or f rem the sworJ in Hiys' hand, that he 
cou d not have surrendered if he would. There was nothing left him bat to pop spurs to the beast 
and ride through the enemy's line and over the bridge, which was now in the enemy's handi. His 
escape from the volleys fired at him was almost miraculous. Col. Eugene Waggaman, who marched 
straight up to the enemy's batteries at Malvern Hill, was in command on the day of Lee's surrender, 
and the addresses of Gen. Gordon and Evans, made to the command through him were extremely 
touching. 

To show what service these troops did, it may be stated, that about 16,000 men all told, followed 
the brigade colors. Of those who can now be found in the city, it is thought that 800 would I e a 
large estimate. Lt. Col. L. Power of that command, has kindly furnished the subjoined aUlitii n il 
list of names — all he could remember, ten years after the Brigade's disbandment, of those who 
followed its marches: Col. Monaghan, killed ; Col. Jos. Hanlon, since dead; Col. D. B. Penn, Col. 
James Neligan, since dead; Col, Noland, killed ; Col. T. G. Hunt; Col. Henry Forno, since dead; 
Col. Peck ; Col. Alcibiade DeBlanc ; dipt. Louis Prados, commanding much of the time from loss of 
life of regimental arid brigade officers of ind Brigade; John M. Leggett, killed; Lt. Col. H. D. 
Monier; Adjutant Mills, loth; Adjutant A. Marks, now pustor of Tr.nity Church; Capt. Win. P. 
Harper, Adjutant General ; Capt. Dave Merrick, Adjutant General ; Major New ; Capt. Jos Witherup, 
since dead; Capt. Levi T. Jennings, since dead; Capt. McClellan, killed in battle; Major Andrew 
Brady ; Lieut. Col. It. A. Wilkinson, killed in battle ; Brig. Gen. Nicho s ; Brig. Gen. Stafford, killed 
in battle; Col. Williams of 2nd Regiment, killed in battle ; Capt. Ashbridge; Capt. Bowman ; Lieuts., 
Condon, Lockwood, Cady; Capt. McChesney ; Capt. W. T. Scovell; Lieut. Crain ; Capt. Brigham; 
Lieut. Davenport ; Capt. Jonte, killed in battle ; Cul. Zebulon Yorke, aft rwards Brig. General ; Col 
Y. Zulakowski ; Capts. Thomas G. Morgan, and George Morgan ; Major Toler ; (apte. John Leach, 
Egan, and Murphy. 



MUSTER ROLL 



OF THE 



WASHINGTON ARTILLERY 

OF THE ARMY OF VIRGINIA. 
From May 27th, 1861, to April 8th, 1865. 



J. B. Walton, Major; promoted to Colonel; made Chief of Artillery Army of 
the Potomac ; Nov. '61, Chief of Artillery Longstreet's Corps; appointed 
by Secretary of War Inspector-General of Field Artillery; recommended 
twice by Generals Beauregard and Longstreet for promotion to Brig. Gen. 
of Artillery; resigned July, 1864. 

B. F Eshleman, Captain Fourth Company ; May, 1861, wounded at Bull Run; 
promoted Major of Artillery, 1863; promoted Lieut. Colonel of Artillery, 
vice Colonel Walton, April, 1864. 

\V. M. Owen, Adjutant First Lieut. ; promoted Major of Artillery, August, '63; 
assigned Chief of Artillery Preston's Division, Army of Tennessee ; reas- 
signed to Washington Artillery, April '04. as second field officer; wounded 
at Petersburg, August, 1864; promoted to Lieut. Colonel, '65. 

M. B. Miller, Captain Third Company ; May '61, promoted to Major of Artillery ; 
assigned to Va. Batallion; re-assigned to B. W. A. January, 1864. 

B. J. Kursheedt, promoted Adjutant B. W. A. 

E. S. Drew, Surgeon, present with the command in all its marches and battles 
to the close of the war 

Thos. Y Aby, promoted Assistant Surgeon, Feb., '63. 

C. H. Slocomb, Q. M. May, '61; resigned Nov., '61 ; Captain commanding Fifth 

Company W A. of Western Army. 

H. O. Geiger, A. Q. M. May, '61. 

C. L. C. Dupuy, Sergt. Major ; May, '61, promoted to Lieut, of Artillery at 
Vicksburg. 

W A. Randolph, promoted Sergt. .Major. 

B. L. Braselman, Ordnance Officer, May, '61. 



228 MUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 



BOLL OF FIRST COMPANY. 



Captain Harry M. Isaacson, resigned August, '61. First Lieutenant, 0. W 
Squires, promoted to Captain, September, '61 ; to Major, January, '64. First 
Lieutenant, John B. Richardson, promoted to Captain ; assigned to Second Com- 
pany, June, '62. Second Lieutenant Geiger, detailed in Q. M. Dept. First Ser- 
geant, Ed. Owen, promoted to First Lieut. September, '61 ; promoted to Captain, 
January, '64. Sergeant John M. Galbraith, promoted to Second Lieut. Nov. 
'61 ; promoted First Lieut. December, '61 ; died of wound received at battle of 
Drury's Bluff, May, '61. Sergeant C. H. C. Brown, promoted to First Sergeant, 
October, '61 ; to Second Lieut., May, '61. Sergeant C. L. C. Dupuy, promoted 
Sergeant-Major, May, '61. Corporal Frank D. Ruggles, killed at Fredericks- 
burg, Dec. '62. Corporal B. C. Payne, Jr., promoted Second Sergeant, Oct. '61 ; 
discharged Feb. '62. Corporal Wm. Fellowes, Jr., returned to his ranks at his 
own request, Aug. '61. F. F. Case, returned to his ranks at his own request, 
Oct. '61 ; promoted to Corporal, April,' 63 ; to Sergeant, October, '64. Private 
Thos. Y. Aby, promoted to Corporal, Oct. '61 ; to Sergeant, Oct. '61 ; to First 
Sergeant, July, '62 ; to Assistant Surgeon, Feb. '63. Richard Aby. Saml. Aby. 
R. H. Alsobrook, blown up on a caisson in Maryland, Sept. '62, severely 
wounded. Jos. H. Berthelot, discharged Feb. '64. R. J. Ball, transferred to 
McGregor's Hose Artillery, Nov. '64. S. A. Baillio. H. P. Bayley. W. H. 
Blount, promoted to Corporal, Oct. '64. Jno. Bozant. L.L.Brown. Jno. Bare. 
W. Chambers, killed at Rappahannock Station, Aug. '62. H. Chambers, died 
at Camp Hollins, Va., Dec. '61. C. Chambers, wounded at Sharpsburg, Sept. '62; 
lost portion of his hand. Geo. Chambers, killed at Drury's Bluff, May, '64. 
A. F. Coste, wounded at Fredericksburg; died Dec. '62. E. A. Cowen, promoted 
Capt. Q. M., B. W A. Nov. '61; resigned, June. '62. J. B. Cleveland, transferred 
to Second Company, Dec '61. S. M. D. Clark'. W L. Clark. W T. Cummings, 
detailed in Richmond. E. Collins. Thos. Carter, captured at Petersburg, Sept. 
'64. C. E. Caylat. Geo. B. DeRussy, promoted to Sergeant, Oct. '61; to Second 
Lieut. July, '62 ; transferred to Second Company. R. N. Davis, Jr., transferred 
to Fourth Company. Geo. Dupre. C. W Deacon, transferred from Third Com- 
pany, April, '62 ; promoted to Q. M. Sergeant, and captured June, '64, at Peters- 
burg. C. A. Every, wounded at Fredericksburg, Dec. '62 ; at Fredericksburg, 
May, 1863; at Drury's Bluff, May, 1864. L. G. Elfer, transferred to Third 
Company. W R. Falconer, promoted to Corporal, April, '62 ; transferred to 
Second Louisiana Cavalry, February, '64. C. A. Falconer, transferred from 
Third Company, June, '61 ; killed December, '62, at Fredericksburg. P 0. 
Fazende, transferred from Third Company, June, '61; promoted to Corporal, 
April, '63; to Sergeant, July, '63; captured at Drury's Bluff, May, 1864; 
returned having escaped, November, '64. John R. Fell, wounded at Rappa- 
hannock, Aug., '62 ; discharged. H. C. Florence. J E. Florence, killed at 
Fredericksburg, May, '63. F. H. Fowler, wounded at Sharpsburg, Sept., '62 ; 
detailed, Q. M. Dept. M. Fisher. J. Frolick,jr. Paul Grima, G. B. Genin, pro- 
moted to Corporal, April, '64. D. H. Garland. Wm. H. Hardie, promoted to 
Corporal, Oct., '61 ; to Sergt., July, '62 ; to First Sergt., Sept., '64. S. Harrison, 
promoted to Corporal, Oct., '64. J. R. Harby. T. P Hall. E. Morgan Harris, 
killed at Petersburg, July, '64. J. Horrock. G. M. Judd, promoted to Sergt., 
Oct. '61 ; killed at Sliarpsburg, Sept., '62 J. E. J#rreau, discharged, Feb., '62; 
J. U. Jarreau. H. 0. Janin, wounded at Fredericksburg. G. D. P Johps. 
Thos. P. Jones. E. T. Kursheedt, promoted to Corporal, Oct., '61 ; to Sergeant- 
Major, April, '63 ; to Adjutant, with rank of Lieutenant. J. W Kearny, 
discharged, April, '62. Hermant Ross, killed at Rappahannock, August, '62. 



MUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 229 



B. F. Keplinger. D. Kilpatrick. L. Labarre, transferred to Third Company. 
Frank Lobrano. T. J. Lutman, promoted to Corporal, April, '63 ; killed at 
Fredericksburg, May, '63. A. M.Luppington, detailed in Montgomery, Alabama. 
B. Levy. P Leahy. John R. McGaughy, promoted to Sergeant, March, 
'62 ; to First Sergeant, April, '63 ; to Second Lieutenant, September, '64. S. M. 
G. Mount, caisson ran over his leg, August, '63 ; retired by Medical Executive 
Board, October, '64. J. P Manico, discharged, January, '62. J. Muntinger, 
wounded at Sharpsburg, September, '62 ; died October at Winchester. A. 
M. Meore. R. F. Marshall, killed at Rappahannock, Aug. '62, by explosion of 
his gun. Geo. Maxent. Geo. W Muse, killed at Bull Run, July, 'Gl. W Mo- 
ran. P A. J. Michel, wounded at Sharpsburg. T. M. Mc Robert, discharged 
Aug. '62. W Mains, killed, July, '64. A Micou, promoted to First Lieut, on 
Gen. Fry's Staff, May, '64. H. H. Marks. J. L. Mathews, detailed to Med. Dep. 
B. W, A. N. Milhardo, discharged July, '62. Jos. Meyers, detailed to Med. 
Dep. B. W A. J. McCormick. W J. McLean. J. B. McCutcheon, wounded at 
Sharpsburg, lost his arm. W P McGehee. J. B. McMillan. H. C. McClellan, 
died at Petersburg, Xov. '64. A. G. McCorkle. W A. McRae, promoted to Cor- 
poral, Oct. '64. C. M. Mclntire. W. T. Norment, promoted to Sergeant, April, 
'63. E. S. Ogden, promoted Second Lieutenant First La. Artillery, April, '64 
J. W Outlaw, captured at Gettysburg, July, '64. W F. Perry, discharged by 
Medical Board, April, '64. J. X. Payne, promoted to Sergeant, July, '62 ; trans- 
ferred to Major Byren's Batallion Artillery, March, 1864. L. Parson. N. B. 
Phelps, detailed Xov. '64. D. Pendegrass. R. Pollard, detailed Nov. '64. E. 
Peychaud, wounded at Drury's Bluff, det. in Richmond. H. Peychaud, killed 
at Drury's Bluff. C. Peychaud, detailed by Med. Board. C. Rossiter, wounded 
at Drury's Bluff, retired by Medical Board, Oct. '64. J. E. Rodd, wounded at 
Fredericksburg, detailed. M. Ranch. E. Xiviere, captured at Gettysburg. John 
Richardson, det. Q. M. D. Jas. Reddington, killed at Rappahannock, Aug. '62. 
R. McK. Spearing, promoted to Corporal, '62: killed at Fredericksburg, Dec, 
'62. F. A. St. Araant, discharged, July, '61 ; disability. W. T. Saul. C. N. B. 
Street, transferred to Moody s Battery, July, '62. Ph. Seibrecht. P D.Simmons, 
killed at Drury's Bluff, '04. W W Spencer. Frank Sagee. T. S. Turner, 
promoted Corporal, '63. S, Turner, promoted Corporal, April, '64; wounded at 
Drewry's Bluff. John A. Tarleton, discharged, July, '62, special order Secretitry 
war. J. M. Turpin. W E. Fowles, killed, Railroad accident, March, '63. F 
Villasana. Van Vinson, promoted to Corporal, July, '63 ; to Sergt., April, '64. 
H. Whitcomb, killed, July, '64. E. V Wiltz, discharged. C. R. Walden, killed 
at Drury's Bluff, May, '64. W H. West, promoted to Corporal, May, '62 ; to 
Sergt., April, '63; killed at Fredericksburg, May, '63. John A. Wayne. J. V 
Webb, discharged, May, '62. T. J. Wilson. B. Woodward. J. E. Woodward. 
H. S. Wilkinson. J. X. White, detailed. H. L. Zebal, discharged by Med. 
Board, May, '64. L. E. Zebal, discharged, furnished a substitute. S. G. Stewart, 
J. Scott. J. A. O'Xeal, discharged, April, '64. John Charlesworth. H. Collins. 
John Eshman. John Earls, died in hospital. John Farrell. W Farrell. E. 
Gallagher. J. L. Hock, promoted to Quarter .Master Sergeant, September, '64. 
M. Hock, detailed in Ord. Department. J. Hammel, discharged, June, '62 ; 
.Surgeon's certificate. J. Jacobs, detailed Medical Department. Jas. Kinney, 
died from wound received at Fredericksburg, December, 62. John Krafts, 
detailed to Ordnance Department. F. Lester. J. S. Lehman, transferred to 
Second Company. J. Lenon, transferred to Second Company B. D. F. McKes- 
son. J. A. McCormick. Wm. Oliver. Chas. Rush, transferred to Second 
Company. E. W. Smith. Jas. Smith. A. Szar. F. Schmarbeck. H. L. Allain. 
John Bachr. J. J. Xorment, promoted to Corporal, October, '64 ; wounded at 
Drury's Bluff. 

Karnes of Wounded omitted in above Roll. 

Captain E. Owen, at Sharpsburg and Drury's Bluff. Lieutenant C. H. C. 



230 JIUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 



Brown, severely wounded, left on the field, and captured at Gettysburg. W R. 
Falkner, at Rappahannock and Fredericksburg. W. R. Fell, at Sharpsburg and 
Fredericksburg. W H. Hardie, at Fredericksburg. J. R. Harby, at Fredericks- 
burg. C. J. Kursheedt, Sharpsburg, '62. A. Micou, Fredericksburg, '62. Jos. 
Myers, Drury s Bluff. N. B. Phelps, at Drury's Bluff. C. Rossiter, Fredericks- 
burg and at Drury's Bluff. P. S. Turner at Rappahannock Station. Van Vin- 
son, at Gettysburg. T. J. Wilson, at Drury's Bluff. H. £. Wilkinson, Drury's 
Bluff. A. L. Zebal, at Bull Run and at Williamsport, Md. John Charlesworth, 
at Fredericksburg, '62. C. Rush, Fredericksburg, '62. 



The above statement has been taken from the Historical Record furnished to 
the War Department C. S., January 1st, 1865, and is correct and as full as can 
possibly be made from that Record. 

Lt. C. H. C. BROWN, 

Ranking Officer 1st Co. B. W. A. 
New Orleans, Oct. 2d, 1874. 



ROLL OF SECOND COMPANY. 



Lieutenant C. C. Lewis, commanding Company, May, '61 ; resigned, Aug. '61. 
Capt. Thos. L. Rosser, promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of Artillery; wounded 
at Mechanicsville. Captain J. B. Richardson, assigned to Company, June, '62. 
First Lieutenant Sam. J. AlcPherson, resigned August, 1861. Cuthbert H. 
Slocomb, promoted to First Lieutenant; resigned November, 1861. Second 
Lieutenant Samuel Hawes, promoted to First Lieutenant, December 1861. 
Second Lieutenant J. D. Britton, wounded at Sharpsburg, September, 1862. 
Second Lieut. Geo. B. DeRussy, promoted from Sergeant First Company, and 
assigned by Col. Walton, July, '62 ; wounded at Chancellorville, May, 1863. 
(Cadet) F. H. Wigfall, relieved from duty with company, June, 1862, by order 
No. 137. First Sergeant Jos. H. DeGrange. First Sergeant A. A. Brinsmade, 
promoted to Second Lieut, of Artillery. First Sergeant A. G. Knight. Serg. 
Gustave Aime. Sergeant H. C. Wood, discharged October, 1861, by order of 
Secretary of War. Sergeant C. Huchez. Sergeant Charles B. Leverich, ap- 
pointed First Lieutenant P. A. C. S. July, 1863, by order of Secretary of 
War. Sergeant Jules Freret. J. W Bmmett, appointed First Lieut. P. A. C. 
S., July, '63, by Sec'y of War. A. G. Knight, promoted to Orderly, Nov. 1863. 
Geo. E. Strawbridge, appointed Second Lieutenant P. A. C. S., March, '68, by 
Sec'y of War. Sergeant W- A. Randolph, promoted to Sergeant Major, Sept. 
'63. Sergeant Walter J. Hare, wounded at Sharpsburg. Sergeant Ed. L. Hall. 
Sergeant Tbos. H. Fuqua. Sergeant John W Parsons. Corporal James D. 
Edwards, discharged December, 1861. B. X. L. Hutton, discharged July, 1861, 
by order of Gen. Beauregard, Samuel Hawes. promoted Second Lieut. Nov. '61. 
Corporal T. B. White, discharged Nov'r '62. A. G. Knight, promoted to Sergt. 
Feb., '62. W. A. Randolph, promoted to Sergt., April, '63. Ed. L. Hall, promoted 
to Sergt., August, '63 ; wounded at Williamsport, July, '63. Thos. H. Fuqua, 
promoted to Sergt., Nov., '63. Jno. W Parsons, captured at Gettysburg, July, 
.">th, exchanged ; promoted to Sergt., Nov. '63. S. Isaac Meyers, killed at Peters- 
burg, August, '64. E. J. Jewell, wounded at Williamsport, July, 6th, '63 ; died 
at Williamsport, July, 19th, 03. Stephen Chalaron, wounded at Gettysburg, 
July. '63 : captured, exchanged ; promoted to First Lieut, in Nit. & Min. Bureau, 
May. 04. L. C. Woodville, wounded at Petersburg, June, '64. Jno. Howard 
tioodin, wounded at Drury's Bluff, May, 180,4; promoted to Ordnance Sergt.. 
■Tune, '64. ('. C, Twichell." Thos. H. Suter. J. F. Randolph. E. D. Patton. 



MUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 231 



Phil. A. Clagett. John C. Woodville. G. W Humphries. Q. M. Sergeant Josh 
DeMeza. J. S. Bradley. Artificers — Leonard Craig. James Keating. Jno. W 
Dempsey, transferred to Third Company, June, '63. Privates— Fred. Alewelt, 
wounded at Sharpsburg, died at Shepardstown, Sept., '62. Randolph Axon, 
detailed in Richmond, Oct., '62. E.D.Augustus. Geo. Alpin. — Almundinger, 
killed *t Petersburg. F. P. Buckner, transferred to Fifth Regiment, April, '62. 

A. R. Blakely, wounded Second Manassas, August, 30th, '63 ; captured August, 
'63; exchanged and detailed in Treasury Department. R. J. Banister, wounded 
at Williamsport, July, '63 ; captured, exchanged ; drowned while on furlough in 
Mississippi River, February 8th, '64. J. T. .Brentford. E. M. Bee, discharged, 
Oct. '62. James Brown. James Byrnes. Joe Barr. Patrick Brooks, wounded 
at Sharpsburg, July, '63. Frank Baker. John S. Bradly, promoted Q. M. Sergt. 
April, '61. John A. Bloom. Henry Brooks. Stephen W. Britton. J.B.Cleve- 
land, transferred from First Company, appointed Second Lieutenant, P. A. C. S. 
March, 1863, by Secretary War. W. P. Curtis, discharged. H. D. Coleman, 
captured at Chancellorville, May, '63 ; exchanged. Phil. A. Clagett, promoted 
to Corporal, Oct. '63. H. S. Carey, detailed in Ordnance Department. John A. 
Coakley, wounded at Williamsport, July, 1863. J. W Cross, wounded at 
Williamsport, July, 1863 ; died August, 1863. W H. Cantzon, detailed clerk, 
Gen. Lee's Headquarters, Nov. '64. N. J. Clark. C. A. Duvall, transferred from 
Fourth Company, July, '61 ; appointed Second Lieutenant P. A. C. S., March, 

1863. A. DeA r alcourt. Wm. Davis, honorable mention at Second Manassas, 
August, 1862; wounded at Williamsport, July, 1863. Theo. 0. Dyer. Charles 
Dougherty. Dan J. Driscoll. Thos. W. Dyer. W E. Florance. Wm. Forest, 
wounded at Williamsport, July, 1863. Thos. H. Fuqua, transferred from Third 
Company, July, '61 ; promoted to Corporal, Nov. '62. L. C. Fallon, wounded. 
Geo. A. Frierson, wounded at Williamsport, July, '63. Armand Freret, wounded 
at Sharpsburg, September, 1862; died at Winchester, September, 1862. Jules 
Freret, wounded at Gettysburg, July '63; died same place. John H. Forshee. 
Wm. M Francis, transferred from Watson's Battery, July, '64. Wm. C. Giffen, 
captured at Chancellorville, May, '63 ; exchanged. John H. Goodin, promoted 
to Corporal. August, '63. John M. Greenman, wounded at Bermuda Hundreds, 
May, 1864. John F. Giffen, wounded at Williamsport, July, 1863. D. Gleason. 
Geo. Gessner, wounded at Drury s Bluff, May, '64. F M. Gillespie. Hugh S. 
Gookin. E. E. Gookin. Jas. A Hall. Geo. Humphrey, wounded at Williams- 
port, July, '63 : captured, exchanged May, '64. S. C. Hartman, discharged, Oct.. 
'62. J. Hefleigh. Chas. Harris. Chas. Hurley. Alex. Anderson. C. M. Harvey. 
I. Ichstien. 0. Jewell, died, February, 1863. J Jackson, detailed, May, 1864. 
D. E. Giggetts, discharged by order, May. 1864. B. C. Jacques. T. R. James. 
M. Kelly, discharged, May, 1862. B. F Kirk, wounded at Chancellorville, 
May, 1863. Wm. Kirk, transferred, June, 1864. R. H. Knox, appointed cadet, 
P. A. C. S. November, 1864. T. F Land, discharged. Wm. Little. B. Lynch, 
discharged, December, 1861. W Layman, wounded at Gettysburg, died. L. S. 
Lehman. James Lennon, transferred Feb. '64, A. G. Lobdell, retired December, 

1864. M. P. Lapham, wounded, and died at Drury's Bluff. May, '64. P B. 
Lynch. J. S. Meyers. J. R. McGowen. W. Mills, detailed Oct. 1863. John 
Meux, transferred from Fourth Company, July, '61. W. Maroney. J. McCor- 
mack. D. T. Moore, died Aug. '64. J." Madden, detailed Feb. '65. L. Miller. 

B. A. McDonald. W. 0. Mallory. W E. Maynard. H. McGill. H. M. Payne, 
retired Aug. '64. A. H. Peale, discharged Nov. '61, by order of Gen. Beaure- 
gard. William Palfrey, promoted Second Lieut. First Louisiana Artillery. J. C. 
Purdy, appointed Second Lieut. P A. C. S., March, '63. W A. Perrin. J. H. 
Peebles. I. H. Randolph, killed at Williamsport, July, '63. W. Roth, dis- 
charged August, '61. Wm. Rockwell, discharged Dec. '61. J. W Ridgill. A. 
G. Ridgill. W G. Raoul, appointed Capt. A. Q. M.. March, 1864. J. L. Rich- 
ardson. H. D. Summers, captured at Chancellorville, detailed with wounded' 
captured at Williamsport; exchanged May, 1864. W D. Sayre. A. D. R. 
Sutton. D. Self. W H. Simpson. H. C. Twichell, discharged October, '61. 



232 MISTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 



C. C. Twichell, wounded at Williamsport, promoted Corporal, August, 1863. 
C. A. D. Theineman, discharged, Aug. '62. G. J. Thomas. R. Urquhart, wounded 
at Petersburg, June, 1864. P. Von Colin, wounded at Chancellorville. L. C. 
Woodville, promoted to Corporal, April, 1863. W H. Wilkins. J. Weber. F. 
Wilson. H. N. White, killed at Second Manassas. T. B. White, promoted to 
Corporal, December, 1861. P. M. Williams, appointed Second Lieutenant, P A. 
C. S. April, 1863. B. Ward, wounded Second Manassas, captured; exchanged. 
G. Watterston, wounded at Williamsport, captured and died, August, 1863. T. 
E. Williams, wounded at Gettysburg. G. A. Webre. Chas. Waterson. D. P. 

White, wounded at Williamsport. Winter. F. H. H. Walker. H. Berthe- 

lot. F. H. Sawyer. 



The above statement has been taken from the Historical Record furnished to 
the War Department C. S., January 1st, 1865, and is correct and as full as can 
possibly be made from that Record. 

JOHN B. RICHARDSON, 

Captain Commanding at surrender. 
Xew Orleans, Oct. 5, 1874. 



ROLL OF THIRD COMPANY 



Merritt B. Miller, Captain, May, '61 ; promoted to Major of Artillery, Feb. '64. 
Andrew Hero, jr., Second Serg. May '61 ; First Serg. Nov. '61; Second Lieut 
May '62 ; First Lieut. Aug. '62 ; Capt. Feb'. '64; wounded at Sharpsburg, Sept. 
'62 ; at Petersburg, April, '65. Jos B. W hittington, First Lieutenant, resigned 
Louis A Adam, Second Lieut, resigned Aug. '61 ; re-enlisted as private. Aug. 
'61. James Dearing, Second Lieut,, promoted to Captain Art'y, April 8, '62. 
J. J. Garnet, First Lieutenant, assigned to Company July, '61 ; transferred to 
Signal Corps, June, '63. Isaac W Brewer, First Lieutenant, killed at Rappa- 
hannock Station. Frank McElroy, First Lieutenant; Geo. McNeill, Second 
Lieutenant ; Charles H. Stocker, Second Lieutenant, wounded at Petersburg, 
April, '65. First Sergeant John T. Handy. Sergeant Louis Prados, promoted 
to Lieut. La. Brigade. Sergeant W A. Collins. Sergeant R. Maxwell, dis- 
charged from command. Sergeant W H. Ellis. Sergeant 0. N. DeBlanc. Ser- 
geant W G. Coyle. Sergeant F. Kremelberg, killed at Petersburg. Sergeant 
P W Pettis. Corporal Ed. J. Jewell. Corporal A. H. Peale. Corporal C. E. 
Fortier. discharged. Corporal E. W Morgan. Corporal R. P Many, died 
of wounds. Corporal W. Leefe, died in Louisiana Hospital. Corporal A. 
V.. Grimmer. Corporal N. Bartlett. Corporal T. Ballantine. Corporal Samuel 
Bland. Corporal R. Ballauf. Corporal M. B. Cantrelle. Corporal I. C. 
Dick. Corporal John 11. Porter. Corporal H. J. Phelps. William A. Col- 
lins, wounded at Second Manassas, August, 1863. E. Avril, wounded at 
Sharpsburg, Sept. 61 ; discharged Dec. '62. John Anderson, transferred from 
First Company, July. '61. Henry J. Atkins, killed at Sharpsburg, Sept. 1862. 
Frank M. Andress. J. A. Adde. S. S. Andress. B L. Braselman, promoted to 
ihdnanoe Sergeant Battalion. Robert Bruce, discharged April, '64. Samuel 
(" Boush, on duly in Quarter Master's Department. J. D. Blanchard, died 
March, 1864. James 0. Bloomfield, promoted to Lieut in Magruder's army. 
Michel A. Becnel, discharged December 1861, by order of Secretary of War. 
Oro. Bernard, detailed with ambulance. M.Burke. J. P Benton, captured by 
enemy, June, '64. Samuel Bland, wounded at Rappahannock, Aug.' 62. James 



MUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 233 



S. Behan, died at Mobile, Ala. Wm. Barton. Jos. Bloom. Rudolph Ballauf, pro- 
moted to Corporal, April, '64. Geo. Brady. Geo. B. Behan, died at Culpeper, 
Sept. '62. C. Bush, injured by falling of a tree, Oct. '62 ; detailed in Richmond. 
Ernest Beyer. Charles Brady. Henry G. Brooks. John H. Benton, wounded at 
Petersburg, Sept, '64 ; died Sept. '64. Geo. H. Bryens, killed at Gettysburg, July 
'63. Lawrence Berry. Richard Bryens. Wm. P. Brewer, promoted to Assist- 
ant Surgeon. B. P. Bryan. Robert J. Ball, transferred 10 First Company. 
Steve Burke. F A. Carl, died May 27, 1861. M. W. Cloney, wounded at 
Sharpsburg, Sept. '62 ; captured at Gettysburg, July, '63. John H. Colles, dis- 
charged Nov. '61, by order Secretary of "War. Ernest Charpieux, wounded at 
Manassas, August 1862 ; detailed Q. M. Dept., April, '64. W G. Coyle, pro- 
moted to Corporal, Nov. 1861; to Sergt., Oct. 1863. Stephen Chalaron, trans- 
ferred to Second Company, July, 1861. Wm. Casey, transferred from Second 
Company, July, 1861. James Crilly, transferred from Second Company, wound- 
ed at Rappahannock Station, August, 1862. Prank E. Coyle, wounded at 
Gettysburg, July, 1863; killed at Petersburg, April, '65. W Campbell. Geo. 
W Charlton. L. W Cressy, killed by falling of a tree at Winchester. C. W 
Deacon, transferred to First Company. Edward A. Clark. W. W Charlton. 
T. S. Collins. J. F Clark, killed at Gettysburg, July, '63. Jos H. DeMeza, 
transferred to Second Company, July, '61. Edward Duncan, captured at Peters- 
burg and exchanged. Fred. Douber, killed at Sharpsburg. J. F. Davis. A. 
Dumas. James Dolan, died from wound at Rappahannock. August DeBlanc, 
Isaac C. Dick, promoted to Corporal, October, '64. H. Dietz. Benj. E. Dick, 
captured at Fredericksburg and exchanged. Armand DeBlanc, discharged May, 
'63. W. Dennison. Wm. DeLacy. Honore Doussan. Adolphe Dupre, Jr., 
wounded and captured at Gettysburg. Louis G. Elfer. Edgar D. Evans. P.O. 
Fazende. Charles E. Fortier, promoted to Corporal, July, '61; discharged, Sept. 
1861. F P. Fourshee, wounded at Rappahannock. T. H. Fuqua, transferred 
to Second Company. Otto Frank, wounded at Fredericksburg. Rene Faisans. 
Auguste Faisans. Louis E. Guyot. A. E. Grimmer, wounded at Fredericksburg: 
promoted to Corporal November, '63. Fred. W Gras. Jno. W Gore. J. B. 
Gretter. C. A. Gough, wounded at Gettysburg, and died. S. R. Givens, 
discharged January, '63. Leon M. Gerard. Philibert Gerard. G. A. Grimes. 
Henry Guillote. F L. Hubbard, right arm injured, and discharged October, 
'61. C. Hart, discharged February, '62. John Holmes, jr., wounded at Sharps- 
burg, and discharged May, '64. John Huisson. John G. Hottinger. Ed. D. 
Hubbell. Wm. Jones. Wm. N. Johnson. Eugene Joubert, wounded at Rap- 
pahannock, and died. Jos. H. Jagot. F. Jourdaii. John Jones, captured and 
escaped July, '64. Joseph Kinslow. S. Kennedy, transferred to Twenty-eighth 
Louisiana Regiment ; resigned, '64. Thos. Kerwin. Damas Kobleur, wounded 
at Petersburg, October, '64. W. H. Kitchen. R. H. Kitchen. M. Kent. Wm. 
Leefe, promoted Corporal April, '63; died October, 1864. Ed. Loftus. died 
February, '63. M. F. Lynch. James Little, died June, '62. G. Leytze, miss- 
ing after battle of Gettysburg. S. Levy, wounded at Rappahannock; dis- 
charged September, '62. J. T. Luddy. John Land. Geo. Land. Gustave 
Leclere. Eugene Leclere. Charles Lombard, transferred to Fourth Company 
June, '63. T. Lazarre, died at Petersburg, December, 64. Murville Labarre, 
died at Petersburg, December 31, '64; E. Labarre, discharged October, '63. 
Lacestiere Labarre, transferred from First Company September, '63. P. E. 
Laresche. A. Leefe, wounded at Drury's Bluff. N. Lighthouse. T. M. McFall. 
promoted to Q. M. Sergeant April, '63. 0. McDonald, killed at Rappahannock. 
J. H. McCartney, wounded at Sharpsburg. J. H. Moore, transferred to 7th 
Brigade. W. Mills, tranferred to Second Company. E. W Morgan, discharged 
July, 1861. Robert Maxwell, promoted to Sergeant November, '61 ; wounded 
at Rappahannock and discharged '63. A. B. Martin. G. H. Meek, promoted to 
Ord. Serg. Nov., '63. R. P Many, Corporal, April, '63 ; wounded, captured and 
died at Fredericksburg, May, '63. C. B. Marmillon, discharged '62, by Secretar3' 
of War. G. AY Mas3y, wounded at Sharpsburg ; died September, '62. John C. 



234 MUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 



Murphy. Henry A. Madden, killed at Drury's Bluff, May, '64. E. L. Mahen. 
S. W. Noyes. Albert Norcom, transferred to Fourth Company. J. S. Nesbitt. 
discharged May, '62. L. T. Noyes. W. P. Noble. T. Nulty. F. Ozanne, cap- 
tured and escaped at Hagerstown, '63. Peyton W. Pettis, promoted Corporal 
July, 62 ; wounded at Rappahannock and Sharpsbnrg ; promoted Sergeant, '64. 
Jno. R. Porter, promoted Corporal August, '64 ; wounded at Petersburg, Oct. 
'64. H.J. Phelps, Corporal, April 1863; wounded at Fredericksburg, 1862. 
Abraham B. Philips. Geo. A Peirce. Paul T. Patin. Jas. W. Price. Wm. 
F. Pinckard, wounded at Petersburg. Wm. M. Pinckard. C. P Russell. Sam'l 
Rousseau, wounded at Petersburg. J. F. Randolph, transferred to Second 
Company. Charles Raymond. H. Rideau, killed at Gettysburg. F. Ruleau, 
wounded and died at Gettysburg. B. Riviere. Jules A. A. Rousseau. G. D. 
Robinson, severely wounded by capsizing of a cannon, fourth of July, 1863. 
Frank Shaw, jr., discharged by Secretary of War. Chas. H. Stocker, promoted 
Corporal, June, 1862 ; Sergeant, July, 1862 ; captured at Gettysburg, July, '63; 
elected Second Lieutenant, March, '63. S. G. Saunders, wounded at Sharps- 
burg. Charles Smith, captured at Petersburg, June, 1864. A. Seicshnaydre, 
Leon Seicshnaydre. S. B. Slade. C. G. Smelser. T. W. Smith. R. Smith. 
H. D. Summers, transferred to Second Company. Wm. S. Toledano, discharged 
September, 1861. B. Toledano, discharged September, 1861. Howard Tully, 
wounded at Bull Run and Fredericksburg. Ralph Turnell, discharged Novem- 
ber, 1862. Hugh Thompson, killed at Rappahannock. James Tully, wounded 
at Rappahannock. G. J. Thomas. Walter A. Tew. Victor R. Tisdale. John 
Treme. Oswald J. Toledano, killed at Petersburg. Ernest Vidal. J. W. White. 
Thos. E. Williamson. W Williamson. W. J. B. Watson, transferred to Fourth 
Company. J. X. White, transferred to Fourth Company. J. W Dempsey, trans- 
ferred to Second Company. Geo. Pielert. W. D. Holmes, transferred to Second 
Company. Tom Nugent. James Keating, transferred to Second Company. 

The above roll is copied correctly from the historical records of the Third 
Company of the Washington Artillery, and contains all details as to members 
of the Company. 

A. HERO, Jr., 

late Gapt. Com'd'g 3d Co. B. W. A. 



ROLL OF FOURTH COMPANY. 



Captain Jos. Norcom; First Lieut. H. A. Battles; Second Lieuts., G. E. Apps, 
W.J. Behan ; Sergeants — 1st, J. S. Fish; 2d, J. C. Wood; 3d, J. W Wilcox; 
4th, B. F. Weidler ; 5th, J. B. Valentine. Quartermaster — S. T.'Haile. Corpo- 
rals— F. A. Brode, 0, S. Babcock, B. Hufft, J. F. Lilly, Geo. Montgomery. R. S. 
Burke, F. W. Ames, Geo. E. W Wilkinson. Privates — Geo. Anderson, J. S. 
Allen, Jos. Adams, 0. W Adams, P. M. Baker, Lewis Baker, H. H. Baker, A. 
Banksmith, Jas. Bateman, F. A. Behan, Jas. Borland, Chas. M. Byrne, A. Bou- 
cher, J. W Burke, L. W Clayton, VV P. Creecy, O. E. Cook, Thos. Carey, 
Wm. Cary, Wm. Curley, J. M. Cox, Denis J. Cronan, B. Condon, A. S. Cowand, 
Chas. Cowand, B. Chapman, R. N. Davis, W Deninson, W R. Dirke, II. David- 
son, Jas. D. Edwards, Jno. Fowlkes, Jno. Fagan, W S. Fell, J. J. Farrell, R. 
H. Gray, G. C. Gregory, E. F Gubernator, J. G. Hood, Thos. Herbert, Sam'l 
E. Holt, W McC. Holmes, W. W. Jones, A. C. Jones, I. Jessup, F. Jordan, 
M. J. Kinney, M Keegan, F. Langdon, Chas. Lake, J. R. Land, Theo. Lazarre, 
Dupre Lazarre, P. J. Lavery, C. W. Marston, E. A. Mellard, Wm. Martin, R. F. 



MUSTER ROLL OF THE WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 235 



F Moore, R. McDonald, Jno. McManus, B. Marisoli, H. Mayer, C. McGregor, 
A. Xorcom, D. Nolan, Xhos. Norris, A. L. Plattsmier, Cha's. Palfrey, D. W. 
Pipes, H. T. Peak, Jno. Pheiffer, J. M. Rohbock, M. J. Ryan, G. Reynolds, W 
Redmond, L. Reney, Louis Rocsch, J.H.Smith, J. H. Stone, Jno. Schekler, 
A. Soniat, Chas. Smelzer, A. Shew, W. N. Stuart, E. Terrebonne, A. F. Vass, 
H. F Wilson, Geo. Walker, G. W- Wood, P. N. Wood, J. J. Wall, Jno. Wilson, 
\V J. B. Watson. Artificers — Levi Callahan, J. McDonald. 

The above roll has been taken by me from the records of the Washington 
Artillery, and I certify that the same is as full and correct as it can be made. 

WM. J BEHAN, 
Ranking Officer of 4th Co. B. W. A. 



For the muster roll of the Fifth Company, see p. 150. Of the remnants of the 
four companies in Virginia, forty-five escaped under Major Miller, (the horses 
having been cut from their harness,) by way of Lynchburg and the mountains, 
to Johnston's army in North Carolina, Capt. Chas. A. Green, of the Louisiana 
Guard Artillery, and some of the Donaldsonville Artillery, under Lieutenant 
Prospere Landry, among the number. Major Moses says, in reference to the 
Confederate gold which was placed in his hands, and which had followed Presi- 
dent Davis to Washington, Ga.: " I employed four young men of the Washington 
Artillery, to guard the gold and accompany me to Augusta. There were a 
great many cavalry and straggling soldiers prowling about, and on the train 
they made what was then called several 'charges' upon the gold, which, with 
the assistance of Col. Sanford, of Montgomery, and Private Shepherd, of Texas, 
were successfully resisted." Whatever became of the gold, after it was honorably 
placed by Major Moses in Federal hands for the relief of wounded soldiers, has 
never yet been ascertained. 

The very last battle fought, or regular engagement during the war, took place 
on the night of the 16th of April, at Columbus, Ga., afwhich time that town 
was captured and 1,200 Confederate soldiers made prisoners. Three of the 
Washington Artillery, * Adams, Cummings and Bartlett, the first and last of 
whom had fired the first guns at Bull Run, were present at the night attack, and 
made prisoners, the last named three times during the night. 

:e The following is one of the orders still in existence : 

Headquarters Casip Rendezvous, Battery Division,! 
Columbus, 6a., April, 16th, 1865. J 

I'orporal N. Baitlett, having reported tome for duty, will hold himself subject to my orders, 
mounted. 

V. H. TALIAFERRO. 

Colonel Commanclmy. 



REPORT TO THE LOUISIANA LEGISLATURE 



O F 



ADJUTANT GENERAL M. GRIVOT. 

UPON STATE TROOPS, 

FOR THE YEARS I860, '61 AND '62. 



I860. 

Abstract Statement of the Officers in Commission preceding 

the War. 

FIRST DIVISION. 

Major General John L. Lewis, Commanding ; Col. L. B. Forstall, Division 
Inspector ; Lieut. Colonel Chas. A. Labuzan, Division Quartermaster ; Lieut. 
Colonel Thomas Cripps, Division Paymaster; Major W. P. Williams, Division 
Surgeon ; Major E. L. Forstall, Aid ; Major U. Lavillebeuvre, Aid ; Major A. 
Trudeau, Aid ; Major N. Gunari, Aid ; Major L. Stein, Aid ; Major L. Lay, Aid : 
Major Jos. M. Kennedy, Jr., Aid. ' 

LOUISIANA LEGION BRIGADE. 

Brigadier General H. W Palfrey, Commanding ; Major J. F. Chatry, Brigade 
Inspector; Captain R. Beltran, Aidl" Captain P O'Rorke, Aid; Captain W B. 
Took, Aid ; Captain Chas. A. Janvier, Aid. 

ORLEANS BATALLION OF ARTILLERY. 

First Company — Captain, F. Gomez ; Senior First Lieutenant, A. D. Garcia ; 
Junior First Lieutenant, P A. Gomez ; Second Lieutenant, P. Aiarrero. 

Third Company — Captain, F. Stromeyer ; Senior First Lieutenant, G. Berlu- 
chaux ; Junior First Lieutenant, A. A. Canon ; Second Lieutenant, Alexander 
Diogenes. 

Sixth Company — Senior First Lieutenant, Theo. Morano, Commanding; Junior 
First Lieutenant, N. Rivera ; Second Lieutenant, Jean Schweitzer. 

Fourth Company, attached to Legion — Captain, J. L. Lamothe ; Senior First 
Lieutenant, A. Abadie; Junior First Lieutenant, G. Raymond; Second Lieut. 
I. Erard. 

REGIMENT OF LIGHT INFANTRY. 

Colonel Chas. F. Sturcken. Commanding ; Lieutenant Colonel, C. L. Mathes ; 
Major, H. Blaize ; Lieutenant E. H. Boelitz, Adjutant ; Lieutenant Herdsfelder , 
Quartermaster ; Lieutenant G. Lugenbuhl, Paymaster ; Lieutenant Loisenger, 
Surgeon. 

chasseurs, 1814-15. 

First Lieutenant, F Ecrot. Commanding; Second Lieutenant, L. Honido'bre. 



ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT C4ENERAL 



Captain, F. Peters ; First Lieutenant, Henry Fassbinder ; Second Lieutenant. 
Jacob Hutb. 

sharpshooter. — Captain F. Christen. 

fusiliers no. 1. — Captain, F. Sievers ; First Lieutenant, H. Gerdes. 
fusiliers no. 2. — Second Lieut., Henry Wallbrech. 

LAFAYETTE GUARDS. 

Capt. F. Koenig ; First Lieutenant. G. Hollenbach ' Second Lieutenant. A. 
Frideback. 

jefferson guards. — Captain, F. Wollrath ; Second Lieut., G. Lehman. 

BATALLION CHASSEURS A PIED DE LA LOUISIANE. Wajor 

First Company. — Captain, Henry St. Paul ; First Lieutenant, Oscar Aleix : 
Second Lieutenant, Nemours Lauve. 

Second Company. — -Captain, Simeon Meilleur ; First Lieut., Isidore Esclapon ; 
Second Lieutenant, Raphael Painpare. 

FIRST BRIGADE 

Brigadier General, B. L. Tracy, Commanding; Major Thomas F. Walker? 
Brigade Inspector ; Captain R. Hooper, Aid ; Captain I. J. Daniels, Aid ; Captain 
-I. G. McLearn, Aid ; Captain J. F. Caldwell, Aid. 

WASHINGTON ARTILLERY. 

Capt. J. B. Walton ; Senior First Lieutenant, 0. Voorhies ; Junior First 
Lieutenant, Theo. A. James, Second Lieutenant, R. Bannister. 

Washington regiment. — Major John Cavanaugh. 

Louisiana greys.— Capt., Edmund Kennedy; First Lieut., A. D. Caulfield. 

regiment national guards. — Colonel, H. Forno ; Major, G. Stith. 

company c, national guards. 

Captain, Charles D. Drew; First Lieutenant, J. P. Nesbit. 

city guards. — Captain, W T. Dean ; First Lieutenant, C. R. Fagot. 

ORLEANS RIFLE GUARDS. 

Captain, John A. Jacques ; First Lieutenant, Erastus Stevens. 
continental GUARDS. — Capt. George Clark ; Second Lieut., A. W Merriam. 

MISSISSIPPI RIFLES NO. 2. 

Captain, F. Camerden ; First Lieutenant, Chas. C. Campbell: Second Lieut. 
Lea F Bakewell. 

FIRST REGIMENT. 

First Briyath. — Colonel Louis Lay. 

second regiment. — Colonel J. J. Daniels. 
fouth regiment. — Colonel John Price. 

EIGHTH REGIMENT. 

, Colonel, Chas. De Choiseul ; Lieutenant Colonel, James De Bauni. 

ninth regiment. — Colonel, R. Hooper ; Lieut. Colonel, C. C. Miller. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 239 



SECOND BRIGADE. 



Brigadier General, D. Cronan ; Major, John Stroud, Brigade Inspector. 

FOURTH REGIMENT. 

Colonel, Daniel Edwards ; Lieut. Colonel, Samuel McBurney ; Major, Chas. J. 
Murphy. 



SECOND DIVISION. 

Major General, R. C. Camp. 

first brigade. — Brigadier General, R. C. Martin. 

PARISH ST. CHARLES REGIMENT. 

Colonel, Ezra Davis ; Lieut. Colonel, Ad. Rost, Jr. 

• PARISH ST. JAMES REGIMENT. 

Company Chasseurs de St. Jacques. — Captain, Alfred Roman ; First Lieutenant. 
Camille Mire; Second Lieut. K. Gaudet; Cornet, Florent Fortier. 

Company Chasseurs St. Michel. — Captain, Narcisse Landry, Jr. ; First Lieutenant. 
Francis L. Haydel ; Second Lieutenant, Emile Jacobs ; Cornet, Nicholle Tecle ) 

ascension regiment. — Colonel, John S. Minor. 

DONALDSONVILLE ARTILLERY. 

Captain, V. Maurin ; Senior First Lieutenant, J. C. Dannequin ; Junior First 
Lieutenant, Villeor Dugas ; Senior Second Lieutenant, L. D. Nicholls ; Junior 
Second Lieutenant, Lestang Fortier. 

LAFOURCHE REGIMENT. 

Company Lafourche Dragoons — Captain, R. G. Parden ; First Lieutenant. Ed. 
Cross ; Second Lieutenant, John A. Collins ; Cornet, M. King. 

second brigade. — Brigadier General, C. N. Rowley. 

TERREBONNE REGIMENT. 

Colonel, Albert G. Cage; Lieutenant Colonel, F. S. Goode ; Major, James 
Daspit. 

HOUMA RIFLES. 

Captain, Joseph Aycock; First Lieutenant, V A. Righter; Second Lieutenant, 
Sulakoski. • 

ST. MARY REGIMENT. 

Colonel, A. L. Tucker; Lieutenant-Colonel, H. C. Wilson; Major, R. N. 
McMillan. 

TECHE GUARDS. 

Captain, W F. Haiflegh ; First Lieutenant, Louis F. Smith; Second Lieut., 
Newman Trowbridge. 



THIRD DIVISION 

Major General, George W Munday. 

first brigade. — Brigadier General, W E. Walker. 
second brigade. — Brigadier General,- R. Barrow. 



'AO ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



PARISH EAST FELICIANA REGIMENT. Colonel, Preston Pond. 

EAST BATON EOUGE REGIMENT. 

Colonel, Louis Hebert ; Lieutenant Colonel, F. M. Kent. 

EAST BATON ROUGE DRAGOONS. 

Captain, H. M. Pierce; First Lieutenant, Chas. Ghenette ; Second Lieutenant, 
Thomas Gilbert. 

PELICAN RIFLES. 

Captain, W F. Tunnard ; First Lieutenant, H. B. Monteith ; Second Lieut., 
Krnest Gourier. 

company c. — Captain L. J. Freemaux. 



FOURTH DIVISION 

Major General, L. G. De Russey ; Lieut. Colonel, Oscar Chaler, Paymaster ; 
Major F Johnson, Surgeon ; Major W H. Levy, Aid. 

FIRST BRIGADE. 

Brigadier General, P. Keary ; Captain D. C. Goodman, Aid. 

PARISH ST. LANDRY REGIMENT. 

('olonel, A. M. Perrault; Lieut. Colonel, Andre Meynier ; Major, Lewis Stagg. 

OPELODSAS RIFLES. 

Captain, J. D. Israel ; Second Lieutenant, J. J. Beauchamp. 

second brigade. — Brigadier General, Alfred Mouton. 

PARISH RAPIDES REGIMENT. 

Colonel, B. F. Fulton; Lieutenant Colonel, A. N. Ogden ; Major, Louis 
Stafford. 

PARISH NATCHITOCHES REGIMENT. 

Colonel, Thomas Herzog ; Lieutenant Colonel, Thomas C. Hunt ; Major, Felix 

Metover. 



FIFTH DIVISION 
Major General, Jacob Humble ; Major Newton Guice, Aid. 

FIRST BRIGADE. 
Brigadier General, F. A. F Harper ; Major G. W. Hendrick, Brigade Inspector. 
Tensas regiment. — Colonel, L. V Reeres. 

PARISH FRANKLIN REGIMENT. 

Colonel, Asa Hawthorn; Lieutenant Colonel, Isaac Doyal. 

second brigade. — Brigadier General, Felix Lewis. 

PARISH CLAIBORNE REGIMENT. 

Colonel, James \V Berry ; Lieutenant Colonel, John W Hays : Major, 
James Duke. 

PARISH DOSSIER REGIMENT. 

Colonel. K. \V Herring; Lieutenant Colonel, Austin Miller; Major, David 
J. Elder. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 241 



ANNUAL REPORT MADE NOVEMBER 22, 1861. 

CONDENSED MEMORANDA. 

Feb. 5, 1861. Two regiments of regulars of the State army organized. 

March 13. Transfer made of these to Provisional Army of the Confederate 
States. Artillery stationed in the State farts : infantry at Pensacola. The 
Colontl of the latter, A. H. Gladden, made Brigadier General, and succeeded by 
Col. Daniel W. Adams. The regiment was suddenly called to Pensacola. 

Dec. 14, 1861. Volunteer companies ordered to organize into regiments. 

To complete the companies, it became necessary to call upon volunteers. 
Five companies tendered their services and were accepted : The Orleans Cadets. 
of New Orleans, Captain C. D. Dreux. The Louisiana Guards, of New Orleans, 
Captain S. M. Todd. The Crescent Rifles, of New Orleans. Captain S. H. Fisk! 
The Grivot Guards, of Lafourche, Captain V G. Rightor. The Shreveport 
Greys, of Caddo, Captain J. H. Beard. They were with the regiment stationed 
at Warrington, up to June last, when the regiment, having received its comple- 
ment of regular companies, these companies were relieved from duty at War- 
rington. They formed themselves into a special battalion, under the command 
of Lieut. Colonel Charles D. Dreux. and Major V H. Rightor, and were ordered 
to Yorktown, Virginia. Lieutenant Colonel Dreux was killed whilst in the 
performance of his duties, and the battalion is now under the command of 
Lieut. Colonel V, H. Rightor. 

18th of April, 1861 requisition from the Secretary of War, for three thousand 
infantry for twelve months service, received. 

As soon as this made its appearance, in all parts of the State companies were 
organizing and tendering their services in less than five days, the number of 
troops offering exceeded five thousand. 

This requisition did not state whether they were to be received by companies, 
battalions or regiments ; a subsequent requisition for 5000 additional troops, 
received on the 21st April, 1861, gave the authority to organize them into bat- 
talions and regiments. 

The troops were arriving rapidly ; it was found expedient to establish a camp 
in the neighborhood of the City, and by order No. 188, issued on the 29th April, 
1861, Camp Walker was established on the Metaire Course, under the command 
of Brigadier General E. L. Tracy, first Division Louisiana -Militia, detailed for 
that purpose. The number of troops increasing, the fear of disease in camps, 
and owing to the scarcity of water, it was deemed advisable to transfer the 
camp to Tangipahoa, on the Jackson Railroad. This camp was called camp 
Moore. 

The 1st Regiment Louisiana Volunteers was organized on the 25th of April 
by the election of Albert G. Blanchard as Colonel, Wm. G. Vincent Lieutenant- 
Colonel, and Wm. R. Shiver as Major, and transferred to the Confederate States 
on the 29th April and ordered to Virginia. Col. Blanchard has since been 
appointed Brigadier Genera! in the Confederate Army, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Vincent elected Colonel of the Regiment. 

The 2d Regiment was organized with Lewis G. DeRussy as Colonel, John W 
Young as Lieutenant-Colonel, and J. T. Norwood sis Major, mustered into the 
service on the 11th May, 1861, and ordered to Virginia. Colonel DeRussy having 
resigned, Captain Wm. M. Levy was elected to fill the vacancy 

The 3d Regiment organized with Lewis Hebert as Colonel, S. M. Hyams as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and W F. Tunnard as Major; was mustered into service on 
11th May, ordered to Arkansas, and from thence to Missouri It participated 
in the battle of Oak Hill, performing deeds of valor. 

The 4th Regiment organized with R. J. Barrow as Colonel, H. W. Allen as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and S. E. Hunter as Major. 

The 5th Regiment organized with Theo. G. Hunt Colonel, Henry Forno as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and W T. Dean Major. 



242 ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



At this period, whilst other regiments were in process of organization, the 
companies having mustered into the State service, to be transferred to the Con- 
federate States, for the- period of twelve months, under the Proclamations, after 
the transfer of the 3d Regiment, a communication from the War Department 
was received, declining to accept any more regiments unless for the term of the 
war. To this communication the governor earnestly protested, and urged upon 
the Secretary of War the necessity of accepting the regiments already organized 
for twelve months service, but with no success. 

This act of the Secretary of War created considerable excitement both at 
the camp and in the country. The men who had volunteered, sacrificing their 
all, believed they were being trifled with, and had the effect of disorganizing 
the whole system for awhile. 

After some difficulty, the 4th Regiment was accepted for the twelve months 
service, and was transferred on the 25th May, 1861. All the influence that could 
be brought to bear upon the War Department was exercised by your Excellency 
to obtain the acceptance of the 5th Regiment, and all the corps at Camp Moore, 
for the twelve months service, but with no success. Still entertaining hopes 
that the Secretary of War would reflect upon the injury about to be inflicted 
upon the troops, by not accepting their services except for the war term, would 
reverse and order them to be received, as originally mustered in, for twelve 
months, granted a delay in which the companies were to decide whether they 
would volunteer for the war or be disbanded. This delay was extended to the 
25th May. This delay having expired, and the companies still refusing to muster 
in for the term of the war, were disbanded. On the 26th May, the governor 
received a dispatch from the War Department announcing the fact that the 
regiments and companies would be accepted for the twelve months term. It 
was received at a late hour — the morning train of the Jackson Railroad had 
left. Upon application to Capt. J. S. Williams, Superintendent of the road, he 
kindly offered his services to convey, by an express train, to Camp Moore, the 
orders countermanding the disbanding of the troops, but it was too late, the 
mischief had been done. A large number of companies had been disbanded, 
and were on their way home. 

Shortly after it was ascertained that twelve months troops would be received, 
both in the country and city, the organization recommenced with redoubled 
vigor. The 5th Regiment, which had received a check, completed its organiza- 
tion, and was mustered into service on the 25th May, 1861, and was immediately 
ordered to Virginia. 

The 6th Regiment, organized with I. G. Seymour as Colonel, Louis Lay as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and S. S. James as Major, was mustered into service on the 
4th June, 1861, and ordered to Virginia. 

The 7th Regiment, organized with Harry T. Hays as Colonel, Charles De 
Choiseul as Lieutenant-Colonel, and D. H. Penn, Major, was mustered into 
service on the 5th June, 1861, and ordered to Virginia. 

The 8th Regiment, organized with Henry B. Kelly as Colonel, F. T. Nicholls 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and J. B. Prados as Major, was mustered into service on 
the 15th June. 

The 6th, 7th and 8th Regiments were engaged in the memorable battles of 
Bull Run on the 18th, and of Manassas on the 21st July, 1861, and rendered 
important service. 

The 9th Regiment, organized with Richard Taylor as Colonel, E. G. Randolph 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and N. J. Walker, Major, was mustered into service on the 
>;th July. 1861, and ordered to Virginia. 

The 10th Regiment, organized with .Mandeville Marigny as Colonel, J. C. Denis 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Felix Du Monteil as Major, was mustered into service 
on the 22d July, 1861, and ordered to Virginia. 

The 11th Regiment, organized with S. F. Marks as Colonel, Robert H. Barrow 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and E. G. W Butler as Major, was mustered into service 
on the 18th August, 1861, and ordered to Columbus, Kentucky. This regiment 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 243 



was in the battle of Belmont, and was mainly instrumental in gaining the 
victory. Major Butler fell while gallantly leading his men. 

The 12th Regiment, organized with Thomas M. Scott as Colonel, Wade Hough 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and John C. Nott as Major, was mustered into service on 
the 13th August, 1861, and ordered to Columbus, Kentucky. 

The 13th Regiment, organized with R. L. Gibson as Colonel, Aristide Gerard 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and A. P. Avegno as Major — transferred to the Con- 
federate service on the 9th September, 1861, stationed for along time at the 
fortifications below the city — and on the 22d November was ordered to 
Columbus. 

The 14th and 15th Regiments, were so designated by the War Department 
and are composed of the troops known as the Polish Brigade. They were not 
mustered into service of the State and transferred to the Confederate States 
and consequently I have no record of the names of the companies or officers or 
number of men composing it. 

The 16th Regiment was organized with Preston Pond, Jr., as Colonel, Enoch 
Mason as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Daniel Gober as Major ; was mustered into 
Confederate service on the 29th September, 1861. 

The 17th Regiment, organized with S. S. Heard as Colonel, Charles Jones as 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and R. B. Jones as Major, mustered into the Confederate 
service on the 29th September, 1861, and is now at Camp Moore. 

The 18th Regiment, organized with Alfred Mouton as Colonel, Alfred Roman 
as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Louis Bush as Major, was mustered into Confederate 
service on the 5th October, 1861, and is stationed above Carrollton. 

The 19th Regiment, organized with B. L. Hodge as Colonel, D. M. Hollings- 

worth as Lieutenant-Colonel, and Major, and is stationed at Camp 

Moore. 

Five companies in May last organized as a special battalion with C. R. Wheat 
as Major, was accepted and mustered into service on 6th June, 1861, and ordered 
to Virginia. This battalion was in the battle of Manassas, and is reported as 
having performed deeds of valor. 

The foregoing regiments and battalions have been fully armed and equipped. 

The regiments and battalions mustered into the State service and transferred 
to the Confederacy, with the names of the companies, the parishes from which 
they come, the names of the officers and number of men of each company, 
amounted to a total of 19,152 men. 

The President having the appointment of Surgeons and Quartermasters, the 
names of these do not figure therein. The names of some officers of companies 
do not appear on the list owing to the fact that changes being made by promo- 
tions or otherwise, the officers to fill the vacancies were elected after the 
transfer to the Confederate States. 

On the 19th April, 1861, the Secretary of War made a requisition for the 1st 
Company Louisiana Foot Rifles, under command of Capt. Henry St. Paul. 

The parishes bordering on the Gulf coast were unprotected, and the enemy's 
fleet had been committing depredations, and threatening attack. Maj. Gen. 
Twiggs, commanding the Department, deemed it necessary to call for troops, to 
be stationed at the forts and at various point*, so as to guard and protect the 
coast. Eighteen companies transferred for that purpose. 

Companies have been mustered for service within the State. Camp of In- 
struction near Carrollton, on the Carrollton Railroad, under the command of 
Brigadier General C. A. Labuzan. 

A recapitulation of the forces as above stated shows : 

Regiment of Artillery (Regulars.) 740 

do. " Infantry " 1,033 

1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9tn, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 
16th, 17th, 18th and 19th, Regiments of Louisiana Vol- 
unteers 14,949 

Wheat's Battalion 415 



244 ABSTRACT REPORT OE THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



Dreux's Battalion 480 

14 Companies transferred to the Confederate service, for State 

service 1,231 

4 Companies of Orleans Artillery 304 

Number of troops in service of the Confederate States.. 19,152 

13 Companies for service within the State, at Camp Lewis 1,050 

Total number of troops thus far organized by the State 20,202 

1 Company Orleans Chasseurs 95 

Soulakouski's Regiment, (14th Regiment.) 850 

Lieut. Col. Bradford's Regiment, (15th Regiment.) 450 

Point Coupee Light Artillery 90 

Washington Artillery 320 

Crescent Blues 80 

Donaldsonville Artillery 85 

Marion Infantry 129 

Watson's Artillery 100 

Carroll Guards 76 

Jackson Regiment 450 

Zouaves 650 3, 3 "7 3 

Force in the field from Louisiana, Nov. 22d, 1861 23,57*7 

To prevent trafficking between the enemies fleet and a large number of small 
boats and luggers trading in the various bays, bayous, lakes, etc., in the parishes 
bordering on the sea-shore, order issued to arrest all offenders 12th June. 
Captain A. O. Murphy appointed and placed in charge of the schooner Antonio 
with full authority to arrest all persons dealing with the enemy, or persons of a 
suspicious character found within the limits of Barrell Keys and Texas, and who 
could not prove themselves loyal to the government 

Similar authority given to Captain R. G. Darden, of Thibodaux, and Captain 
Murphy, who made some important arrests. 

14th of January, 1861, an order issued for the organization of the militia 
throughout the State; considerable opposition made thereto, — officers met with 
serious difficulties in compelling attendance to drills and obedience to their 
orders, and organization turned into a farce. In many parishes no objections 
raised, and militia organized. 

September 28th, 1861 — stringent order issued from Gov. Moore, regulating, 
organizing and drilling militia. Black List ordered for shirkers and permanent 
Qpurt Martial for trial of military offences. Drills ordered after 3 o'clock twice 
a week. 

First Division returns 30,40:' 

Confederate Guards 752 

Total 31,251 

The following parishes have made their returns, to-wit : 

Parish of Iberville 634 

" Natchitoches 1,031 

'• Livingston 754 

" St. Tammany 442 

" St. Charles 210 

'■ Washington 441 

•' Carroll 691 

" East Baton Rouge 1,200 

" East Feliciana 495 — 5,898 

17th November, 1861, order issued for a review of all the volunteer and regu- 
lar militia of the 1st Division, under command of Major General John L. Lewis 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 245 



The troops assembled on Canal street, on Saturday the 23d November, 1861, 
were passed in review by Gov. Moore, accompanied by Major General M. Lovell, 
commanding Department No. 1 C. S. A., Brigadier General Ruggles, 0. S. A., 
and staffs. This assemblage was the largest and most imposing that had as yet 
taken place. The force out on that occasion numbered 24,551 ; absent 6402. 

REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY 

Colonel — P O.Hebert, (appointed Brigadier General C. S. A., 14 August, 1861.) 

Lieut. Colonel — C. A. Fuller, (promoted to Colonel, vice P. O. Hebert, 14th 
August, 1861.) 

Major — D. Beltzhoover, (promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, vice Fuller, 14th 
August. 1861.) 

Captains — H. A. Clinch, (promoted to Major, vice Beltzhoover, 14th August, 
1861 ;) F. B. Brand ; J. B. Anderson ; Ed. Higgins ; W. C. Capers ; R. L. Gibson, 
(elected Colonel of 13th Regiment Louisiana Volunteers;) E. W. Rawle ; M. T. 
Squires ; R. C. Bond ; AY. B. Robertson ; J. B. Grayson, Jr., (promotion from 1st 
Lieutenant: J. B. Lamon, (promoted from 1st Lieutenant, 6th September, 1861.) 

First Lieutenants — J. B. Grayson, Jr., (promoted to Captain, vice Church, 
Major;) J. H. Lamon, (promoted to Captain, vice Gibson, elected Colonel) R. 
J. Bruce: E. G. Butler; L. P Haynes ; E. W- Baylor; A. V. Ogden ; J. H. 
.Stith ; W. H. Holmes, resigned 24th June, 1861; Carlton Hunt; Wm. C. 
Pinckney; Claude Gibson; H. W. Fowler; W. C. Ellis; L. V Taylor; J. M. 
Johnson, resigned ; G. R. Wilson ; R. Agar ; C. A. Conrad ; J. F. Fuller ; Jno. 
G. Eustis, rank 13th July, 1861; Bev. C. Kennedy; J. W Gaines, rank 14th 
August, 1861 ; Jno. G. Devereux, rank 6th September, 1861. 

Second IJeutenants — John G. Eustis, promoted to 1st Lieutenant, 13th July, 
1861; Bev. C. Kennedy, promoted to 1st Lieutenant; R. M. Hewitt, resigned, 
June Oth, 1861 ; J. W Gaines, promoted to 1st Lieutenant; C. H. Sanford ; J. G. 
Devereux, promoted to 1st Lieutenant ; G. M. Tureaud, resigned ; W M. Bridges ; 

B. M. Harrod ; C. N. Morse; George Crane, appointed 5th July, 1861; A. J. 
Quigley, appointed r>th July. 1801 ; Francis McManus, appointed 5th July, 1861 ; 
Richard Charles Cammack, appointed 13th July, 1861 ; Wm. Bullitt Jones, 
appointed 27th Aug., 1861 ; Wm. Taylor Mumford, appointed 27th August, 1861. 

REGIMENT OF INFANTRY 

Colonel — A. H. Gladden, appointed Brigadier General C. S. A. 

Liiut. Colonel — D. Adams, promoted to Colonel, vice Gladden. 

Mrijor—C. M. Bradford, resigned, 23d July, 1861. 

Captains — J. A. Jacques ; promoted to Major, vice Bradford, resigned, thence 
to Lieut. Colonel, vice Adams ; F. H. Farrar, promoted to Major, vice J. A. 
Jacques; Wm. H. Scott; F. M. Kent; James Strawbridge ; J. T. Wheat; Thos. 
Overton, resigned, 27th May, 1861, S. S. Batchelor ; Douglas West; C. A. 
Taylor; P.H.Thompson; J.*H. Trevezant, appointed 23d July, 1861; Taylor 
Beatty, appointed 30th September, 1861. 

First Lieutenants — P H Thompson, promoted to Captain, 1st June, 1861 ; J. S. 
Hyams, resigned ; J. H. Trevezant, promoted to Captain, 23d July, 1861 ; Taylor 
Beatty, promoted to Captain, 30th September, 1861 ; James Cooper ; E, Preston ; 
W H. Sparks; J. W. Stringfellow; W. N. Starke, B. C. Cenas ; Thomas Butler, 
promoted from 2d Lieutenant, 21st May, 1861 ; C. H. Tew, promoted from 2d 
Lieutenant, 1st June, 1861 ; Louis Guion, promoted from 2d Lieutenant, 23d 
July, 1861 : W. A. Reid, promoted from 2d Lieutenant, 30th September, 1861. 

Second Lieutenants — Thos Butler, promoted to 1st Lieutenant, 21st May, 1861 ; 

C. H. Tew. promoted to 1st Lieutenant, 1st June, 1861 ; L. Guion, promoted to 
1st Lieutenant, 23d August, 1861 ; W. A. Reid, promoted to 1st Lieutenant, 3 Oth 



246 ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



September, 1861; C. R. Benton; L. N. Olivier; R. C. Kennedy; Wm. Quirk; 
G. W Simpson ; G. W- Mader ; R. Marston ; James Goode ; J. C. Stafford ; A. 
Kent; E. Eastman, elected Captain in Louisiana Volunteers; S. £. Semmes i 
James Nelson ; JohnE. Austin, resigned, July 25th, 1861 ; T. W. Behan ; G. L. 
Bond ; Louis West, appointed 21st May, 1861 ; M. Carutherg Gladden, appointed 
1st June, 1861 ; Paul Wm. Barbarin, appointed 30th June, 1861 ; Wm Paul 
Grivot ; appointed 23d August 1861 ; Alfred Joshua Lewis, appointed 21st 
October, 1861 ; John 0. Golden, appointed 21st October, 1861. 

FIRST REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

A. G. Blanchard, Colonel ; W G. Vincent, Lieut.-Colonel ; W. R. Shivers, 
Major. 

Montgomery Guards. — Michael Nolan, Captain ; M. B. Gilmore, First Lieut.; 
Wm. Hart, Second Lieut.; Sam. McLelland, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Louisiana Guards Co. B. — C. E. Girardey, Captain ; Edgar Daquin, First Lieut.; 
S. McC. Montgomery, Second Lieut.; V Murphy, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Davis Guards. — Ben. W. Anderson, Captain; Robt. L. Vanortern, First Lieut.; 
J. E. Burthe, Second Lieut.; A. G. Duncan, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Louisiana Guards, Co. C. — Frank Rawle, Captain ; H. W Montgomery, First 
Lieut.; R. H. Kenna, Second Lieut.; P W. Semmes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caddo Rifles. — C. Dailee, Captain ; C. W- Lewis, First Lieut.; J. Kashmore, 
Second Lieut.; A. Brannon, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Light Guards, Co. A. — Chas. E. Cormien, Captain ; E. Cucullu, First 
Lieut.; H. C. Parker, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Light Guards, Co. B. — T. M. Dean, Captain; E. D. Willet; First Lieut.; 
A. Blaffer, Second Lieut.; E. A. Chadwick, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Light Guards, Co. C. — Chas. N. Frost, Captain ; Sam. R. Harrison, 
First Lieut.; W. C. Tavener, Second Lieut.; A. A. Cummings, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Light Guards, Co. D. — P, O'Rourke, Captain ; W. L. Randall, First 
Lieut.; Hortaire Audry, Second Lieut.; J. T. Molaire, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Emmet Guards. — James Nelligan, Captain ; Geo. M. Morgan, First Lieut.; 
A. A. Wilkins, Second Lieut.; P. Bedell, Jr. Second Lieut. 

SECOND REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Louis G. De Russy, Colonel ; John Young, Lieut.-Colonel ; J. T. Norwood. 
Major. 

Pelican Greys — A. H. Martin, Captain ; E. B. Stubbs, First Lieut.; S. D. Mc- 
Enery, Second Lieut.; H. B. Holmes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Vienna Rifles — H. W Perrm, Captain ; J. J. Neilson, First Lieut.; J. Henry, 
Second Lieut., A. G. Cobb, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Moore Guards — Jno. Kelso, Captain ; W A. Croghan, First Lieut.; W L 
Ridge, Second Lieut.; J. Delahauty, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Vernon Guards — Oscar M. Watkins, Captain ; Nat. Rives, First Lieut.; E. Davis. 
Second Lieut.; H. H. Stevens, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Claiborne Guards — Jno. W. Andrews, Captain; J. B. Parham, First Lieut; 
Isaac L. Leonard, Second Lieut.; Jno. L. Young, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Floyd Guards — Jno. W Dunn, Captain; G. W. Dougherty, First Lieut.; D. 
W Kelly, Second Lieut.: W A. Draughton, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Greenwood Guards — Wm. Flournoy, Captain ; Alfred Flournoy, Jr., First 
Lieut.; S. D. Waddell, Second Lieut.; Lucien Flournoy, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Lecompte Guards — Wm. M. Levy, Captain ; Ross E. Burke, First Lieut.; J. F 
Scarborough, Second Lieut.; S. B. Robertson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Atchafalaya Guards — R. M. Boone, Captain ; John J. McRae, First Lieut., J. 
T. Norwood, Second Lieut.; T. P Harmanson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pelican Rifles — Jno. M. Williams, Captain; R. W. Ashton, First Lieut.; L. C. 
Furmau, Second Lieut.; J. S. Ashton, Jr. Second Lieut. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 247 



THIRD REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Louis Hebert, Colonel; Sam'l M. Hyams, Lieut.-Colonel Win. P. Tunnard. 
Major. 

Pelican Rifles— J. B. Viglini, Captain; John B. Irving, First Lieut.; F. D. 
Tunnard, Second Lieut.; Felix Brunot, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pelican Rangers No. 1 — Winter W. Breazeale, Captain ; W. Overton Breazeale, 
First Lieut.; Geo. Halloway, Second Lieut.; L. Caspri, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pelican Rangers No. 2— J. D. Blair, Captain ; S. D. Russell, First Lieut.; Wm. 
E. Russell, Second Lieut.; J. M. Hyams, Jr., Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caldwell Guards — W. L. Gunnell, Cagtain ; J. T. Evans, First Lieut.; L. B. 
Fluitt, Second Lieut.; Thos. J. Hutnblajft* Second Lieut. 

Iberville Greys — C. A. Brusle, CaptMHThos C. Brown, First Lieut.; Thos. 
G. Stringer, Second Lieut.; T. R. Verbo^Bh*. Second Lieut. 

Winn Rifles — D. Pierson, Captain ; AriHmanuel, First Lieut.; Wm. Strother, 
Second Lieut.; W. C. Luny, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Morehouse Fencibles — J. F. Harris, Captain ; P. C. Bringham, First Lieut.; P 
Brooks, Second Lieut.; W. D. Bringham, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Morehouse Guards — R. M. Hinson, Captain ; W. S. Hall. First Lieut.; D. C. 
Morgan, Second Lieut.; J. H. Bringham, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Shreveport Rangers— J. B. Gilmer, Captain; W A. Lacy, First Lieut.; Oscar 
J. Wells, Second Lieut.; A. Wall Jewell, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Monticello Rifles — John S. Richards, Captain ; W. D. Hardeman, First Lieut.; 
W C. Corbin, Second Lieut.; C. A. Hearick, Jr. Second Lieut. 

FOURTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Robert I. Barrow, Colonel ; H. W. Allen, Lieut.-Colonel ; S. E. Hunter, Major 
C. Becher, Adjutant. 

Beaver Creek Rifles — J. H. Wingfield, Captain; R. M. Amaker, First Lieut.; 
R. H. Turnbull, Second Lieut.; R. Y. Burton, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Helena Rifles — J. B. Taylor, Captain ; H. M. Carter, First Lieut.; J. B 
Corkern, Second Lieut.; Thos. Spiller, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Hunter Rifles, Co. A — E J. Pullen, Captain; Geo. A. Neafus, First Lieut.; N 
B. Barfield, Second Lieut.; Henry Marston, Jr., Jr. Second Lieut. 

Hunter Rifles, Co. B — John T. Hilliard, Captain; J. P Adams, First Lieut.; 
E.'C. Holmes, Second Lieut.; F. F. Huston, Jr. Second Lieut. 

West Feliciana Rifles — Chas. E. Toorean, Captain; J. S. Wooster, First Lieut.; 
Wm. Hearsy, Second Lieut.; James Read, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Lafourche Guards — Thos. E. Vick, Captain ; C. Belcher, First Lieut.; H. Dan- 
sereau, Second Lieut.; John S. Billieu, Jr. Second Lieut. 

W. B'n Ro'e Tirailleurs — F. A. Williams, Captain ; J. A. Levesque, First 
Lieut., A. J. Bird, Second Lieut.; B. Landry, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Delta Rifles — H. M. Favrot, Captain ; 0. M. Leblanc, First Lieut.; L. S. Here- 
ford, Second Lieut.; N. W Pope, Jr. Second Lieut. 

National Guards — H. A. Richman, Captain; J. S. Woolf, First Lieut.; A. Blum. 
Second Lieut.; Ed. Riedel, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Lake Providence Cadets — F V Whicher, Captain ; W F. Pennington, First 
Lieut.; D. C. Jenkins, Second Lieut.; C. R. Purdy, Jr. Second Lieut. 

FIFTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Theodore G. Hunt, Colonel ; Henry Forno, Lieut.-Colonel ; W T. Dean, Major ; 
.1. B. Norris, Adjutant. 

Bienville Guards — Mark L. Moore, Captain ; Jas. M. Coffee, First Lieut.; Thos. 
J. Williams, Second Lieut.; James C. Wilson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Cadets — Chas. Hobday, Captain; Alex. Hart, First Lieut.; J. T. Beach 
Second Lieut.; J. B. Norris, Jr. Second Lieut. 



248 ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



La. Swamp Rangers — E. J. Jones, Captain ; C. H. Allen, First Lieut.; A. A. 
Bredow. Second Lieut.; F. Wary, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Southrons — 0. F. Peck, Captain ; Fred. Richardson, First Lieut.; N. 

A. Caulfield, Second Lieut.; D. M. Sory, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Crescent City Guards — John A. Hall, Captain; R. G. Wingate, First Lieut.; 
W. W Marsh, Second Lieut.; L. Sawyer, Jr. Second Lient. 

Perret Guards — Arthur Connor, Captain ; Rufus A. Hunt, First Lieut.; Thos. 
F. Evans, Second Lieut.; A. J. Laughlin, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Chalmette Guards — A. E. Shaw, Captain ; Alex. Riouffe, First Lieut.; John 
McGurk, Second Lieut.; W H. Pendall, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Carondelet Invincibles — Bruce Menger, Captain ; J. S. Charles, First Lieut.; 
Geo. F. White, Second Lieut.; J. H. HtSwgrth, Jr. Second Lieut. 

DeSoto Rifles— W B. Koontz, Captain h Geo. Seymour, First Lieut.; W. S. E. 
Sevey, Second Lieut.; A. H. Jones, JrSSecond Lieut. 

Monroe Guards — Thos. Dolan, Oapaflin; T. H. Biscoe, First Lieut.; Geo. H. 
Hinchey, Second Lieut.; R. B. Watking, Jr. Second Lieut. 

SIXTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

I. G. Seymour, Colonel ; Louis Lay, Lieut. -Colonel ; S. L. James, Major. 

Irish Brigade, Co. A — James Hanlon, Captain ; B. Walsh, First Lieut.; J. B. 
Bressman, Second Lieut.; W C. Quirk, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Irish Brigade, Co. B — Wm. Monahan, Captain; Michael O'Connor, First Lieut.; 
James 0. Martin, Second Lieut.; John Orr, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Mercer Guards — Thos. F. Walker, Captain ; Robert Lynne, First Lieut.; Geo. 
M. Brisbin, Second Lieut.; John G. Rivera, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Violet Guards — W H. Manning, Captain ; Geo. P. King, First Lieut.; Sam. 0. 
Kirk, Second Lieut.; Edward Flood, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Landry Light Guards — Nat. Offut, Captain; H. Hickman, First Lieut.; H. 

B. Ritchie, Second Lieut.; J. D. McCawIey, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Rifles— Thos. F. Fisher, Captain ; W. H. Butrick, First Lieut ; Lewis 
Graham, Second Lieut.; C. M. Pilcher, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Tensas Rifles— Chas. B. Tenney, Captain ; David F. Buckner, First Lieut.; T. 
P Farrar, Jr., Second Lieut.; Isaac A. Reed, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pemberton Rangers — Isaac A. Smith, Captain ; Geo. W. Christy, First Lieut.; 
Frank Clarke, Second Lieut.; W. P. Brewer, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Union and Sabine Rifles — Arthur McArthur, Captain ; D. M. Calliway, First 
Lieut.; J. F. Phillips, Second Lieut.; J. F. Smith, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Calhoun Guards — Henry Strong, Captain; Thos.O'Neil, First Lieut.; J. Hogan, 
Second Lieut.; G. J. Summers, Jr. Second Lieut. 

SEVENTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Harry T. Hays, Colonel; Chas. De Choiseul, Lieut.-Colonel; D. B. Penn, 
Major. 

American Rifles — W. D. Rickarby, Captain; Sam. Flower, First Lieut.; 
Samuel Brewer, Second Lieut.; Jno. Rowan, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Livingston Rifles — T. M. Terry, Captain ; A. G. Tucker, First Lieut.; Wm. 
Patterson, Second Lieut.; W. F. Ogden, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Virginia Guards — Robert Scott, Captain ; H. Doussan, First Lieut.; P. 
Grandpre, Second Lieut.; L. H. Malarshe, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Virginia Blues — D. A Wilson, Jr., Captain ; C. E. Bellinger, First Lieut.; 
If. C. Thompson, Second Lieut.; E. A. Brown, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Sarsfield Rangers — J. Marc Wilson, Captain; West Steever ; First Lieut.; 
Henry Carthy, Second Lieut.; T. G. Morgan, Jr., Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orescent Rifles, Co. B — G. T. Jett, Captain; W. P. Harper, First Lieut.; 
Andrew E. Knox, Second Lieut.; Henry Grimshaw, Jr. Second Lieut. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 249 



Crescent Rifles, Co. C— S. H. Gilman, Captain ; W. C. Driver, First Lieut. ; 
J. H. Dawson, Second Lieut.; Conrad Green, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Coutinental Guards— George Clark, Captain ; A. W. Merriam, First Lieut.: 
E. McFarlane, Second Lieut.; Aaron Davis, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Baton Rouge Fencibles — Andrew S. Herron, Captain , J. Duncan Stuart, First 
Lieut.; Oscar H. Foreman, Second Lieut.; Jno. H. New, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Irish Volunteers— W. R. Ratliff, Captain ; L. N. Hewit, First Lieut.; S. Rey- 
naud, Second Lieut.; Thos. Kenegan, Jr. Second Lieut. 

EIGHTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

H. B. Kelly, Colonel ; F. T. Nicholls, Lie.ut.-Colonel ; J. B. Prados, Major. 

Rapides Invincibles — Lee Crandell, Captain ; Henry Hine, First Lieut.; A. W. 
Davis, Second Lieut.; W K. Johnson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Phoenix Company — L. D. Nicholls, Captain; Vr. St. Martin, First Lieut.; W 
W. Martin, Second. Lieut.; Wm. Simms, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Bienville Rifles — Aug. Larose, Captain ; Wm. Crayon, First Lieut.; P. L. 
Mailloux, Second Lieut.; F. Borges, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Creole Guards — J. L. Fremaux, Captain; A. L. Gusman, First Lieut.; T. I). 
Lewis, Second Lieut.; G. W McGimsey, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Franklin Sharp Shooters — G. A. Lester, Captain ; Newton Z. Guice, First 
Lieut.; Robt. Montgomery, Second Lieut.: Jos. Bryan, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Sumter Guards — F. Newman, Captain; F. M. Harvey, First Lieut,; Wm. 
DeBolla, Second Lieut.; F F. Wilder, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Attakapas Guards — Alex. DeBlanc, Captain; E. LeBlanc, First Lieut.; Geo. N. 
Stubinger, Second Lieut.; Chas. Duchamp, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Cheneyville Rifles — P F. Keary, Captain ; J. M. Burgess, First Lieut.; W H. 
Oliver, Second Lieut.; Jno. M. Murphy, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Opelousas Guards — James C. Pratt, Captain ; John Taylor, First Lieut.; G. W 
Hudspeth, Second Lieut.; Albert Dejean, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Minden Blues — Jno. L. Lewis, Captain; B. F. Simms, First Lieut.; J. B. 
Tompkins. Second Lieut.; W C. Rockwell, Jr.. Second Lieut. 

NINTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Richard Taylor, Colonel ; E. G. Randolph, Lieut.-Colonel ; W J. Walker, 
Major. 

Bossier Volunteers — John H. Hodges, Captain ; F. Y. Hughes, First Lieut,; R. 
T. Crawford, Second Lieut.; R. J. Hancock, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Bienville Blues — W B. Pearce, Captain ; J. Cronan Eagan, First Lieut.; C. W 
Ardis, Second Lieut.; J. C. Theus, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Brush Valley Guards — W F Gray, Captain ; Grove Cook, First Lieut.; J. W 
Milton, Second Lieut.; Jonn Potts, Jr. Second Lieut. 

DeSoto Blues— H. L. Williams, Captain ; W. F. T. Bennett, First Lieut.; B. V. 
Jackson, Second Lieut.; N. A. Sutherlan, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Colyell Guards — J. S. Gardner, Captain; J. B. Dunn, First Lieut.; A. A. 
Schneltory, Second Lieut.; P. S. Gardner, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Jackson Greys — J. R. Cavanaugh, Captain ; G. W. McOranie, First Lieut.; M. 
B. Kidd, Second Lieut.; G. S. McBride, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Washington Rifles — Hardy Richardson, Captain; Jno. J. Slocomb, First Lieut.: 
Flut Magee, Second Lieut.; John Wadsworth, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Moore Fencibles — R. L. Capers, Captain; Alfred Blackman, First Lieut.; R. 
Grigsby, Second Lieut.; Wilber F. Blackman, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Stafford Guards — L. A. Stafford, Captain ; Smith Gordon, First Lieut.; C. D. 
Waters, Second Lieut.; W. T. Cummings, Jr., Jr. Second Lieut. 

Milliken Bend Guards — W. R. Peck, Captain ; Geo. D. Shadburne, First Lieut.: 
R. G. Reading, Second Lieut.; Z. C. Williams, Jr. Second Lieut. 



250 ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



TENTH REGIMENT OP LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Mandeville Marigny, Colonel ; J. C. Denis, Lieut.-Colonel ; Felix DuMonteil' 
Major. 

Shepherd Guards — Alex. Phillips, Captain, Jacob A. Cohen, First Lieut.; 
Morris Greenwall, Second Lieut.; Isaac L. Lyons, Jr, Secood Lieut. 

Hewitt Guards — R. M. Hewitt, Captain; L.L.Conrad, First Lieut.; Patrick 
Woods, Second Lieut.; Thos. N. Powell, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Confederate States Rangers — W. H. Spencer, Captain ; M. J. Prudhomme, 
First Lieut.; L. Prudhomme, Second Lieut.; E. A. Seaton, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Louisiana Rebels — John M. Leggett, Captain; J. E. Cuculu, First Lieut.; E. 
Miltenberger, Second Lieut.; Albert Pagnier, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Blues — W. B. Barnett, Captain ; Chas. Roussell, First Lieut.; E. A. 
Bozonier, Second Lieut.; B. Clague, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Derbigny Guards — L. T. Bakewell, Captain; E. W. Huntington, First Lieut.; 
E. Fellows, Second Lieut.; H. C. Marks, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Louisiana Swamp Rifles — D. W. Dickey, Captain ; Albert Fabre, First Lieut.; 
P. K. Merrill, Second Lieut.; S. Cucullu, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Tirailleurs d'Orleans — Eugene Waggaman, Captain ; Alph. Canonge, First 
Lieut.; H. Monier, Second Lieut.; Paul Forstall, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Orleans Rangers — Edward Crevon, Captain ; G. A. Renaud, First Lieut.; J. P. 
Montamat, Second Lieut.; L. A. ReTolle, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Hawkins Guards — Chas. F. White, Captain ; J. H. Williams, First Lieut.; 
Ernest Webre, Second Lieut ; W L. Hawkins, Jr. Second Lieut. 

ELEVENTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Samuel Marks, Colonel ; Robert H. Barrow, Lieut.-Colonel ; E. G. W. Butler, 
Major. 

Cannon Guards — J. E. Austin, Captain ; R. J. Alexander, First Lieutenant ; 
James Lingan, Second Lieut.; Robert L. Hughes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Dillon Guards — M. W . Murphy, Captain ; J. P. Fallon, First Lieut.; A. F. 
Martin, Second Lieut.; R. K. Broderick, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Holmes Light Guards — J. H. McCann, Captain; J. G. White, First Lieut.; M. 
Cunningham, Second Lieut.; John Cunningham, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Rosale Guards — John J. Barrow, Captain; G. M. Miller, First Lieut.; C.J. 
Johnson.. Second Lieut.; 0. B. Haynes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Point Ce-upee Volunteers — Willie Barrow, Captain ; T. J. Bird, First Lieut.; 
C. D. Favrot, Second Lieut.; A. LeBlanc, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Westbrook Guards — W Westbrook, Captain ; A. Cazebat, First Lieut.; Ben 
Turner, Second Lieut.; Rob. R. Dennison, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Labauve Guards — J. A. Ventress, Jr. Captain; J. R. Mims, First Lieut.; John 
Marcot, Second Lieut.; Jos. Warro, Jr. Second Lieut. • 

Shreveport Rebels — A. Schafner, Captain ; L. L. Butler, First Lieut.; J. R. 
Hyams, Second Lieut.; Jos. Strauss, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Continental Guards Company C — J. G. Fleming, Captain; T. W Peyton, First 
Lieut.; F. H. Babin, Second Lieut.; L. M. Sones, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Catahoula Greys — Alex. Mason, Captain ; Richard H. Harris, First Lieut.; S. 
K Routh, Second Lieut.; A. N. Spencer, Jr. Second Lieut. 

TWELFTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Thos. Moore Scott, Colonel; W. H. Hough, Lieut.-Colonel; J. C. Knott, 
^Fajor. 

Claiborne Guards — Isaiah Lennard, Captain; Noel L. Wilson, First Lieut.; R. 
Evans, Second Lieut.; R. A. Crow, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Independent Rangers — D. L. Hicks, Captain; J. W. Dulz, First Lieut.; T. 0. 
• lohnson, Second Lieut.; E. McN. Graham, Jr. Second Lieut. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 251 



Jackson Sharpshooters— J. H. Seale, Captain ; J. S. Reno, First Lieut.; J. W. 
Jackson, Second Lieut.; W. P Garr, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Farmer Guards— C. W Hodge, Captain ; J. *E. Woodward, First Lieut.; E. T. 
Sellers, Second Lieut.; W L. Amonett, Jr. Second Lieut. 

North Louisiana Cadets— J. T. Jourdan, Captain ; H. J. Chapman, First Lieut.; 
J. W Sandeford, Second Lieut.; J. N. Atkins, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Arcadia Invincibles— C. T. Standifer, Captain ; B. W. Glover, First Lieut.; D. 
S. Butler, Second Lieut.; J. D. Givens, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caldwell Invincibles — James A. Boyd, Captain ; F. A. Blanks, First Lieut.; T. 
C. Hill, Second Lieut.: Jno. Myers, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Southern Sentinels— John A. Dixon, Captain ; J. R. Bevell, First Lieut.; Thos. 
J. Tiddlie, Second Lieut.; Wm. Miles, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Beauregard Fencibles — Henry McCain, Captain ; B. H. Meam, First Lieut.; Jno. 
F Brantley, Second Lieut.; Isaiah H. Lacey, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Farmer Rangers — B. D. Owen, Captain ; W M. Fuller, First Lieut.; W. A. 
Ponder, Second Lieut.; G. T. Johnston, Jr. Second Lieut. 

THIRTEENTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Randall Gibson, Colonel ; Aristide Gerard, Lieut-Colonel ; Anatole P Avegno, 
Major. 

First Company Governor Guards — Auguste Cassard, Captain ; Chas. Richard 
First Lieut.; Victor Mossy, Second Lieut.; Victor Olivier Jr. Second Lieut. 

Second Company Governor Guards — J. Fremaux, Captain ; B. Bennett, First 
Lieut.; C. H. Luzenburg, Second Lieut.; Chas. Hepburn, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Third Company Governor Guards — Bernard Avegno, Captain ; St. Leon Deetez, 
First Lieut.; Henry Castillo, Second Lieut.; Eugene Lagarique, Jr. Second Lieut., 

Fourth Company Governor Guards — M. O. Tracy, Captain ; Hugh H. Bein, 
First Lieut.; Eugene Blasco, Second Lieut.; Geo. W„ Boylon, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Fifth Company Governor Guards — F. Lee Campbell, Captain ; John M. King, 
First Lieut.;*J. B. Sallaude, Second Lieut.; Norman Story, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Sixth Company Governor Guards — E. W. Dubroca, Captain ; John McGrath, 
First Lieut.; A. M. Dubroca, Second Lieut.; Robert Cade, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Mary Volunteers — Thos. G. Wilson, Captain ; James Murphy, First Lieut.; 
H. H. Strawbridge, Second Lieut., Adolph Dumartrait, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Gladden Rifles — Wm. A. Metcalfe, Captain ; John W Labuisse, First Lieut.; 
Walter V. Crouch, Second Lieut.; E. B. Musgrove, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Southern Celts — Stephen O'Leary, Captain ; John Daly, First Lieut.; E. J. 
Connolly, Second Lieut.; John Dooley, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Norton Guards — Geo. W Norton, Captain ; M. Hunly, First Lieut.; A. S. Stuart, 
Second Lieut.; Geo. Cammack, Jr. Second Lieut. 

SIXTEENTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Preston Pond, Jr., Colonel ; Enoch Mason, Lieut. -Colonel ; Daniel Gober, 
Major. 

Caddo Fencibles — R. H. Lindsey, Captain ; C. Ford, First Lieut.; T. G. Pegues, 
Second Lieut.; P. H. Eyes, Jr. Second Lieut. | 

East Feliciana Guards — James 0. Fuqua, Captain ; L. G. Chapman, First Lieut.; 
Oliver 0. Cobb, Second Lieut.; Thos. J. Fuqua, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Edward Guards — M. S. Edwards, Captain; S. A. Haden, First Lieut.; A. A. 
Harvey. Second Lieut.; Isaac Roberts, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pine Wood Sharp Shooters — Calvin E. Hosea, Captain ; L. J. Seawell, First 
Lieut.; Neal C. Regan, Second Lieut., Adam G. Johnson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Helena Rebels — D. W. Thompson, Captain ; E. J. Ellis, First Lieut.; J. F. 
Kent, Second Lieut.; W. G. Williams, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Walker Roughs — W E. Walker, Captain ; J. W Addison, First Lient.; Horner 
E. Cozzens, Second Lieut.; Hiram Tumage, Jr. Second Lieut. 



252 ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



Rapides Tigers — F. L. Ragsdale, Captain ; J. M. McFeeley, First Lieut.; Stephen 
Lynck, Second Lieut.; J. McArthur, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Castor Guards — W. T. Mabry, Captain; K. E. Cockerham, First Lieut.; J. A. 
Kooner, Second Lieut.; J. W Noling, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Big Cane Rifles — Wm. G. Bllerbe, Captain ; Louis Stagg, First Lieut.; John 
P. Davis, Second Lieut.; Paulin Stagg, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Evergreen Invincibles— Fred. White, Captain ; R. P. Oliver, First Lieut.; W 
T. Fuqua, Second Lieut.; Cephus Thompson, Jr. Second Lieut. 

SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

S. S. Heard, Colonel; Charles Jones, Lieut. -Colonel ; B. B. Jones, Major. 

Sabine Rifles — D. W. Self, Captain ; L. J. Nash, First Lieut.; M. A. Thompson, 
Second Lieut.; S. T. Sibley, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Catahoula Guards — W. A. Reddett, Captain; T. 0. Hynes, First Lieut.; J. S. 
Jones, Second Lieut.; Wm Scott, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Phoenix Rifles — J. G. Taylor, Captain ; S. Sawyer, First Lieut.; S. W. Taylor, 
Second Lieut.; R. W Futch, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Morehouse Southrons — W. M. Otterson, Captain ; F. M. Grant, First Lieut. 
R. J. Stevens, Second Lieut.; M. S. Huuter, Jr Second Lieut. 

Catahoula Rebels — R. H. Cuny, Captain; J. Q. A. Talliaferro, First Lieut.: 
Carter Beaman, Second Lieut.; A. Whitehead, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Simmons Stars — T. P Richardson, Captain; W. A. Simmons, First Lieut.; W- 
Raymond, Second Lient.; G. W Webb, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Ouachita Southrons — M. Rogers, Captain ; B. W Burrough, First Lient.; D. 
M. Garlington, Second Lieut.; S. G. McGuire, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caddo Lake Boys — J. A. Jeter, Captain ; F. G. Sperman, First Lieut.; F. G. 
Bickam, Second Lieut.; J. 0. Allen, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Landrum Guards — Thos. A. Sharp, Captain ; T. H. Triplet, First Lieut., J. 0. 
Kenney, Second Lieut ; H. E. Allen, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Claiborne Invincibles — W. A. Maddox, Captain ; Jno. G. Heard,' First Lieut.; 
G. M. Killgone, Second Lieut.; J. A. Simmons, Jr. Second Lieut. 

EIGHTEENTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Alfred Mouton, Colonel ; Alfred Roman, Lieut. -Colonel ; Louis Bush, Major. 

Chasseurs St. Jacques — E. Camille Mire, Captain ; L. L. Armand, First Lieut.: 
S. Alex Poche, Second Lieut.; Ben S. Webre, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. James Rifles — Jules A. Druilhet, Captain ; Emile Jacob, First Lieut.; C. M. 
Shepperd, Second Lieut.; Oct. Jacob, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Arcadian Guards — Wm. Mouton, Captain; A. P Bailey, First Lieut.: V. T. 
Comeau, Second Lieut.; O. Broussard, Jr. Second Lieut. 

St. Landry Volunteers — H. L. Garland, Capt.; Chas. D. Ballajd, First Lieut.: 
Jacob Anselm, Second Lieut.; Ad. Debaillon, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Natchitoches Rebels — J. D. Wood, Captain ; W. P. Owens, First Lieut.; Theo. 
Lettier, Second Lieut.; Emile Cloutier, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Lafourche Creoles — J. K. Gourdain, Captain; John A. Collins, First Lieut. ; 
J. B. Tucker, Second Lieut.; C. Gautreau, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Hays Champions — J. D. Hayes, Captain; R. M. Sanders, First Lieut.; J. D. 
Elie, Second Lieut.; Dudley Avery, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Confederate Guards — Henry Huntingdon, Captain ; Paul B. Leeds, First 
Lieut.; B. S. Story, Second Lieut.; A. J. Wall, Jr. Second Lieut. 

NINETEENTH REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

B. L. Hodge, Colonel; J. M. Hollingsworth, Lieut. -Colonel. 
Vance Guards — Richard W Turner, Captain; E.C.Anderson, First Lieut.: 
A. B. Broughton, Second Lieut.; M. C. Cavett, Jr. Second Lieut. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 255 



February 17th. — First and Second Brigade, volunteer troops, ordered to be 
ready for marching on twenty-four hours notice. 

February 23d. — First Brigade, volunteer troops, and Second La. Militia, ordered 
to report to Gen. Lovell. 

March 4th. — Captain W G. Mullen, stationed near the forts to harrass the 
enemy and furnished with pirogues for penetrating lakes and bayous. 

The resident foreigners formed into the European and French Brigades — num- 
bering altogether 5138 and 3804 men, who did duty when the city fell, and for 
several days afterwards maintained peace and order. 

Sanitary corps of 800 men organized under Dr. W. B. Stone. 

March 24th, 1862. — A regiment of free colored natives, tender their services 
to the State, and are accepted. Gen. Butler, subsequently, after the fall of the 
city, attempted to revive it, but prior to Dec. '62, only fifty of the old organi- 
zation responded to the call. A call made for shot guns and other fire arms, 
which was responded to. Chains, cables and anchors seized from extortioners' 
for making rafts near the forts, under order by L. E. Forstall and Thos. B. 
Adams, and Geo. H. Bier, of C. S. Navy. A large number exempted by the 
State from military duty for government work— the contractors for these works 
using freely the right of exempting all persons in public employ, especially 
those building the Louisiana and Mississippi. 

February 24th. — Gen. Lovell has the Galveston and Charles Morgan which 
have been seized, fitted out as gunboats, and named respectively the Gen. Quit- 
man and Gov. Moore. Beverly Kennon, Commander of the latter, James Duke, 
and Fred. Frame, officers. Engineers : G. Wetter, R. P Fortune, A. Gleason, B. 
0. Brien, of the Gen. Quitman ; A. Grant, jr. Commander, S. Marcey, First Offi- 
cer ; W. J. Irvine, Second Engineer ; H. Behrens, A. Smith, P. Thompson, J. 
Smith ; these participated in the naval battle and behaved gallantly. 

Judge J. W. Andrews, Major John Stroud, jr., Maj. E. C. Hancock, and Ph. B. 
Boisfontaine, put in charge of the Passport Bureau. Lieutenants U. Lewis, W 
E. Gordon, R. L. Butler, R. E. McKreevy, A. Chalaire, jr., J. H. Bernos and F 
Toca, were appointed to examine passports on the different roads. 

March 15th. — Martial law proclaimed in Orleans, Jefferson and St. Bernard. 
Crescent Artillery, Company A, placed on the Louisiana. 

April 11th. — The enemy with a large fleet have crossed the bar off the Balize 
and are operating with gunboats and mortar fleet. Bombardment continued 
without cessation, until April 25th, and subsequently thereto. The troops in 
the fort act heroically. The Ram Mississippi — a mystery thus far, was not 
finished. 

April 24th. — Three gunboats have passed the forts and are on their way up. 
The people have not anticipated the event, and the excitement is great. Militia 
placed under arms — the city filled with startling rumors, as to whether the 
advance would be made by water or land. Gov. Moore left with the archives. 
Militia, in the midst of great consternation and excitement, detached to perform 
police duty. ' 

April 25th. — Twenty Federal gunboats at Packwood's Plantation, 20 miles 
below the city. Gen. Lovell calls at 9 o'clock, and invites Gens. Lewis and 
Grivot, to proceed to the fortifications. Before reaching there the enemy make 
the attack, and the State troops forced to abandon the guns. An order was now 
given to evacuate the city, and State troops were making their way out. The 
Federal gun boats reach the city ; the rain meanwhile pouring down in torrents. 
All of the drays and carts impressed to ship off to stores to Camp Moore and 
Monroe. All cotton ordered to be destroyed and few bales escaped. 

April 30th. — State government fixed at Opelousas, which place Gov. Moore 
and Gen. Grivot, reached on the 18th of May. 

May 19th. — Gen. John G. Pratt, in command at New Iberia. Enemy in pos- 
session of the road from Algiers to Berwick's Bay. 

Sixty-four of the 21st Indiana, take a schooner in the Grande Caillou with 
arms. The Colonel of the Terrebonne Regiment called a meeting, and proposed 



256 ABSTRACT REPORT OE THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



an attack, which was not made. Seven or eight young men captured a wagon 
with Federal soldiers, two of the latter killed, and two wounded. The following 
day four-hundred of the 21st Indiana, commanded by Col. Keith, seized fourteen 
citizens, and in front of their prison a rope was suspended. J. B. Bond, 60 years 
of age, and an invalid, together with his family was driven from his house, 
which was then burned. The jail was burned, and the property of Dr. Jenning. 

May 25th — Capt. E. W. Fuller, of the St. Martin Rangers, to get rid of them, 
captured a train at Brashear, and immediately put his men on board, and moved 
towards New Orleans. He captured an uptrain at Raceville, and another at Des 
Allemands. There still remained one locomotive in Algiers, opposite New 
Orleans. To prevent this from leaving, Capt. Fuller double-quicked ten miles to 
Jefferson, and cut a 100 foot crevasse, took up the rails of the track and carried 
them off. He also burned the bridges, doing much of his work in sight of an 
armed vessel. The enemy again appearing at Thibodeaux. 

June 3d — Lieut. Colonel V A.Fournet with the Yellow-Jacket Batallion, laid 
in wait for their train and killed 60, causing them to retreat. Large numbers 
of river boats, which in ordinary times ran up and down the Mississippi and 
its innumerable tributaries, took refuge by way of Red River and Aehafalaya, 
in the innumerable net work of lagunes and bayous, whose names and course 
were hardly well-known, even by hunters and fishermen. Among other boats 
was the Tow Boat, J. L. Webb, fitted out as a sea-going Steamer, at that time 
hidden back, and stealthily taking on board 300 bales of cotton. She was 
seized, and afterwards kept the bayous back to Red River, clear of any Federal 
Boats, drawing only 7-J feet of water. Capt. Jas. McCloskey, and subsequently 
Major A. W McKee, were her commanders. 

June 4th — Lieut. Woods, the only person who could be found who had any 
practical knowledge of the matter employed at the Franklin Foundry to make 
shot and cannister. Agents sent out to hunt rifle powder. An impromptu 
battery rigged out from a few old howitzers damaged about the rims, which have 
been picked up from various points, and which only want harness and carriages 
to be made useful in the field. They can also be made serviceable by dis- 
mounting them as occasion may demand for the boats. The greatest trouble 
was to find an officer who could organize and drill a company. Major Octave 
Voohries, formerly of the Washington Artillery, and Buisson ? s Brigade, and 
Lieut. Ed. Crow, of De Clout's Regiment were recommended by Gen. Pratt to 
this work. 

May 10th — The Conscript Act of April 10th, ordered to be put in force. 
Foreigners and Partisan Rangers exempted. Camps of instruction at Monroe 
and Opelousas. 

Thirty-eight parishes have reported a force of 8,690 Conscripts. The parishes 
of Plaquemine, St. Bernard, Orleans, Jefferson, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, 
West Baton Rouge, Madison, Carroll and Caldwell not reporting — say ten 
parishes. 

Returns of Out scripts between the ages of 18 and 35 years, made to the Office of the 
Adjutant and Inspector General of the State to 1st December, 1862. 

EASTERN LOUISIANA. 

Camp of Instruction, Camp Moore, Parish of St. Helena. — East Baton Rouge, 
T'.i; East Feliciana, 37; West Feliciana, 92; Livingston, 102; St. Helena, 26; 
Washington, 11 ; St. Tammany, 54. Total, 401. 

WESTERN LOUISIANA— SOUTH RED RIVER. 

Camp of Instruction, Camp Pratt, Parish St. Martin. — Assumption, 636 ,' 
Ascension, 170; Avoyelles, 476; Calcasieu, 340; Iberville, 252; Lafayette, 3 43; 
Lafourche, 559 ; Natchitoches, 446 ; Pointe Coupee, 370 ; Rapides, 536 ; St. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS. 257 



Mary, 202; St. Martin, 196; St. James, 262; St. Landry, 1,148; Sabine, 125; 
Vermillion, 367; Winn 141 ; Terrebonne, 501. Total, 6,876. 

WESTERN LOUISIANA— NORTH RED RIVER. 

Camp of Instruction, Monroe, Ouachita Parish. — Bossier, 179; Bienville, 32 ; 
Caddo, 191 ; Claiborne 150 ; Catahoula, 235 ; Concordia ; 46 ; DeSoto, 9 : 
Franklin, 87 ; Jackson, 00 ; Morehouse, 59 ; Ouachita, 212 ; Tensas, 89 ; Union. 
124; Total, 1,413. 

RECAPITULATION : 

Eastern Louisiana — 7 parishes, 401. Western Louisiana — S. Red River, 18 
parishes. 6,876. Western Louisiana — N. Red River, 13 parishes, 1.413. Total 
38 parishes, 8,690. 

No returns from Plaquemine, St. Barnard, Orleans, Jefferson, St. Charles, St. 
John the Baptist, West Baton Rouge, Madison, Carroll and Caldwell — 10 parishes. 

June 20th, 1862. — -Trafic with the enemy or any attempt to get out cotton or 
sugar furtively, or travel to or from New Orleans, made amenable to Court-Mar- 
tial. River steamboats ordered to be burned when in danger of capture. Mail 
facilities extremely difficult from the Trans-Mississippi to Richmond. 

Applications made for the formation of Partisan Rangers. A few companies 
formed under command of Simeon Belden, A. L. Hayes and others. 

A large amount of specie belonging to the Bank of America, $700,000 or 
upwards had been transferred from the vaults and brought out from New 
Orleans upon the approach of the Federal fleet. After some adventures, it was 
determined by those having it in charge to carry it back to New Orleans. As 
soon as this determination was ascertained orders were issued to Lieut. Col.. 
Cheney, of Avoyelles, Ralph Smith, Esq., Chiarman of the Committee of Public 
Safety of Alexandria, and a company under command of Capt. S. M. Todd, 
[not the officer of the same name from New Orleans] who were sent to seize the 
parties ostensibly conducting it to New Orleans. The order however was not 
delivered to Mr. Smith before the specie had reached Alexandria, and had been 
carried off on the Steamer Moro. [Whatever became of it afterwards is still 
involved in mystery]. 

The Steamer J. A. Cotten seized, and with the Anna Perret mounted with 
two guns assisted in protecting the movement, and after driving the enemy 
captured a large number of prisoners. 

October 22. — Seven deserters executed. Sundry goods and a lot of beeves 
brought towards New Orleans, seized and confiscated. The enemy make an 
incursion up to Lake Charles and are opposed by Col. W W Johnson. 
40,000 troops up to date, sent from the State all armed, with no assistance 
whatever from the Richmond government. 

TWENTY-SIXTH BEGIMENT LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Alexander DeClouet, Colonel ; D. S. Cage, Lieut. -Colonel ; Winchester Hall. 
Ma.or. 

Alen Rifles— Caleb J. Tucker, Captain; L. A. Webre, First Lieut.; Clay 
Knolock, Jr. Second Lieut. 

A3 imp tion Creoles— W Whitnel Martin, Captain ; L. Himel, First Lieut.: 
NumaArrieux, Second Lieut.; Leon Achee, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Bra ? Cadets — Cleaphas Lagarde, Captain; Lewis Guion, First Lieut.; Sylvere 
Navari Second Lieut.; M. Aug. Legendre, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Grivt Guards, Co. B — W A. Bisland, Captain; Joseph Aycock, First Lieut.; 
■ Homer 1-ette, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Grivot> U ards, Co. C — J. J. Shaffer, Captain ; J. A. Leonard, First Lieut.: 
Thos. J- '"iffer, Second Lieut.; E. L. Aycock, Jr. Second Lieut. 



258 ABSTRACT REPORT OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL 



Lovell Rifles — W W. Bateman Captain ; A. S. Lawes, First Lieut.; D. C. 
Daniels, Second Lieut.; J. Y. Sanders, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Grivot Fancy Guards— W C. Crow, Captain; E. B. Crow, First Lieut.; James 
(J. Rice, Second Lieut.; Jos. Louviere, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Prudhomme Guards — Octave Metoyer, Captain; G. W. Cobb, First Lieut.; S. 
Pace, Second Lieut.; S. W. Bossier, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Lafayette Prairie Boys — Eraste Mouton, Captain ; Hazard Easten, First Lieut.; 
Wm. Campbell, Second Lieut.; F. Martin, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Pickett Guards — C. 0. Delahoussaye, Captain; Aubin Bourg, First Lieut.; 
Thos. J. Hargis, Second Lieut.; B. Cooper, Jr. Second Lieut. 

TWENTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Leon D. Marks, Colonel ; L. L. McLaurin, Lieut. -Colonel ; Geo. Tucker, Major. 

Skipwith Guards — A. S. Norwood, Captain; Thos. L. East, First Lieut.; L. P 
Talbert, Second Lieut.; J. A. Norwood, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Iberville Guards — E. W. Robertson, Captain ; E. D. Woods, First Lieut.; F. 
Arbour. Jr., Second Lieut.; Victor Blanchard, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Caddo Pioneers — C. D. G. Williams, Captain ; J. M. Christen, First Lieut. 

Spencer Guards — John T. Spencer, Captain ; T. 0. S. Robertson, First Lieut.; 
W. K. Strickland, Second Lieut.; Abner Womack, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Rapides Terribles — Jos. T. Hatch, Captain ; W M. McCormick, First Lieut.; 
A. J. McCranie, Second Lieut.; A. G. Baillio, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Sparta Guards — R. W Campbell, Captain; J. P Webb, First Lieut.; T. E. 
Paxton, Second Lieut ; R. S. Allums, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Winn Rebels — J. R. Cooper, Captain; W B. Stovall, First Lieut.; J. W. 
Cockerham, Second Lieut.; F. L. Gregg, Jr. Second Lieut. 

McLaurin Invincibles — J. H. Garret, First Lieut.; J. B. Davenport, Second 
Lieut.; A. J. Gibson, Jr. Second Lieut'. 

Dixie Rebels — 0. L. Durham, Captain; C. J. Foster, First Lieut.; J. H. Tucker, 
Second Lieut.; G. W Graves, Jr. Second Lieufe. , 

Caddo Confederates — T. C. Lewis, First Lieut.; J. B. Smith, Second Lieut.; 
Saml. Beckwith, Jr. Second Lieut. 

BATTALION LOUISIANA DEFENDERS— LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

Juan Miangolara, Major ; E. Basseli, Adjutant. 

First Company — T. Viade, First Lieut.; Jose Ferry, Second Lieut.; T. Alberti, 
Jr. Second Lieut. 

Second Company — Arthur Picolet, Captain ; E. N. Ganucheau, Second Lieut.; 
J. D. Sourdes, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Third Company — Jose Domingo, Captain ; Leon Prats, First Lieut.; Jose Mora, 
Second Lieut.; J. Roses, Jr. Second Lieut. 

BATTALION YELLOW JACKETS— LOUISIANA VOLUNTEERS. 

V A. Fournet, Lieut. -Colonel ; G. A. Fournet, Major ; E. DeBlanc, Surgeon; 
L. A. Laloire, Quartermaster; L. P Briant, Adjutant. 

Company A — Alex. Thibodeaux, Captain; Valery Thibodaux, First Leut.; 
Leun GillarU, Second Lieut.; Omer Martin, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Company B — Desire Beraud, Captain; Arthur Simon, First Lieut.; Alcee 
Caslille, Second Lieut.; Alf. Gradenigo, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Company V, — 0. DeBlanc, Captain; Nicolas Cormier, First Lieut. Pierre 
Lasalle, Second Lieut.; L. T. Smith, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Company D — B. D. Dauterive, Captain; Louis Fournet, First Lie'-; J. Z. / 
Bouttc, Second Lieut.; V Dauterive, Jr. Second Lieut. 

Company E — A. Berard Captain; Mozart Bernard, First Lieut.; . s - Nunez, 
Second Lieut.; V Lemoine, Jr. Second Lieut. 



RELATIVE TO STATE TROOPS 259 



Forces Volunteer State Troops transferred to Major Gen. M. Lovell. Commanding 
Department No 1, C. S. A. 

FIRST BRIGADE VOLUNTEER TROOPS. 
Brigadier General — Benjamin Buisson. 

Orleans Guards— Xuma Augustin, Colonel ; Charles Massieu, Lieut.-Colonel. 

Chasseurs-a-Pied— J. Simon Meilleur, Colonel; *Chas. A. Janvier, Lieut.- 
Colonel ; *H. J. Rivet, Major. 

Chalmette— *Szyman?ki, Colonel ; *Geo. W Logan, Lieut.-Colonel ; *Eugene 
Soniat, Major. 

Cazadores Espagnoles— Nelvil Soule, Lieut.-Colonel ; G. Marzoni, Major. 

SECOND BRIGADE VOLUNTEER TROOPS. 
Brigadier General — E. L. Tracy. 

Beauregard — *F. A. Bartlett, Colonel ; Geo. S. Lacey, Lieut.-Colonel ; '*Geo 
McKnight, Major. 

Jeff Davis — Alex. Smith, Colonel; *\V. P. Freret Lieut.-Colonel; *Jno. B. 
Cotton, Major. 

Continental — 'Geo. Clark, Colonel; *A. W. Merriam, Lieut.-Colonel; *Geo. W 
Hyiison, Major. 

Sumpter — *G. A. Breaux, Colonel ; *T. H. Shields, Lieut.-Colonel; — Bell, 
Major. 

Battalions — Johnson Special. — W W Johnson, Lieut.-Colonel ; *W H. Winn. 
Major. 

Battalions — King's Special — *J. E. King, Lieut.-Colonel. 

THIRD BRIGADE VOLUNTEER TROOPS 
^Brigadier General — S. M. Westmore. 

Confederate Guards — *J. F. Girault, Colonel ; C. R. Railey, Lieut.-Colonel : 
J. J. Noble, Major. 

Louisiana Irish — P. B. O'Brien, Colonel ; W. J. Castell, Lieut.-Colonel. 

Leeds Guards — Chas. J. Leeds, Colonel; E. Grinnell, Lieut.-Colonel.; A. G. 
Brice, Major. 

RECAPITULATION OP FORCES. 

Fisrt Brigade, 2815; Second Brigade, 3818; Third Brigade, 2480. Total 9113. 
ustered into Confederate States Service, and when 



These regiments were mustered mu> ^'"^«»« aiaies eervice, ana wnen 
the gunboats passed the forts and Lovell carried off all transportation, were 

disbanded bv Gen Tracy When Butler arrived, the officers and men were 
disbanded oy uen. iracj. an(] thoge who d;d 

arrested as pnsoners of war, parol , foi]ow . be . ^ 

exchanged on the 8th of Octo ^^ ex ^ md B 

Those marked thus* are Known & 

afterwards.